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傅莹:美国在朝鲜问题上让中国为难
America is making life difficult for China over North Korea

来源:FT中文网    2017-09-30 06:45



        North Korea’s sixth nuclear test, conducted on September 3 in defiance of the international consensus on non-proliferation, drew unanimous condemnation. Efforts to contain its nuclear ambitions have again yielded no clear result. Equally frustrating, from a Chinese perspective, is that western media have pointed fingers at China.        朝鲜不顾核不扩散的国际共识于9月3日进行的第六次核试验,受到了国际舆论的一致谴责。国际社会遏制朝鲜核野心的努力再一次落空。从一个中国人的立场看来,同样令人沮丧的是,西方媒体纷纷将矛头指向了中国。
        The international community, China included, certainly has a part to play in upholding non-proliferation. But how the US responds to North Korean provocation matters more than anything else for the regime of Kim Jong Un. Yet the US has shown no willingness to make serious efforts to tackle the real issue (which is to ensure de-nuclearisation by responding to North Korea’s security concerns).        包括中国在内的国际社会,必然要为维护核不扩散条约尽一己之力。但美国如何应对朝鲜的挑衅对于金正恩(Kim Jong Un)政权来说才是最重要的。然而,美国却没表现出认真解决实际问题的意愿(即回应朝鲜关于安全问题的担忧以确保该国无核化)。
        Some historical context is useful here. The “agreed framework” signed by the US and North Korea in 1993 required the North Koreans to replace their graphite-moderated nuclear reactors with “light-water” ones, which are proliferation resistant. However, differences between the parties on the implementation of the agreement later led to North Korea announcing that it would resume its nuclear programme.        在此有必要回顾一些历史背景。1994年美国和朝鲜签订的《朝美核框架协议》,要求朝鲜用不容易构成核扩散威胁的“轻水”反应堆取代石墨减速核反应堆。然而,双方后来在执行该协议时产生的分歧,导致朝鲜宣布将重启其核计划。
        At the end of 2002, China initiated the six-party talks with the US, North Korea, South Korea, Japan and Russia. It was no easy job for China to manoeuvre between North Korea and the US, trying to talk the former into giving up its nuclear programme and the latter into addressing North Korea’s security concerns. But so successful were these talks that work began on closing and sealing up the nuclear facilities in Yongbyon.        2002年底,中国发起了与美国、朝鲜、韩国、日本及俄罗斯的六方会谈。对中国来说,在朝鲜和美国之间斡旋并非易事,既要努力规劝前者放弃其核计划,又要劝说后者解决朝鲜的安全担忧。然而这些会谈很成功,甚至启动了关闭和封存宁边(Yongbyon)核设施的工作。
        Unfortunately, every time progress was made it was promptly derailed. For example, the US decided to impose financial sanctions on North Korea for money laundering just as the six parties were prepared to implement the joint statement agreed in September 2005. North Korea responded with its first nuclear test.        不幸的是,每次取得进展,马上就会受到阻挠。例如,六国刚准备实施2005年9月达成的联合声明,美国就以朝鲜洗钱为由决定对其实施金融制裁。对此,朝鲜以其第一次核试验作为回应。
        Throughout the Obama administration, the US followed a policy of “strategic patience”, which was in fact a cover for inaction. Peace talks came to a halt and sanctions became the only tool for the US, whose real aim was widely believed to be regime change in North Korea.        奥巴马执政期间,美国奉行“战略忍耐”(strategic patience)政策,该政策实际上是不作为的幌子。和平谈判戛然而止,制裁成了美国唯一的手段,普遍认为美国的真正目的就是要改变朝鲜的政权。
        We have since seen a vicious cycle in which North Korea has conducted a further four nuclear tests and countless missile tests. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China administered sanctions under the UN resolutions, but its calls for peace talks went unanswered. All the while, joint military exercises by South Korea and the US grew larger and more sophisticated. As a result, tension continues to rise.        此后,我们见证了一个恶性循环,朝鲜又进行了四次核试验和不计其数的导弹试验。作为联合国安理会(UN Security Council)常任理事国之一,中国根据联合国的决议对朝鲜实行制裁,但中国对和谈的呼吁却未得到答复。一直以来,韩国和美国联合军事演习的规模越来越大,也越来越复杂。结果,局势也愈加紧张。
        The Trump administration has called on China to do more. China has responded by offering stronger support for tougher UN sanctions. It has banned imports of North Korean coal, iron, iron ore and seafood and suspended new joint ventures with North Korea. It has also called for a “double freeze”, in which North Korea would stop its nuclear programme in exchange for the US halting joint military exercises with South Korea.        特朗普政府呼吁中国采取更多举措。作为回应,中国对联合国对朝鲜实施的更严厉制裁提供了更强的支持。中国已经禁止进口朝鲜的煤、铁、铁矿石和海产品,并暂停与朝鲜新设合资企业。中国亦呼吁“双暂停”,即朝鲜暂停其核计划,相对地,美国和韩国暂停联合军事演习。
        However, the US is single-mindedly pursuing an intensification of the sanctions regime. Yet it is already clear that sanctions alone could not curb North Korea’s nuclear programme.        然而,美国一意追求加大对朝鲜的制裁力度。但我们已经很清楚地看到,单单依靠制裁并不能遏制朝鲜的核计划。
        Despite ever tougher sanctions and deepening isolation, North Korea’s gross domestic product in 2016 grew better than at any time in the past 17 years, while agricultural output also improved. In the meantime, unconstrained by any peace talks, North Korea is moving further down the nuclear path, while its relations with China have deteriorated.        即使受到更严厉的制裁和进一步的孤立,2016年朝鲜的国内生产总值(GDP)增长仍比过去17年任何一年都好,而农业产量也有所提升。与此同时,由于不受任何和平谈判的约束,朝鲜在核道路上越走越远,同时和中国的关系也恶化了。
        Yet the US still expects China to influence North Korean policy and behaviour, while ignoring advice and proposals tabled by China and other parties.        而美国仍指望中国去影响朝鲜的政策和行为,同时又对中国和其他各国提出的建议和提议充耳不闻。
        America has made things even more difficult for China by installing the Thaad anti-missile defence system in South Korea. This has an “X-band radar” capable of monitoring vast swaths of Chinese territory. Rather than providing protection for the South Korean people, the system threatens strategic stability in north-east Asia. The US has so far shown no intention of changing course. Meanwhile, fears about what happens next are growing in South Korea and Japan.        通过在韩国部署萨德(Thaad)反导弹防御系统,美国如今让中国的处境更加困难。萨德反导系统有一个“X波段雷达”,能够监控中国的大片领土。与其说这一系统为韩国人民提供了保护,毋宁说它威胁着东北亚地区的战略稳定。美国迄今没有显示任何改变路线的意愿。同时,接下来会发生什么令韩国和日本越发担忧。
        In the interests of a peaceful resolution, China must try even harder to get the US and North Korea to take each other’s concerns seriously. Yet if we are really to solve the problem, then both parties need to make concessions. If we allow things to slide, who knows what awaits us?        为了和平解决朝鲜问题,中国必须更努力地让美国和朝鲜认真考虑彼此的顾虑。然而,如果我们真想解决这一问题,那么双方都需要作出让步。假如我们任由事态发展,谁知道等待着我们的将会是什么?
        The author is chairperson of the Foreign Affairs Committee of China’s National People’s Congress        本文作者是中国全国人民代表大会外事委员会主任委员
                
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