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如何激励“钢铁侠”?
Tesla pay deal seeks to blast Elon Musk to infinity and beyond

来源:FT中文网    2018-02-06 07:10



        Elon Musk has set a new bar in the dubious science of benchmarking executive pay. Electric carmaker Tesla has laid out a 10-year deal for its chief executive that could bury him in more than $50bn worth of shares.        埃隆•马斯克(Elon Musk)在高管薪酬基准比较的可疑科学中设置了新的标杆。电动汽车制造商特斯拉(Tesla)为其首席执行官制定了一项为期10年的协议,可能给后者带来超过500亿美元的股票。
        The entrepreneur has renounced a salary or bonus for the potential reward of 12 tranches of Tesla stock, tied to galaxy-sized targets based on the group’s value, earnings and revenue. To receive the full amount, Mr Musk would, among other things, have to increase Tesla’s value by about $600bn to $650bn — roughly the market capitalisation of Amazon today.        这位企业家放弃了薪水或奖金,以争取潜在奖酬:分12批授予的特斯拉股票,与基于集团价值、利润和收入挂钩的宏伟目标。要获得全额奖酬,马斯克除满足其他条件外,必须将特斯拉价值提高到6000亿至6500亿美元左右,大致相当于亚马逊(Amazon)当前的市值。
        One question is how the unsalaried Mr Musk will pay for his groceries. The answer: under California state law, he has to receive the minimum wage of $37,000, but for now, according to an interview with the New York Times, he stocks his fridge by borrowing against his shares.        一个问题是没有薪水的马斯克如何应付日常开支。答案是:根据加州法律,他必须得到3.7万美元的最低工资,但就现在而言,根据《纽约时报》(New York Times)的采访,他通过抵押自己的股票来借款购买食品。
        A more relevant puzzle is the extent to which money motivates a man like Mr Musk at all. Strip away the targets and the pay package seems aimed as much at Tesla shareholders as at its mercurial leader. The deal may be unconventional, but it fits a recognisable template: pay is aligned to performance of the stock the investors themselves hold.        一个更相关的难题是,金钱在何种程度上激励像马斯克这样的人。若除去那些目标,上述奖酬方案似乎不仅针对其变幻莫测的领导人,而且还针对特斯拉的股东。协议可能是非常规的,但它符合一个让人眼熟的模板:薪酬与投资者所持股票的表现挂钩。
        More important, it binds Mr Musk to the company in an executive role. Tesla has even added a five-year holding period, to ensure he shares investors’ pain if the carmaker’s breakneck race to become a sustainable energy company ends in a crash after he has earned his reward.        更重要的是,它将马斯克绑定在特斯拉的执行职务上。特斯拉甚至还增添了五年的锁定期——如果特斯拉飞速转型为可持续能源公司的努力最终失败,马斯克即便拿到奖酬也得和投资者一样感受到痛苦。
        Tesla claims an earlier performance award was “instrumental in motivating” Mr Musk. But most evidence suggests other forces drive him. “He’s the possessed genius on the grandest quest anyone has ever concocted,” writes Ashlee Vance in his excellent 2015 biography. “He’s less a CEO chasing riches than a general marshalling troops to secure victory.”        特斯拉声称,早先的绩效奖酬对于激励马斯克“十分关键”。但大多数证据似乎表明,还有其他力量在驱动他。阿什利•万斯(Ashlee Vance)在2015年为马斯克撰写的出色传记中写道:“他是着了魔的天才,从事着任何人能够想象出来的最宏大的探索。与其说他是追逐财富的首席执行官,还不如说他是一名指挥军队取得胜利的将军。”
        This overarching sense of mission seems to loom larger for Mr Musk than the financial perks. There’s a message here for all boards: you need to provide more than a big cash cushion to keep your restless executives keen.        对于马斯克来说,这种宏大的使命感似乎比财务福利更重要。所有董事会都应该知道:要让你的焦虑不安的高管保持热情,你需要提供的不止是庞大的现金垫。
        As Dan Pink memorably laid out in his book Drive        正如丹•平克(Dan Pink)在《动机》(Drive)一书中令人难忘地列举的那样,内在动力——个人成功渴望加上行动自主、精通任务以及目的明确——是非常强大的。我们所认为的包括经济激励在内的胡萝卜加大棒的生硬方法可能会适得其反,或者只适用于简单直接的任务。
        , intrinsic motivation — the individual’s desire to succeed, combined with autonomy of action, mastery of the task, and purpose — is very powerful. What we think of as blunt carrot-and-stick methods, including financial incentives, can be counter-productive, or apply only to straightforward tasks.        平克承认受到了道格拉斯•麦格雷戈(Douglas McGregor)的启发,后者在1960年提出了传统的X理论管理(胡萝卜和大棒,如果你喜欢,也可以称为指挥和控制)和创新的Y理论方法(强调工作者的自主性)之间的区别。
