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换工作?找AI
Want to change job? The AI will see you now

来源:FT中文网    2018-01-10 06:54



        Since joining IBM nearly 20 years ago, Srinivas Chitiveli has switched jobs nine times. Mr Chitiveli, who works in Ohio, believes change is good for his career. It helps him develop professionally, broaden his skills and keep on top of the trends in his industry. But he used to hate the time it took to scour internal job boards, and to research and write applications.        大约20年前,斯里尼瓦•史提瓦力(Srinivas Chitiveli)加入了IBM,自那以来,他已经换了9次工作。史提瓦力在俄亥俄州工作,他认为换岗位对自己的职业发展来说是好事。这有助于他在专业上取得进步,拓宽自身技能,并紧跟行业发展趋势。但他以前很讨厌查看内部空缺职位布告栏,以及研究和撰写职位申请书。
        So when IBM introduced Blue Matching, a tool that uses artificial intelligence to connect employees to internal job opportunities, Mr Chitiveli, who was working on the internet of things, signed up. It took him three weeks to find a new position as a senior product manager for IBM’s AI-powered computer vision technology, which enables computers to recognise visual images — less than half the usual time.        所以当IBM引入了Blue Matching,一个利用人工智能在雇员与内部工作机会之间建立联系的工具,正在从事物联网工作的史提瓦力马上登记了。他花了三周时间,找到一个高级产品经理的职位,负责IBM人工智能计算机视觉技术,这项技术能令计算机识别出视觉图像——耗时不及平常的一半。
        “In the old days, I’d type in search terms, apply to a huge list of jobs, meet hiring managers and, after some initial discussions, realise the job wasn’t for me,” he says.        “以前,我会输入关键词,申请大量职位,与招聘经理见面,在经过一些初步的讨论之后,发现那份工作不适合我,”他说。
        Since it launched last year, about 12 per cent of IBM employees have used Blue Matching to find new roles within the organisation. The software crunches data about each applicant, including previous roles, skills, experience, location and performance, and recommends suitable openings.        自去年推出以来,IBM大概有12%的员工使用过Blue Matching去搜索组织内部的新职位。这个软件会处理每位申请人的信息,包括以前的职位、技能、经验、工作地点以及表现,并向他们推荐适合的空缺职位。
        As working lives lengthen and automation replaces tasks once performed by people, more of us are changing career. According to CEB, a research and advisory company now part of Gartner, 40 per cent of roles that exist today will be significantly different in five years’ time. Helping employees change direction without leaving their employer is in everyone’s interests. Could the pattern-matching capabilities of AI put underused human intelligence to better use?        随着工作年限延长以及自动化逐渐取代曾经由人来承担的工作,我们中越来越多人的职业都发生了改变。据高德纳(Gartner)旗下的一家研究咨询公司CEB称,目前40%的工作都将在五年内发生重大改变。帮助员工转变职业方向而不必离开公司符合每一个人的利益。那么,人工智能的模式匹配技术能让未被充分利用的人类智慧更好地发挥出来吗?
        But even as employers seek to plug gaps by hiring from outside, studies point to workers being pigeonholed, rather than helped to explore new careers within their organisations. Research conducted for Cornerstone OnDemand found that under half of UK workers see opportunities to progress, and 11 per cent say their employer forbids moves to other departments.        然而,研究指出,即便雇主们通过外部招聘来填补空缺职位时,他们也只是将员工们束缚在固定的部门,而不是为他们在组织内部开辟新的职业发展空间。为Cornerstone OnDemand所做的一项研究发现,在英国不到一半的员工看到了发展机会,但其中有11%的人表示老板禁止他们转岗到其他部门。
