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特朗普承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都
Trump upends decades of policy on Israel

来源:FT中文网    2017-12-07 07:19



        In deciding to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and trigger plans to move the US embassy there from Tel Aviv, President Donald Trump has defied warnings from allies across the world and overturned decades of US foreign policy.        美国总统唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)不顾世界各地盟友的警告,决定承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都,并启动将美国大使馆从特拉维夫迁往耶路撒冷的计划。此举推翻了美国数十年来的外交政策。
        The US president said he would take the landmark step yesterday afternoon, describing it as a long overdue move that would advance the peace process and declaring the US would support a two-state solution for the Palestinians and Israelis should the sides embrace such an outcome.        美国总统表示,他将在周三下午迈出具有里程碑意义的这一步。他称这是一个早就应该作出的有助于推进和平进程的举动,并宣布如果巴勒斯坦和以色列双方都接受的话,美国将支持一个“两国方案”。
        The decision allows Mr Trump to demonstrate resolve on a hugely symbolic issue and redeem a pledge to supporters and donors that he first made during the presidential campaign. The president dismayed some backers in June when he continued with previous practice by signing a six-month waiver to a congressional requirement demanding that the US embassy be moved.        这个决定使特朗普得以在一个具有巨大象征意义的问题上展现出决心,并兑现他在竞选总统期间对支持者和捐赠者作出的承诺。美国总统在6月份让一些支持者感到失望,当时他延续白宫的一贯做法,针对国会对搬迁美国大使馆的要求签署了为期六个月的临时中止令。
        “It is clear he doesn’t like exercising these waivers, and he doesn’t like to look like other presidents; he is showing he does it his way,” said Dennis Ross, a former Middle East adviser at the White House who is now at the Washington Institute.        “显然,他不喜欢行使总统的法律条款临时中止权,他不喜欢看起来像是其他总统;他正在展示他以自己的方式行事,”白宫前中东顾问、如今任职于华盛顿近东政策研究所(Washington Institute for Near East Policy)的丹尼斯•罗斯(Dennis Ross)表示。
        Mr Trump portrayed the decision as an inevitable recognition of reality, and advisers dismissed warnings from the Palestinians and allies including Jordan that it could derail the peace talks. The US was not pre-empting future discussions over how Jerusalem could ultimately be divided up, and nor was it questioning ultra-sensitive areas including the area known as the Temple Mount to Jews and the Haram al-Sharif to Muslims, they insisted.        特朗普将这一决定描绘为对现实不可避免的承认,同时他的顾问们对巴勒斯坦以及盟友(包括约旦)有关此举可能破坏和谈的警告不以为然。他们坚称,美国并没有阻止各方在未来就耶路撒冷最终如何分割的问题进行讨论,美方也没有质疑一些极其敏感的地区,包括被犹太人称为“圣殿山”(Temple Mount)、被穆斯林称为“谢里夫圣地”(Haram al-Sharif)的地区。
        Moving the embassy could take years to achieve, and the president will meanwhile once again sign another six-month waiver under a congressional law requiring it to be relocated. The move would help the peace process by demonstrating the president’s credibility to the world, said one White House official. “It rectifies this historic wrong. He’s not a man who makes excuses.”        搬迁大使馆计划可能需要几年时间才能实现,与此同时美国总统将再度针对要求搬迁美国大使馆的国会法律,签署又一个六个月临时中止令。一名白宫官员表示,此举将通过向世界展示总统的可信度来推动和平进程。“它纠正了这个历史错误。他不是找借口的人。”
        Leaders around the world — among them Mahmoud Abbas, the president of the Palestinian Authority, King Abdullah of Jordan, and Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan — warned the move would have dangerous consequences. The Saudi state news agency quoted an unnamed foreign ministry official as saying the recognition will have “serious implications and will be provocative to all Muslims”.        世界各地的领导人——包括巴勒斯坦民族权力机构主席马哈茂德•阿巴斯(Mahmoud Abbas)、约旦国王阿卜杜拉二世(King Abdullah)和土耳其总统雷杰普•塔伊普•埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)——纷纷警告此举将会带来危险后果。沙特阿拉伯的国家通讯社援引一名不愿透露姓名的外交部官员的话称,承认耶路撒冷为以色列首都将产生“严重潜在影响,并且对所有穆斯林都具有挑衅性”。
        The status of the divided city is hugely delicate and its fate is one of the thorniest issues of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. Israel regards Jerusalem as its undivided capital and claims sovereignty over the whole city. But the international community views East Jerusalem as occupied land and the Palestinians consider it their future capital.        这个分裂城市的地位极为微妙,其命运是以巴和平进程中最棘手的问题之一。以色列认为耶路撒冷是其不可分割的首都,并主张其对整个城市拥有主权。但国际社会认为东耶路撒冷是被占领的土地,巴勒斯坦人认为东耶路撒冷是他们未来的首都。
        No nation has an embassy in Jerusalem. The international community’s position has long been that Jerusalem’s status should be determined by peace talks.        目前没有一个国家在耶路撒冷设使馆。国际社会的立场一直是,耶路撒冷的地位应该由和谈来决定。
        While the decision was commended by pro-Israel lobby groups including the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, or AIPAC, some analysts predicted it would put parties including Mr Abbas on the defensive while emboldening extremist groups.        尽管特朗普的决定获得了美国以色列公共事务委员会(AIPAC)等亲以色列游说团体的赞赏,但一些分析人士预计,此举将使阿巴斯等方面陷于被动,同时让极端主义团体增长士气。
        Hassan Abu Hanieh, a Jordanian security analyst, said it could enable a recruitment bonanza for jihadi groups, who will use the move as a symbol of aggression against Muslims.        约旦安全分析师哈桑•阿布•哈尼(Hassan Abu Hanieh)表示,此举可能给了圣战组织进行招募的大好机会,他们将把此举说成是欺压穆斯林的标志。
        Mr Trump has promised to broker what he has described as the “ultimate” deal to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Trump advisers, led by his son-in-law Jared Kushner, have been hoping to unveil plans for a new peace process as soon as early 2018.        特朗普已承诺要斡旋达成他所称的“终极”协议,结束以巴冲突。以他的女婿贾里德•库什纳(Jared Kushner)为首的特朗普顾问们希望最快在2018年初公布启动新和平进程的计划。
        A person with ties to Saudi officials said Mr Kushner had in recent months met Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman and Abu Dhabi’s crown prince Mohammed bin Zayed in an effort to formulate a new peace settlement. They discussed pushing the Palestinians into making deeper concessions, he said.        与沙特官员有联系的一名人士说,库什纳最近几个月会晤了沙特王储穆罕默德•本•萨勒曼(Mohammed bin Salman)和阿布扎比王储穆罕默德•本•扎耶德(Mohammed bin Zayed),谋求拟定一套新的和平解决方案。他称,他们讨论了推动巴勒斯坦人作出更大让步的问题。
        However he added this had not been connected with the Jerusalem issue.        不过他补充说,这与耶路撒冷问题没有关系。
                
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