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火腿告急!西班牙火腿成中国餐桌新宠
Spaniards face ham shortage as Chinese market gets taste for jamón ibérico

来源:中国日报    2017-11-28 09:04



        Having discovered the joys of French wine, caviar and truffles, China’s new rich are turning to a new gourmet delicacy to satisfy their demand for luxury goods from the west: Spain’s jamón ibérico, or Iberian ham. But demand is now threatening to outstrip supply, leaving Spaniards facing steep price rises in their most prized Christmas delicacy.        继法国葡萄酒、鱼子酱和松露之后,热爱西方奢侈品的中国新富们又爱上了一种新美味——西班牙的伊比利亚火腿。但是,由于需求过旺导致供不应求,现在西班牙人不得不眼睁睁地看着他们最重要的圣诞美食价格飞涨。
        The recent lifting of import restrictions has allowed top-of-the-range ham to find its “rightful place in the market, alongside caviar and truffles”, René Lemée, the head of exports for the famous Cinco Jotas brand, told El País newspaper.        著名的伊比利亚火腿品牌Cinco Jotas的出口部负责人勒内•雷米告诉《国家报》说,前不久中国取消了伊比利亚火腿的进口限制,让这一顶级火腿找到了自己“在市场上和鱼子酱、松露比肩的合理位置”。
        The Chinese, pork lovers par excellence, have now been seduced by jamón ibérico. The problem is that the best ham takes years to produce and, as demand outstrips supply, it is pushing up the price by as much as 10%. A 7.5kg leg sells at between €150 and €600.        超爱吃猪肉的中国人如今被伊比利亚火腿给俘获了。问题在于,最好的火腿需要数年的生产时间,因为供不应求的原因,价格已经上涨了10%。现在一条7.5公斤的火腿售价在150欧元到600欧元之间(合人民币1180元到4721元之间)。
        Spanish ham comes in many forms, but to be defined as jamón ibérico de bellota (acorn-fed Iberian ham), which is what the Chinese want, it must first come from Iberian blackfoot pigs, or from 50% crossbreeds. These pigs must then spend several months of the year roaming the dehesa, a pasture planted with oaks, feeding on grass and acorns. During the last few months before being slaughtered they must live exclusively on this diet.        西班牙火腿有多个品种,但要成为中国富人爱吃的“喂食橡子的伊比利亚火腿”,首先肉源要采用伊比利亚黑脚猪,或者有50%伊比利亚黑脚猪血统。这些猪需在种植了橡树的牧场放牧数个月,吃青草和橡树果实。在被宰杀前的最后几个月,它们只能吃这两种食物。
        Not only are there relatively small areas of dehesa – mostly in north-west and western Spain – but each pig needs about two hectares to fulfil its needs. Once slaughtered, the animals’ legs are plunged into vats of salt and hung and dry-cured over a range of temperatures for a minimum of 36 months, with the best hams cured for about 48 months.        且不说橡树牧场的面积有限(主要分布在西班牙西北部和西部),每头猪至少需要两公顷地的产出才能吃饱。一旦被宰杀,猪腿将插入盐缸里,然后挂起来干腌,在不同温度下经过至少36个月才能制成,最优质的火腿要腌制48个月。
        “It’s inevitable that the price in Spain is going to rise,” said Roberto Batres, the director of Shanghai de Delaiberia Gold, which exports ham, wine and olive oil to China. “The companies licenced to trade in China don’t have enough jamón de bellota to meet Chinese demand.”        “西班牙火腿价格上涨是不可避免的。”向中国出口火腿、葡萄酒和橄榄油的享肴商贸(上海)有限公司的总监罗伯托•巴特雷斯说,“在中国有经销权的公司没有足够的伊比利亚火腿来满足中国人的需求。”
        In an effort to meet demand the Chinese have started importing raw frozen pork from Iberian pigs and curing the meat themselves, although Batres says the product is excessively salty.        为了满足国人吃伊比利亚火腿的需求,中国人开始进口冷冻伊比利亚生猪肉来自己腌制火腿,不过巴特雷斯说,中国人腌制的这种火腿产品特别咸。
        The production and consumption of top-quality ham is the subject of the same awe and mystery as the making of fine wine. Cutting de-boned jamón de bellota on a ham-slicing machine is regarded as sacrilege. The leg must be bolted on to a frame called a jamonero and then cut by hand using a long, narrow blade. Most towns in the ham-producing areas of Extremadura, Castilla y León and Andalucía hold solemn ham-slicing competitions, often attended by hundreds of spectators.        顶级火腿的生产和消费就像优质葡萄酒一样让人心生敬畏和神秘感。用片肉机来将去骨的伊比利亚猪腿切成片被认为是亵渎圣物。猪腿必须被固定在一种叫jamonero的架子上,然后师傅用一把又长又窄的刀将其切成片。在出产火腿的埃斯特雷马杜拉、卡斯蒂利亚-莱昂和安达卢西亚区的多数城镇,都会举行隆重的切火腿片比赛,通常都会有数百名围观者。
        “They have established a ham-cutting school in China and a professional association,” said Batres. “That’s a sign of how far the product has penetrated the local market.”        “人们已经在中国成立了切火腿技校和行业协会,”巴特雷斯说,“这足以说明伊比利亚火腿已经深入到了当地市场。”
                
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