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食品企业努力应对“减糖”课题
Manufacturers respond to health edicts in food and drink recipes

来源:FT中文网    2018-01-08 07:25



        Sporting a white baseball cap and white trainers, President Maithripala Sirisena of Sri Lanka marked World Diabetes Day in November by joining a walk in the capital city of Colombo, as he has for the past eight years.        今年11月,斯里兰卡总统迈特里帕拉•西里塞纳(Maithripala Sirisena)头戴白色棒球帽、脚蹬白色运动鞋,加入了首都科伦坡的健走队伍,以纪念世界糖尿病日(World Diabetes Day),过去8年他一直参加这种活动。
        This time, however, the country’s president did something unusual. During a speech, he brandished the distinctive green pack of Milo, a popular chocolate malt drink manufactured by Nestlé and aimed at children, demanding the world’s biggest food company reduce the product’s sugar content.        然而,这一次,西里塞纳做出了一些不同寻常的举动。在一场演讲中,他举起一盒醒目的绿色包装的“美禄”(Milo),要求这家全球最大食品公司降低这款产品中的糖含量。这是一款颇受欢迎的麦芽巧克力饮料,由雀巢(Nestlé)生产,面向青少年销售。
        Mr Sirisena blamed excess sugar consumption as a key cause of diabetes in his country, affecting nearly one in 10 people out of a population of 21m. He accused Nestlé of having increased the sugar content in Milo and demanded the Swiss group reduce it to less than 5 per cent of total content or face legislative controls.        西里塞纳将过量的糖摄入斥为斯里兰卡糖尿病多发的主要原因,该国的2100万人口有近十分之一受到糖尿病困扰。他批评雀巢增加了美禄的糖含量,要求这家瑞士集团将糖含量降至总成分的5%以下,否则将面临立法方面的限制。
        In response, Nestlé said that over the past five years it had cut the amount of added sugar in Milo by 32 per cent and that the drink now contains less than 5 per cent sucrose — equivalent to two teaspoons of sugar.        作为回应,雀巢表示,过去5年,该公司已将美禄中的添加糖含量减少32%,这款饮品中的蔗糖含量现在已不到5%,相当于两茶匙糖。
        The public spat marked a new front in a battle that has gradually moved from nutritional experts and health-conscious consumers to politicians, who are increasingly taking legislative action to force companies to go easy on sugar, salt and fat in foods.        这场公开口水仗标志着一场战役拉开了新前线,站在前线的人已逐渐从营养专家和注重健康的消费者变为政治人士,后者正越来越多地采取法律措施迫使企业降低食品中的糖、盐和脂肪含量。
        The number of obese people has tripled worldwide since 1975, according to the World Health Organization. In a recent report the United Nations-affiliated organisation drew attention to a 10-fold increase in child obesity over the same period.         根据世界卫生组织(WHO)的数据,自1975年以来,全球肥胖人口已增加两倍。在最近一份报告中,这家联合国(UN)系统内的组织提醒人们注意,同期肥胖儿童数量增加9倍。
        The WHO supports sugar taxes as one of a series of measures to promote healthy eating and, to date, around 20 countries have introduced a form of sugar tax, including Mexico, France, South Africa and Norway. Sri Lanka will join that group, if its plans to impose excise duty on sugary beverages are enacted.        世界卫生组织支持把征收糖税作为一系列推动健康饮食的举措之一。目前,约有20个国家推出了糖税,包括墨西哥、法国、南非和挪威。如果斯里兰卡对糖饮料征收特别消费税的计划付诸实施的话,那么它也将加入这个行列。
        Behind the step-up of government intervention is a fear that national health budgets will be swamped by the treatment of illnesses — type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and some forms of cancer — associated with high consumption of sugar.        在政府加大干预背后是这样一种担心:对2型糖尿病、心脏病以及某些癌症等与高糖摄入相关的疾病进行治疗,将拖垮国家医疗预算。
        In the UK, where obesity rates have doubled since 1993, the cost of dealing with the condition by the National Health Service is projected almost to double from £5.1bn in 2015 to £9.7bn in 2050.        在英国,肥胖率自1993年以来已增加一倍,到2050年,预计英国国民医疗服务体系(National Health Service)用于肥胖相关疾病治疗的成本,将从2015年的51亿英镑增加近一倍,达到97亿英镑。
        So far, much of the regulation has centred on restricting advertising of children’s sugary foods or imposing taxes on sugary drinks on the basis that these drinks carry no nutritional value, according to health officials, other than hydration, which can be better achieved by drinking water.        据英国卫生部官员称,到目前为止,很多监管聚焦于限制儿童含糖食品的广告或对含糖饮料征税,征税的理由是,这些饮料除帮助人体补充水分以外毫无营养价值,而补充水分的更好办法是喝水。
        Beverage manufacturers have protested — arguing that sugar taxes do not work in reducing obesity but instead hit the poor and cost jobs. The Coca-Cola Company, the world’s biggest soft drinks manufacturer, for example, said recently: “There are better ways to address obesity and help fix government budgets gaps than taxes that hurt local businesses and everyday consumers.”        饮料生产商提出抗议,他们辩称,糖税不会有助于减少肥胖,反而会让穷人的生活更为艰难并导致就业岗位减少。例如,全球最大软饮制造商可口可乐(Coca-Cola)最近表示:“糖税损害地方企业和普通消费者的利益,有比征收糖税更好的办法能够应对肥胖问题并帮助弥合政府预算缺口。”
