信贷危机10年来美国对金融机构罚款超1500亿美元_OK阅读网
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信贷危机10年来美国对金融机构罚款超1500亿美元
US haul from credit crisis bank fines hits $150bn 

来源:FT中文网    2017-08-07 06:56



        Financial institutions have paid more than $150bn in fines in the US relating to the credit crisis, passing a significant milestone a decade after it became clear American subprime woes had become a global problem.        在美国次贷困境明显变成一个全球问题10年后,金融机构已在美国支付了超过1500亿美元与信贷危机相关的罚款,由此达到一个重大里程碑。
        Ten years ago this week, France’s BNP Paribas barred investors from accessing money in funds with subprime mortgage exposure, citing a “complete evaporation of liquidity”. The date — August 9, 2007 — is pegged by many as the moment the financial crisis began.        10年前的本周,法国巴黎银行(BNP Paribas)禁止投资者取出投在具有次级抵押贷款敞口的基金中的钱,声称“流动性完全蒸发”。那一天——2007年8月9日——被很多人视为金融危机的开端。
        Financial institutions have largely recovered from the Great Recession that followed, but the crisis profoundly reshaped economies and markets, and the effects on politics and society are still being felt. Dealing with banks’ alleged misdeeds from the era also remains unfinished business.        如今金融机构基本上已经从那之后的大衰退中恢复过来了,但金融危机从根本上改变了经济和市场,现在人们仍然可以感受到它对政治和社会的影响。追究那个时代银行被指控犯下的不当行为,也仍然是尚未完成的任务。
        The public outcry for accountability ushered in an era where the US government was willing to penalise financial institutions sharply, yet most crisis-related actions were civil rather than criminal. Much of the public remained unsatisfied because few bankers went to prison.         公众呼吁问责开启了美国政府愿意大力处罚金融机构的时代,但大多数与危机相关的行动都是民事、而不是刑事的。很大一部分公众仍然不满意,因为几乎没有几位银行家入狱。
        A trio of multibillion-dollar settlements with European banks this year has netted $19bn for the Department of Justice and regulators, including $5.5bn paid by RBS of the UK last month — taking the total over the landmark figure.        今年与欧洲几家银行达成的3宗数十亿美元和解,为美国司法部(DoJ)和监管部门带来了190亿美元,其中包括上月英国的苏格兰皇家银行(RBS)认罚的55亿美元——使得总数超过了上述里程碑式数字。
        A single bank, Bank of America, has paid more than one-third of all recoveries to US authorities, according to an analysis by the Financial Times. Its $56bn in settlements with state and federal regulators and the DoJ cover its own mortgage sales and actions by two companies it acquired, subprime mortgage lender Countrywide and broker Merrill Lynch.         英国《金融时报》(Financial Times)的分析显示,美国银行(Bank of America)一家支付的罚款占美国当局得到的赔偿款三分之一以上。该行与州级和联邦监管部门、以及美国司法部达成的总值560亿美元的和解,覆盖了它自己的抵押贷款销售及其收购的两家公司——次级抵押贷款机构Countrywide和经纪商美林(Merrill Lynch)——的行为。
        JPMorgan Chase, which acquired Bear Stearns and Washington Mutual, has paid the second-largest amount, with $27bn in fines and relief.        收购了贝尔斯登(Bear Stearns)和华盛顿互惠银行(Washington Mutual)的摩根大通(JPMorgan Chase),支付了270亿美元的的罚款和救济,认罚金额位列第二。
        The FT analysis of fines against banks, rating agencies and other institutions covers conduct ranging from the faulty underwriting of mortgages, improper foreclosure practices and discriminatory lending to the mismarking of auction rate securities. The bulk of the $150.1bn total — $89.1bn — was to settle allegations that institutions misled buyers of securities backed by mortgages.        英国《金融时报》对银行、评级机构和其他机构的罚款的分析,涉及了从不当承销抵押贷款、不恰当的止赎操作以及歧视性的贷款,到对拍卖利率证券的错误标记。总额1501亿美元罚款的大部分——891亿美元——用于解决有关金融机构误导抵押贷款支持证券的买家的指控。
        New cases related to the crisis are still being filed and investigations continue, suggesting the $150bn total could grow. Barclays is fighting a DoJ lawsuit alleging it misled buyers of mortgage-backed securities.         与金融危机相关的新案件仍在不断发起,调查还在继续,似乎表明1500亿美元的总额可能会继续增加。巴克莱(Barclays)正在与美国司法部打官司,后者指控其误导投资者购买抵押贷款支持证券。
        July 2006: US house prices reach their peak.        信贷危机爆发时间表
        February 7, 2007: HSBC announces losses tied to its US subprime mortgage business.        2006年7月:美国房地产价格达到峰值
        April 2, 2007: New Century, a subprime lender, files for bankruptcy.        2007年2月7日:汇丰(HSBC)报告在美国次级抵押贷款业务上亏损
        June 2007: Two Bear Stearns hedge funds run into difficulty.        2007年4月2日:次级抵押贷款机构New Century提交破产申请
        August 9, 2007: BNP Paribas shuts access to several investment funds with US subprime mortgage exposure. The European Central Bank injects €94.8bn of liquidity into the banking system. Adam Applegarth, then chief executive of the UK’s Northern Rock, would later call it “the day the world changed”.        2007年6月:贝尔斯登两个对冲基金遭遇困难
                2007年8月9日:法国巴黎银行冻结了几只对美国次级抵押贷款存在敞口的投资基金。欧洲央行(ECB)向银行体系注入948亿欧元的流动性。时任英国北岩银行(Northern Rock)首席执行官的亚当•阿普尔加思(Adam Applegarth)后来称,这是“世界改变的那天”。
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