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火与怒,过度愤怒带来的问题
Fire, fury and the problem with too much outrage

来源:FT中文网    2018-02-11 07:21



        The bouquet of flowers was a charming gesture. The sentiment on the accompanying card not so much. When an image of a note sent by fashion designer Ulyana Sergeenko to her Russian compatriot, the tech entrepreneur Mira Duma, addressed “to my n****s in Paris”, appeared on Instagram last week, the reaction was quick and brutal.        送人一束鲜花是一个可爱的举动,但随附卡片引起的情绪就不一定美妙了。服装设计师乌里扬娜•瑟吉安科(Ulyana Sergeenko)在给她的俄罗斯同胞、科技行业创业家米洛斯拉瓦•杜玛(Mira Duma)的卡片上写道“致我在巴黎的黑***”。当这张卡片的图片最近被上传到Instagram时,公众的反应很迅速、也很强烈。
        Duma, who had included the image on her Instagram “story” — a part of the platform designed to be ephemeral — was condemned as a racist for her casual attitude to the N-word. The designer and her friend the embodiment of white privilege. There was outrage. Things escalated. Within hours, new footage emerged of Duma, the 32-year-old who has built a global platform as an ambassador for sustainability and ethical fashion. A video clip from 2012 showed her giving a talk in Russia making transphobic comments: “We would never publish someone like [Andreja] Pejic,” she said of the androgynous model, who would come out as transgender the following year. “We have censorship at Buro [her online magazine]. We’re very concerned about the beauty and purity of the things we publish.”        杜玛在她的Instagram 限时动态(stories)中分享了这张图片。但由于她对“黑”开头的这个词漫不经心的态度,被谴责为种族主义者。设计师和她的朋友成了白人特权观念的化身。公众愤怒了。事态迅速升级。几个小时后,另一段杜玛的视频开始在网上流传。杜玛今年32岁,她已成功创建了一个全球性平台,以此作为推广可持续时尚和道德时尚的大使。在这段2012年拍摄的视频中,杜玛以俄语发表了跨性别恐惧言论:“我们永远不会刊登与安德烈雅•佩伊奇(Andreja Pejic)这类人有关的内容。”她指的是第二年将以变性人身份出现的跨性别模特佩伊奇。“我们会对Buro(杜玛公司的在线杂志)的内容进行审查。我们非常重视我们登载内容的美感和纯洁性。”
        The video was inflammatory. Duma was removed from her role as chairwoman at one of the companies she co-founded. An attempt at an apology — “The person I was six years ago is not who I am today” — only stirred passions further. Within 24 hours, Duma’s reputation was eviscerated. Her social media feed has remained dark ever since.        这段视频引起了强烈的反响。杜玛被免去了一家她联合创办的公司的董事长职务。她的道歉—— “六年前的我与现在的我完全不是一个人”——只起到了火上浇油的作用。在随后的24小时里,杜玛彻底声名扫地了。她随后关闭了自己的社交媒体账户。
        Such is the climate of outrage right now. Make a mistake and the consequences are brutal — and fast. Both Duma and Sergeenko appealed for forgiveness. Both have suggested that, as products of a Russian culture in which social freedoms and attitudes have yet to catch up with the west, they might be afforded some clemency. Few are willing to forgive.        这就是网怒现状。犯一个错误,其后果不堪设想——而且会快速漫延。杜玛和瑟吉安科都请求得到宽恕。她俩都表示,作为社会自由和态度都与西方有一定距离的俄罗斯文化的产物,她们或许应该得到一定的宽容。但几乎没人愿意原谅她们。
        I don’t want to excuse those behaviours. But something about the pitch of the response was disquieting, not least because it was one of a dozen scandals unfolding on social media at the same time. The current climate of intolerance brings with it fresh offences every day. We were livid with Toby Young, the writer and chauvinist bore who was made a non-executive director on the board of the Office for Students — installed for only a nanosecond before his critics unveiled a retrospective set of sexist tweets that forced him to resign. He may not be the person he once was either, but failing to “curate” one’s online history leaves an incriminating trail. The comedian Aziz Ansari has seen his career trashed after having been accused of extremely poor judgment, or harassment, on what sounds like a ghastly date. The allegations of sexual misconduct against Bruce Weber and Mario Testino have ricocheted across the internet, where the feeds drip with further insinuations.        