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姆南加古瓦开启津巴布韦新时代?
Emmerson Mnangagwa, Zimbabwe’s Crocodile snatches at the top job

来源:FT中文网    2017-11-28 07:21



        Emmerson Mnangagwa has survived exile, prison, sacking and at least three attempts to kill him. The man who replaced Robert Mugabe as president of Zimbabwe on Friday has done so through a mixture of endurance, loyalty and — when he was fired by the man he had faithfully served for half a century — just the right amount of ruthlessness.        埃默森•姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa)历经流亡、入狱、被解职和至少三次暗杀企图而活了下来。这个在上周五取代罗伯特•穆加贝(Robert Mugabe)成为津巴布韦总统的人,是通过坚忍、忠诚以及——当他被他服务了半个世纪的人解职时——恰到好处的无情做到这一点的。
        He nearly fell at the first hurdle, or rather swung from the first noose. In his early 20s and part of the “Crocodile Gang” fighting white minority oppression in what was then Southern Rhodesia, Mr Mnangagwa was due to be hanged after attempting to derail a train near Victoria Falls. Only by lying about his age did he avoid execution.        姆南加古瓦在遇到第一个障碍时差一点跌倒,或更确切地说,差点儿被绞死。他20岁出头时,曾是在当时的南罗德西亚(津巴布韦的旧称,译者注)对抗少数白人压迫的“鳄鱼帮”(Crocodile Gang)的一员,他由于在维多利亚大瀑布附近企图让一辆火车脱轨,本来将被绞死。只因为谎报年龄,他才得以逃过死刑。
        In prison, he was tortured, hung upside down from metal hooks, electrocuted and beaten. It was in the cells that he first met Mr Mugabe, himself serving a 10-year sentence. The story goes that the erudite Mr Mugabe encouraged Mr Mnangagwa to study law.        他在狱中饱受折磨,曾被倒吊在金属环上,还曾遭受电刑和毒打。他是在牢房中第一次遇到正在服10年刑期的穆加贝的。据说,知识渊博的穆加贝鼓励姆南加古瓦学习法律。
        A decade later, when Mr Mnangagwa had been released and had begun practising law in Zambia, it was Mr Mugabe who persuaded him to give it up and join the liberation struggle in Mozambique. When Mr Mugabe returned triumphantly to Zimbabwe, becoming its first prime minister — and subsequently president — in 1980, Mr Mnangagwa was by his side. He served as minister of national security in the first black majority cabinet, and helped establish the country’s first non-racial army.        10年后,当姆南加古瓦获释并开始在赞比亚从事法律工作时,正是穆加贝劝服他放弃该工作、加入莫桑比克解放斗争。当穆加贝胜利地回到津巴布韦、1980年成为该国第一任总理、后来成为总统时,姆南加古瓦一直支持他。他在第一个黑人占多数的内阁里担任国家安全部部长,帮助建立了津巴布韦第一支不分种族的军队。
        This month, in an emotional letter to his erstwhile boss, Mr Mnangagwa, now 75, recalled those early days, according to George Charamba, Mr Mugabe’s spokesperson and close adviser. Though Mr Mugabe had just sacked him as vice-president and, allegedly, planned to have him “eliminated”, Mr Mnangagwa is said to have written: “I regard you less as the president and more as my father and mentor. Today my enemies have prevailed and I accept it.”        穆加贝的发言人、亲密顾问乔治•查拉巴(George Charamba)表示,现年75岁的姆南加古瓦在本月给他前老板的一封充满感情的信中,回忆了早年的岁月。尽管那时穆加贝刚刚解除他的副总统职位并且据称打算“除掉”他,但据说姆南加古瓦写道:“我不把你看成总统,而把你看成我的父亲和导师。今天,我的敌人们获胜了,我接受这一点。”
        Whether those were his exact words, Mr Mugabe is said to have found the letter very moving and wondered what he had done, on his wife Grace’s urging, in dispensing with his old friend. A week later he would find out. General Constantino Chiwenga, an ally of Mr Mnangagwa’s, rolled armoured cars on to the streets of Harare and placed Mr Mugabe under house arrest.        无论这些是否他的原话,据说穆加贝很受这封信感动,并对自己在妻子格蕾丝(Grace)敦促下赶走这位老朋友的做法感到怀疑。一周后,他将发现这么做的后果。姆南加古瓦的盟友康斯坦丁诺•奇文加(Constantino Chiwenga)将军命令装甲车辆冲上哈拉雷街头,软禁了穆加贝。
        Mr Mnangagwa returned to the capital this week, a day after Mr Mugabe resigned. Arms held aloft prizefighter style, Mr Mnangagwa showed he still has the physique of a boxer and a demeanour that inspires fear. Addressing supporters outside the ruling Zanu-PF quarters, he spoke briefly and with none of the eloquence — or pomposity — of Mr Mugabe. He talked about Mrs Mugabe’s alleged attempt to poison him with ice cream and his own intention to create a “new Zimbabwe”.        上周在穆加贝辞职一天后,姆南加古瓦重返首都。他像职业拳击手那样高举手臂,向人们显示他仍具有拳击手的体格和令人生畏的气势。在执政党非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线(Zanu-PF)驻地外面对支持者讲话时,他的发言很短,也不像穆加贝那样雄辩或浮夸。他谈起了穆加贝夫人据称想用冰淇淋给他下毒的企图,以及他自己缔造一个“崭新的津巴布韦”的意图。
