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中东欧欢迎中国投资承诺
Eastern Europe welcomes China investment promise

来源:FT中文网    2017-11-29 07:23



        Chinese leaders ended two days of meetings with leaders from eastern Europe on Tuesday with promises of $3bn in investment funds, in a diplomatic push welcomed in the region but viewed warily in Brussels.        中国领导人周二结束与东欧领导人的两天峰会,承诺30亿美元的投资基金,这一外交努力在东欧地区受到欢迎,但布鲁塞尔对此抱有戒心。
        The summit, which brought together Li Keqiang, China’s premier, and 16 leaders from central and eastern Europe countries in Budapest, Hungary’s capital, has highlighted Beijing’s ambitions to extend its influence in the region.        此次峰会在匈牙利首都布达佩斯举行,汇聚了中国总理李克强和来自中东欧国家的16位领导人。峰会突显了北京方面在该地区扩大影响力的雄心。
        Even before the “16+1” summit, roughly $15bn in investment by Chinese companies, backed by state banks, had been promised to the region since 2012, according to one estimate.        据估计,即使在“16+1”峰会之前,中国企业在国家银行支持下,自2012年以来就已向该地区承诺大约150亿美元的投资。
        Viktor Orban, Hungarian prime minister, who hosted the summit, said all European countries were in “harsh competition” for Chinese investment, even if not all admitted it.        主持这次峰会的匈牙利总理欧尔班•维克托(Viktor Orban)表示,所有欧洲国家都在为获得中国投资而“激烈竞争”,尽管并非所有国家都承认这一点。
        “[Hungary’s] competitive position regarding relations with China is especially strong,” he said, in a press statement with Mr Li on Tuesday evening.        “就与中国的关系而言,匈牙利的竞争地位尤为强大,”他在周二晚间与李克强发布的新闻声明中表示。
        Beijing’s “One Belt, One Road” policy aims to strengthen commercial and political ties with more than 64 countries between Asia and Europe. For Europe’s poorer eastern countries, the promised investment could help to upgrade dilapidated railways, motorways and energy plants.        北京方面的“一带一路”政策旨在加强与欧亚64个国家的商业和政治关系。对于欧洲较贫穷的国家而言,中方承诺的投资可能有助于升级破败的铁路、高速公路和能源工厂。
        But western diplomats fear that China’s eastern Europe investment pledge entails a diplomatic strategy to influence a subset of EU member states and undermine the bloc’s fragile consensus on contentious political questions.        但西方外交官担心,中国的东欧投资承诺夹杂着一项外交战略,目的是影响一部分欧盟成员国,破坏欧盟在有争议的政治问题上达成的脆弱共识。
        In one of the more eye-catching deals, Bosnian energy company EPBiH said during the summit it had secured a €613m loan from China’s Eximbank to build a new coal-fired power station in Tuzla, a north-eastern town near the Serbian border. The project, which was announced in 2014, will be led by a Chinese consortium.        其中一笔比较引人瞩目的交易是,波黑能源公司EPBiH在峰会期间表示,其已从中国进出口银行争取到一笔6.13亿欧元的贷款,用于在塞尔维亚边界附近的东北部城镇图兹拉(Tuzla)建造一座新的燃煤电厂。2014年宣布的这个项目,将由一个中资财团牵头。
        Mr Orban said European investment alone would be “insufficient” for the grouping of 16 countries — including 11 EU members — to fulfil their potential. "For this reason we welcome the fact that as part of the new economic world order, China sees this region as one in whose progress and development it wants to be present," he said.        维克托表示,对包括11个欧盟成员国的这16个中东欧国家来说,仅仅依靠欧洲的投资“不足以”充分挖掘它们的潜力。“出于这个原因,我们欢迎这样一个事实,即作为新经济世界秩序的一部分,中国希望参与这个地区的进步和发展。”
        Analysts say much promised Chinese investment in the region has yet to bear fruit, and is dwarfed by the level of EU structural and cohesion funds — €86bn to Poland alone between 2014-2020.        分析人士表示,中国在该地区作出的投资承诺有很大一部分尚未结出果实,而且与欧盟的结构和凝聚力基金相形见绌;欧盟在2014年至2020年期间仅向波兰一国就提供了860亿欧元。
        “EU membership is the all-defining political and economic reality for central Europe. China is a curiosity,” Tomas Valasek, director of Carnegie Europe, wrote in a note.        “对于中欧来说,欧盟成员国身份是决定一切的政治和经济现实。中国是一个罕见而有趣的因素,”卡内基欧洲(Carnegie Europe)主任托马斯•维拉瑟克(Tomáš Valášek)在一份简报中写道。
        But diplomats familiar with internal EU deliberations have pointed to signs of Chinese influence in eastern member states’ diplomatic positions in recent months. According to one diplomat, Hungary and Greece recently told their partners in the bloc that they would not support statements critical of China’s human rights record, which require unanimous agreement.        但是,熟悉欧盟内部审议的外交官们指出,近几个月有迹象显示,一些东欧成员国的外交立场受到中国影响。据一位外交官透露,匈牙利和希腊最近告诉欧盟内部的合作伙伴,他们不会支持批评中国人权记录的声明;这类声明需要得到一致同意。
        Central and eastern European countries also insisted on watering down an EU statement last year after an international tribunal found most of China’s territorial claims in the South China Sea to be without legal foundation. The statement did not refer to Beijing directly.        去年,在一个国际裁判庭裁定中国在南中国海的大部分领土主张没有法律依据后,中东欧国家也坚持要求淡化欧盟的一份声明。结果这份声明没有直接提到北京。
        One European diplomat said Beijing was bolstering efforts to influence country’s foreign policies using informal gatherings, such as the 16+1 summit, and offering informal investment agreements instead of formal treaties.        一位欧洲外交官表示,北京正在通过16+1峰会这类非正式会议以及非正式投资协议(而不是正式条约),来支持影响有关国家外交政策的努力。
        “China has put a lot of pressure on some member states to influence EU decision-making. Countries that have benefited the most from Chinese infrastructure investments are blocking EU statements on topics such as human rights or the South China Sea,” the diplomat said.        “中国对一些成员国施加了很大压力,以影响欧盟的决策。受益于中国基础设施投资最多的国家,正在阻止欧盟在人权或南中国海等议题上作出声明,”这名外交官表示。
        “China wants to create more regional sub-formats modelled on 16+1. This is undermining a coherent EU policy on China.”        “中国希望以16+1为模板,创建更多的区域次级机制。这种做法正在破坏欧盟形成一致的对华政策。”
                
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