        Sugar taxes may not be a panacea for obesity but the UK’s soft drinks levy, announced in March 2016, has demonstrated that they can be effective in persuading manufacturers to reduce sugar before the tax kicks in — in April 2018. The levy is expected to add about 8p to a 70p can of cola.        糖税可能并不是解决肥胖问题的灵丹妙药,但事实证明,英国于2016年3月宣布征收的软饮料税能够非常有效地说服制造商在该税生效——2018年4月——前减少产品含糖量。征税后一听70便士的可乐预计价格将提高约8便士。
        The UK Treasury originally thought the levy would raise £520m a year but, in its most recent Budget forecast last month, it reduced its estimates — the clearest sign yet of the measure’s efficacy as a deterrent.        英国财政部最初认为这项税每年将为财政增收5.2亿英镑,但在上个月最新的预算预测中下调了这一估值,这是对该举措的威慑性迄今最明显的证明。
        Manufacturer Lucozade Ribena Suntory has accelerated plans to reduce sugar and use artificial sweeteners in order to escape the tax altogether, as drinks with less than 5g of sugar per litre are exempt from the levy. Peter Harding, chief operating officer, says: “We were already doing a lot of reformulation work. The sugar tax put a commercial imperative in front of us. We were the first to say that we would take 50-60 per cent of sugar out.”        制造商Lucozade Ribena Suntory已加速实施减糖计划,并使用人工甜味剂以彻底逃避糖税,因为每公升含糖量低于5克的饮料无需缴纳糖税。首席运营官彼得•哈丁(Peter Harding)说:“我们已经做了大量配方调整工作。糖税让我们从做生意的角度也必须减糖。我们是第一家表示会减掉50%至60%糖分的公司。”
        As governments get serious about increased regulation, food manufacturers are trying to pre-empt changes through voluntary measures. They are also driven by rising consumer demands for more nutritious ingredients.        随着各个政府对加强监管越来越认真,食品制造商正试图主动采取一些举措,以提前应对预见中的改变。推动它们主动行动的还有消费者日益强烈地要求食品配方更营养。
        Kellogg’s, the US food group, for example, said last month in the UK that it would cut sugar in its Rice Krispies and Coco-Pops cereals, which are popular with children, and will axe altogether its Ricicles brand which is one-third sugar, from January. But there are limits to the amount of sugar that can be taken out of a product without affecting taste and texture. For this reason, many manufacturers have shrunk portions, which usually results in higher profit margins.        例如,美国食品集团家乐氏(Kellogg)上个月在英国表示,从明年1月份起将减少其受儿童青睐的卜卜米(Rice Krispies)和可可力(Coco-Pops)谷物产品中的含糖量,并彻底砍掉Ricicles产品——该产品有三分之一的成分都是糖。但是,在不影响口感和质地的情况下,产品中能减少的含糖量是有限的。出于这一原因,许多制造商缩减了商品的包装分量,而小包装的商品通常利润率更高。
        Few have gone as far as Mars, which last year told customers to eat some of its products only “occasionally”. The US food group said: “To maintain the authentic nature of the recipe, some Mars food products are higher in salt, added sugar or fat,” adding: “These products are not intended to be eaten daily.”        没几家公司能做到玛氏(Mars)的程度,该公司去年告诉消费者,它的某些产品最好只“偶尔”食用。这家美国食品集团说:“为了保持配方的正宗,玛氏部分食品的盐、糖或脂肪含量较高。这些产品原本就不适合每天食用。”
        Drinks manufacturers are aware that artificial sweeteners are opposed by some consumers and have therefore been working on natural, low-calorie alternatives, particularly stevia, a leafy shrub which is intensely sweet but has a bitter aftertaste.        饮料制造商意识到人工甜味剂遭到一些消费者的排斥,因此一直在研究天然的低热量替代品,其中最受重视的是甜叶菊,这种多叶草本植物非常甜,但后味苦涩。
        Coca-Cola, said last month that it would launch Coca-Cola Stevia No Sugar next year. It said it had developed a form of stevia that mimics the taste of sugar without any bitterness with PureCircle, the Bermuda-based company that specialises in stevia production.         可口可乐(Coca-Cola)不久前宣布明年将推出甜叶菊无糖可口可乐。该公司表示已与PureCircle合作开发出一种甜叶菊,它有糖的味道而无任何苦味。PureCircle是一家位于百慕大的公司,专门生产甜叶菊。
        Nestlé also has high hopes for next year, when the maker of KitKat launches a range of the chocolate bar with 30 per cent less sugar. It says it has devised a technology to alter the structure of sugar crystals so they dissolve more quickly when consumed — this allows it to use less sugar to deliver the same taste of sweetness.        雀巢(Nestlé)明年也有大计划,它希望推出一个减糖30%的奇巧(KitKat)系列。该公司表示,它已发明一种技术来改变糖晶体的结构,使其在吃下去的时候更快溶解,令该公司可以用较少的糖来实现相同的甜味。
                
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