        Mr Mnangagwa’s presidency marks the biggest shift in the country’s political make-up for 40 years. Yet, for such a dramatic change, he is cut from remarkably similar cloth as his mentor. Most Zimbabweans are now waiting to see whether he will be a “Mugabe Mark II”, or whether he will usher in a more open, democratic political system.        姆南加古瓦出任总统标志着津巴布韦40年来最大的一场政治权力结构转变。然而,对于这样一场戏剧性转变,他却与自己的导师有着惊人的相似之处。多数津巴布韦人如今正等着看他是将成为“穆加贝二世”(Mugabe Mark II),还是会开启一个更加开放、民主的政治体制。
        Didymus Mutasa, who spent time in prison with Mr Mnangagwa, says the new president’s years in Zanu-PF have moulded him. “He’s coming from the same roots as President Mugabe, so I wouldn’t expect much difference,” he says. He adds: “He was trained to kill. I think his toughness comes from that.”        姆南加古瓦曾经的狱友迪代默斯•穆塔萨(Didymus Mutasa)表示,这位新总统在非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线的岁月塑造了他。“他与穆加贝总统同根同源,所以,我并不期待会有多少不同。”穆塔萨说,“他受过杀人训练。我认为他的韧性就来自于此。”
        Indeed, Mr Mnangagwa, still known as “The Crocodile”, is feared. Part of that reputation owes to the crushing of a rival faction in the early days after liberation, an operation in which at least 10,000 civilians were killed and in which Mr Mnangagwa almost certainly played a role. He has also been accused of stirring up election violence and, according to a UN report, of plundering diamonds in the late 1990s when Zimbabwean troops intervened in the Democratic Republic of Congo.        的确,仍以绰号“鳄鱼”著称的姆南加古瓦令人畏惧。这一威名部分源于在津巴布韦解放早期对一个敌对派系的镇压,至少一万名平民在这次行动中被杀害,而姆南加古瓦几乎肯定在其中发挥了作用。他还被指控煽动选举暴力,联合国的一份报告显示,他还在上世纪90年代末津巴布韦军队出兵刚果民主共和国时抢掠当地的钻石。
        Yet there may be another side to Mr Mnangagwa, too. More pragmatic than Mr Mugabe, associates say he is more open to business and investment and keener to get the economy going. He is credited with overseeing a recent push to raise farm yields in a successful attempt — aided by the weather — to reduce dependence on food aid.        然而,姆南加古瓦也可能会展现出另一面。他比穆加贝更加务实,同僚们称他对商业和投资更加开放,更热衷于推动经济发展。他被赞誉指导了最近提升农业产量、降低对粮食援助依赖的成功尝试——在天气的襄助下。
        Mr Mnangagwa is also said to have reached out beyond Zanu-PF, though Morgan Tsvangirai, the most important opposition leader, denies there has been direct contact. He said he would wait to see if Mr Mnangagwa changed his spots.        还有人称姆南加古瓦已经向非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线之外伸出了橄榄枝,尽管最重要的反对派领导人摩根•茨万吉拉伊(Morgan Tsvangirai)否认进行过直接接触。他表示,将等着看姆南加古瓦是否改变了立场。
        Tendai Biti, who worked with Mr Mnangagwa in the 2009-2013 unity government, says Mr Mnangagwa needs to “pave the way for transition to constitutional democratic state”. Though he fears that last week’s military action was merely settling a factional fight within Zanu-PF, he holds out a slender hope: “I hope that this is not about an individual. I hope this is about Zimbabwe.”        曾在2009-2013年联合政府中与姆南加古瓦共事的腾达伊•比蒂(Tendai Biti)表示,姆南加古瓦需要“为过渡到宪政民主国家铺平道路”。尽管他担心,最近的军事行动只是解决了非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线内部的派系斗争,但他仍抱有一线希望:“我希望这不仅关乎个人。我希望这关乎津巴布韦。”
        Welshman Ncube, another opposition leader, says Mr Mnangagwa realises that Zanu-PF cannot succeed without re-engaging both internationally and with broader Zimbabwean society.        另一名反对派领导人韦尔什曼•恩库贝(Welshman Ncube)表示,姆南加古瓦意识到了,如果不重新与国际社会以及国内更广泛社会合作,非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线将无法取得成功。
        The people who poured out on to the streets to celebrate Mr Mugabe’s demise are also suspending judgment, though many said Mr Mnangagwa came from the same political culture as the departing autocrat. Tapiwa, a 29-year-old software developer, explaining his jubilation at Mr Mugabe’s departure, said: “When you have been carrying a rock for 37 years and someone says you can put the rock down — if only for two minutes — you’re going to say yes.”        那些涌上街头庆祝穆加贝下台的人们也暂时停止了评判,尽管许多人表示,姆南加古瓦与下台的独裁者来自相同的政治文化。29岁的软件开发者塔皮瓦(Tapiwa)在解释对于穆加贝下台的兴奋时表示:“当你背负一块石头长达37年而有人对你说可以把石头放下来时——哪怕只有两分钟,你一定会表示同意。”
        The writer is the FT’s Africa editor        本文作者是英国《金融时报》非洲事务主编
                
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