        Pink acknowledges a debt to Douglas McGregor, who in 1960 laid out the distinction between traditional Theory X management (carrot-and-stick — or command-and-control, if you prefer) and the innovative Theory Y approach, emphasising worker autonomy.        特斯拉以及马斯克的火箭企业SpaceX似乎都是按照另一种理论——“马斯克理论”(Theory Musk)来运作的。它们的领导人有时会像一个真正信奉X理论的经理那样发号施令。在他的传记中,一位特斯拉的员工回忆说,他在因孩子出生而错过一次企业活动后,被马斯克在电子邮件中责骂(马斯克写道:“你要么全身心投入,要么就别干了”)。
        Tesla, and SpaceX, Mr Musk’s rocket venture, seem to operate according to another theory — Theory Musk. Their leader sometimes speaks with the authoritarian rasp of an authentic Theory X manager. In his biography, one Tesla employee recalls being dressed down in an email after missing a corporate event for the birth of his child (“You either commit or you don’t,” Mr Musk wrote).        然而,马斯克立志改变世界以及他对工程技术人员的信任是强大的Y理论管理工具,Alphabet首席执行官拉里•佩奇(Larry Page)认为这是一种竞争优势:“当你能够为一个想要去火星并为此竭尽全力的家伙工作的时候,你为什么想要为一家军工承包商工作呢?”
        Yet Mr Musk’s world-changing goals and his trust in his engineers are powerful Theory Y tools that Larry Page, Alphabet’s chief executive, has identified as a competitive advantage: “Why would you want to work for a defence contractor when you can work for a guy who wants to go to Mars and he’s going to move heaven and earth to make it happen?”        马斯克在特斯拉和SpaceX综合应用的管理风格与更广泛的研究是吻合的。克里斯托弗•切拉索利(Christopher Cerasoli)、杰茜卡•尼克林(Jessica Nicklin)和迈克尔•福特(Michael Ford)在2014年发表的分析动机的研究报告中指出,外部激励和内在动力共同影响着业绩表现。内在动力很重要,但与胡萝卜加大棒的使用并不矛盾。
        Mr Musk’s application of a blend of management styles at Tesla and SpaceX fits the wider research. In a 2014 analysis of published studies about motivation, Christopher Cerasoli, Jessica Nicklin and Michael Ford concluded that performance was shaped by the joint impact of external incentives and internal drive. Intrinsic motivation was important, but not at odds with the use of carrots and sticks.        金钱在“马斯克理论”中排在什么位置?高于你的预期,但不是出于那种激励普通高管的“我的奖金比你多”的俗气理由。对马斯克来说,金钱像是火箭燃料,能把他带到无限的境地。
        Where does money rank in Theory Musk? Higher than you might expect, but not for the banal “my bonus is bigger than yours” reasons that motivate ordinary executives. It is the rocket fuel that will take Mr Musk to infinity and beyond.        马斯克以将先前创业所得投入下一个计划而闻名——他砸钱的魄力之大,即使在硅谷的冒险者当中也是闻所未闻的。
        The entrepreneur is known for pouring gains from prior ventures into his next plan — to a degree unheard of even among Silicon Valley risk-takers.        他对《纽约时报》表示:“(奖酬计划)对我个人来说很重要的原因是,我想做一些大事。”帮助人类变成“多星球物种……显然需要一定数量的资本”。
        “The reason that [the incentive plan is] important to me personally is that there’s some pretty big things that I want to do,” he told the New York Times. Helping to turn humanity into “a multi-planet species . . . obviously requires a certain amount of capital”.        特斯拉董事可能觉得他们的工作已经完成了。但他们最重要的职责既不是履行这份奖酬协议的财务条款,也不是生硬地把马斯克与特斯拉绑在一起,而是在他仰望星空的时候,激励他应对地面上的挑战。
        Tesla directors may feel their job is now done. But their most important duty is neither fulfilling the financial side of the pay deal, nor crudely tethering Mr Musk to Tesla. It is motivating him to meet its earthbound challenges, when his eyes are really fixed on the stars.        译者/裴伴
                
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