        Orange is one of several French employers that use AI developed by Clustree, a Paris start-up, to help people move within their companies. Employees submit a CV describing their experience, pastimes and aspirations. Details can reveal surprising abilities, according to Véronique Biecques, director of recruitment at Orange. “What you do in your spare time sometimes says more about you than your job,” she says.        Orange是法国几家采用Clustree开发的AI技术的公司之一,Clustree是巴黎一家初创企业,这家公司的AI技术旨在帮助人们在自己的公司内部实现转岗。雇员们提交简历,描述自己的经验、爱好以及志向。细节能暴露一个人出人意料的能力,Orange的招聘主管韦罗妮卡•碧珂丝(Véronique Biecques)说。“你在闲暇时间做的事情有时会比你的工作更能说明你是个什么样的人,”她说。
        Studies suggest that we view those whom we resemble in background and tastes as more able, but machine intelligence is — at least in theory — neutral. Ms Biecques notes that graduates of France’s top academies, the grandes écoles, favour team members who share their credentials. By generating a diverse slate of candidates, backed by proof of ability, she hopes the software will help her to convince managers to judge everyone in the round.        研究显示,我们认为那些与自己背景及品味相似的人更能干,但机器智能——至少在理论上——是中立的。碧珂丝注意到那些从法国精英院校(grandes écoles)毕业的学生喜欢与自己教育背景类似的团队成员。凭借证明能力的信息挑选出各式各样的候选人,她希望这个软件能帮她说服管理者们全面地对每个人做出评判。
        Jean Martin, head of research at CEB, says Orange’s efforts mirror a wider push by employers to “build an archive of skills that goes beyond what managers can see”. As part of its search methodology, Blue Matching trawls employees’ blogs on the IBM intranet. Other businesses cast their nets wider, arguing that anything staff post publicly is fair game for analysis.        CEB的研究主管让•马丁(Jean Martin)称,Orange的努力反映出雇主们希望“建立一个超出管理者视野的技能档案”。作为其搜索方法的一部分,Blue Matching在IBM的局域网中抓取员工们的博客。其他企业则把网撒得更广,认为员工公开发布的任何内容都可以拿来分析。
        Not everyone is sanguine about AI’s potential. Privacy advocates argue that web-monitoring tools give organisations new powers to peer into employees’ lives — and there are signs that regulators are toughening their stance. According to new EU data protection guidelines, employers should not assume that because an individual’s social media profile is publicly available they are “allowed to process those data for their own purposes”.        并非每个人都对人工智能的潜力持乐观态度。隐私权的捍卫者们认为网络监控工具给了组织新的权力去窥探员工们的生活——也有迹象显示监管机构的立场趋于强硬。根据欧盟新制定的数据保护准则,雇主们不该假设,因为员工个人的社交媒体允许公开访问,他们“就可以出于自身目的处理这些信息”。
        The politics of AI can be tricky, too. Line managers may feel that self-service career tools threaten their authority.        人工智能也涉及微妙的政治。部门经理们或许会感到自助求职工具对他们的权威构成了威胁。
        Abi Weeks, HR operations director at Harrods, the London department store, argues that experimenting with different roles, not AI, gives people the confidence to put themselves forward for career development. To encourage staff to sample different opportunities, the retailer runs careers weeks with “backstage tours” of hard-to-access departments, such as personal shopping.        伦敦哈罗德百货公司(Harrods)的人力资源运营总监阿比•威克斯(Abi Weeks)认为,尝试不同的职位——而不是人工智能——会让人们有信心追求自身的职业发展。为鼓励员工尝试不同的机会,这家零售商开展了“事业周”,以“后台访问”的形式,让员工们参观那些平时难以接触到的部门,如私人采购部等。
        Though optimistic that AI will, over time, improve the hiring process, Ms Biecques says smart machines can’t do everything. “You can say: this person would be perfect because they have all the qualities. But, in the end, the manager must choose. Every morning they must come in and work with that person — there has to be a chemistry.”        尽管碧珂丝乐观地认为,随着时间的发展,人工智能将改善招聘的过程,但她表示智能机器无法面面俱到。“你可以说:这个人很完美,因为他具备所有需要的品质。但最后必须由管理者做出选择。每天早晨管理者要到公司和这个人共事——他们之间一定得有某种默契。”
                
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