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Why Sitting May Be Bad for Your Heart

来源:纽约时报    2018-01-11 05:31:22

        Sitting quietly for extended periods of time could be hurting your heart, according to a surprising new study. It finds that the more people sit, the greater the likelihood that they will show signs of injury to their heart muscles.        一项令人惊讶的新研究发现,长时间静坐可能会伤害你的心脏。研究发现,坐的时间越长,就越有可能出现心肌受损的迹象。
        We all have heard by now that sitting for hours on end is unhealthy, even if we also occasionally exercise. People who sit for more than about nine or 10 hours each day — a group that includes many of us who work in offices — are prone to developing diabetes, heart disease and other problems, and most of these risks remain relatively high, even if we exercise.        我们现在都听说,连续几小时坐着是不健康的——即使偶尔也锻炼一下。每天坐9个或10个小时以上的人——包括许多在办公室工作的人——容易患糖尿病和心脏病等疾病,即使锻炼,风险依然相对较高。
        Excessive sitting also has been associated with heart failure, a condition in which the heart becomes progressively weaker and unable to pump enough blood to keep the rest of the body oxygenated and well. But how sitting, which seems to demand so little from the heart, could be linked to heart failure, a condition in which the heart cannot respond adequately to exertion, has been unclear.        久坐也与心力衰竭相关,也就是,心脏变得越来越虚弱,无法泵出足够的血液,为身体其他部分充分供氧,保证它们健康运行。但是,久坐似乎对心脏的要求很少,所以尚不清楚为什么它会与心力衰竭相关联。心力衰竭是指心脏无法充分做出反应、正常运行的疾病。
        So recently a group of cardiologists from around the world began to wonder about troponins.        前不久,世界各地的一群心脏病学家开始研究肌钙蛋白。
        Troponins are proteins produced by cardiac-muscle cells when they are hurt or dying. A heart attack releases a sudden tsunami of troponins into the bloodstream.        肌钙蛋白是心肌细胞在受伤或死亡时产生的蛋白质。心脏病发作时会突然释放大量肌钙蛋白进入血液。
        But even slightly elevated troponin levels, lower than those involved in heart attacks, are worrisome if they persist, most cardiologists believe. Chronically high troponin levels indicate that something is going wrong inside the heart muscle and that damage is occurring and accruing there. If the damage is not halted or slowed, it could eventually result in heart failure.        但是,大多数心脏病专家认为,就算肌钙蛋白水平只是略高——低于心脏病发作时的水平——如果这种情况长期存在,也令人担忧。长期高肌钙蛋白水平表明,心肌内部出了问题,损害正在发生,而且在不断增加。如果损伤没有停止或减缓,最终会导致心力衰竭。
        No research, however, had ever examined whether sitting was associated with high troponin levels.        不过,还没人研究过久坐是否与高肌钙蛋白水平有关。
        So for the new study, published in Circulation, the researchers turned to existing data from the Dallas Heart Study, a large, ongoing examination of cardiac health among a group of ethnically diverse men and women, overseen by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The study’s participants had completed cardiac testing, given blood samples and health information and worn activity trackers for a week.        因此,在《循环》杂志(Circulation)上发表的一项新研究中,研究人员研究了达拉斯心脏研究(Dallas Heart Study)的现有数据。该研究是德克萨斯大学西南医学中心(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)针对不同种族的男性和女性持续进行的一项大型心脏健康研究。该研究的参与者完成了心脏测试,提供了血液样本和健康信息,并佩戴活动追踪器一周。
        The researchers pulled information about more than 1,700 of these participants, excluding any who had heart disease or symptoms of heart failure, such as chest pain or shortness of breath.        研究人员收集了1700多名参与者的信息,排除了任何有胸痛或呼吸短促等心脏病或心衰症状的人。
        They checked the men’s and women’s blood samples for troponins and the readouts from their activity trackers to see how much or little they had moved most days.        他们查看了这些男性和女性血液样本中的肌钙蛋白,以及他们活动追踪器的读数,看看他们在大多数日子里活动了多少。
        Then they made comparisons.        然后他们进行了比较。
        Many of the study participants turned out to be sitters, remaining sedentary for as much as 10 hours or more on most days. Not surprisingly, those men and women rarely exercised.        这项研究的许多参与者都是久坐者,在大多数日子里每天坐着的时间长达10个小时以上。毫不奇怪,这些男性和女性很少锻炼。
        Some of the men and women did work out, though, usually by walking. They were not exercising a lot, but the more exercise they undertook, the fewer hours they sat, on average.        不过,有些男性和女性确实锻炼,通常是走路。他们锻炼得不是很多,但他们锻炼得越多,平均坐着的时间就越短。
        And this physical activity, limited as it was, was associated with relatively normal levels of troponin. The people who moved the most tended to have lower amounts of troponin in their blood, although the benefits statistically were slight.        这种体育活动虽然具有局限性,却与相对正常的肌钙蛋白水平有关。活动最多的人血液中肌钙蛋白的含量更低,尽管从统计学角度讲,益处微乎其微。
        On the other hand, the people who sat for 10 hours or more tended to have above-average troponin levels in their blood. These levels were well below those indicative of a heart attack. But they were high enough to constitute “subclinical cardiac injury,” according to the study’s authors.        另一方面,坐10个小时以上的人血液中肌钙蛋白的水平高于平均水平。他们的肌钙蛋白水平远低于心脏病发作时的水平。但该研究的作者们表示,这种水平足以构成“亚临床心脏损伤”。
        This relationship remained strong, even after the researchers controlled for other factors that could have influenced troponin levels, including age, gender, body mass index and cardiac function.        即使在研究人员对照了可能影响肌钙蛋白水平的其他因素之后——包括年龄、性别、体重指数和心脏功能——这种关联性依然强烈。
        Overall, sitting was more strongly associated with unhealthy troponin levels than exercise was with desirable amounts.        总的来说,久坐与不健康肌钙蛋白水平的关系,比锻炼与理想水平的关系更密切。
        Of course, this was an observational study and can show only that sitting is linked to high troponin, not that it causes troponins to rise.        当然,这是一项观察性研究,只能表明久坐与高肌钙蛋白有关联,并不能表明久坐会导致肌钙蛋白水平升高。
        It also cannot explain how physical stillness might injure cardiac cells.        它也无法解释为什么身体静止会损伤心肌细胞。
        But the impacts are probably indirect, says Dr. James de Lemos, a cardiologist and professor at UT Southwestern Medical Center who oversaw the new study.        不过,负责这项新研究的心脏病专家、德克萨斯大学西南医学中心教授詹姆斯·德莱莫斯博士(James de Lemos)表示,这种影响很可能是间接的。
        “Sedentary behavior is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and fat deposition in the heart, all of which can lead to injury to heart cells,” he says.        “久坐与肥胖、胰岛素抵抗和心脏脂肪堆积有关,这些都可能导致心脏细胞受损,”他说。

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