我并不想为这些行为找借口。但是,公众反应的强烈程度有些令人不安,特别是该事件是同时在社交媒体上发生的十多起丑闻之一。目前这种不容忍氛围每天都会挖掘出新的罪行。我们对作家、令人讨厌的沙文主义者托比•杨(Toby Young)无比愤慨。在批评者曝光了他过去在Twitter上发表的一系列性别歧视言论后,他在屁股还没坐热的情况下,被迫辞去了英国教育监管机构“学生办公室”(Office for Students)董事会非执行董事的职位。他可能也不是那个曾经的他,但因没能很好地“管理”自己的在线历史就留下了罪证。因被指责在一次听起来有点可怕的约会中作出极其糟糕的判断,或者是骚扰举动,喜剧演员阿齐兹•安萨里(Aziz Ansari)看到自己的职业生涯遭受了巨大的打击。对布鲁斯•韦伯(Bruce Weber)和马里奥•特斯蒂诺(Mario Testino)的性行为不端指控已经在互联网上掀起了一阵狂潮,网上的留言又出现了更多含沙射影的指控。
        The severity of each misdeed hardly matters when each is subject to the same wave of outrage. The speed and intensity of our anger barely wavers as we spin from one scandal to the next. Primed with our new lexicon, we are all now whistleblowers in a world where we act as judge, jury and executioner. And boy, do we feel good about it. Because we’re calling things out to serve a greater good.        当所有过失都会遭到同样的怒骂时,每个过失的严重程度几乎没有什么关系了。当我们从一桩丑闻转到另一桩丑闻时,我们表达愤怒的速度和强度几乎没有波动。借用当下的新词,在这个我们既当法官、又当陪审员、又当行刑者的世界里,我们都是举报人。天啊,我们感觉太好了。因为我们把这些东西抖出来是为多数人谋福利。
        How we love the sound of our own indignation. But are we really outraged, or are we just thrilling to a new order where our voice has an unrivalled platform? And do we really care, or are we calling out the faults of others as a way to signal our own virtue — to insist on our righteousness?        我们多么喜欢自己发出的愤慨的声音。但是,我们真的感到愤怒吗?还是说,我们只是对一个新的秩序感到兴奋不已,在这个秩序里,我们找到了一个无可比拟的发声的平台?我们真的在乎吗?还是说,我们只是通过把别人的错误抖出来作为展示自己美德——坚持自己正义的方式?
        In our cultural lives, we are willing to extend tremendous empathy. Our screen heroes are flawed: from glamorous whodunits like Big Little Lies        在我们的文化生活中,我们愿意展示巨大的同理心。我们荧屏上的角色是有缺陷的:从《大小谎言》(Big Little Lies)这样热门的悬疑剧,到《基里》(Kiri)这样严肃的社会剧,或《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)这样的扭曲幻想剧,我们对那些道德被扭曲的角色如痴如醉。我们喜欢小说中人物的性格缺陷。同样,在一对一的互动中,我们也展现出包容心:我们为自己能从不同的角度看待事物感到自豪。但是,网上的对话夺走了我们倾听的意愿。所以,我们匆忙地作出判断。
        to grim social dramas like Kiri or the fantasy perversions of Game of Thrones, we revel in characters whose morals are screwed. We love a personal flaw — in fiction. Likewise, we are compassionate in our one-to-one interactions: we pride ourselves in our ability to see things from different points of view. But the online dialogue has robbed our will to listen. So we rush to judge instead.        在最近出版的畅销书《火与怒:特朗普白宫内幕》(Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House)中,迈克尔•沃尔夫(Michael Wolff)对史蒂夫•班农(Steve Bannon)的政治策略的描述是这样的:“Breitbart的套路是,通过大放厥词让自由派惊骇不已,从而让基础选民倍感满意,由此激起人们的厌恶和喜欢来增加点击率……新的政治不是妥协的艺术,而是冲突的艺术。”
        In his recent bestseller Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House        班农的计划是制造这种愤慨的不和谐声音,这样,我们就失去了关注的焦点。这是特朗普最终胜选的战略。而普京一直在台上应该也采用了这种方法。虽然我们中的许多人可能会鄙视这些人的政治手腕,但我们都继承了同样的腔调。左派和右派都被淹没在怒骂声中。它是如此震耳欲聋,让建设性的辩论无法进行。现在,人人都充满了“火与怒”。
        , Michael Wolff describes Steve Bannon’s political strategy thus: “the Breitbart Formula was to so appal the liberals that the base was doubly satisfied, generating clicks in a ricochet of disgust and delight . . . The new politics was not the art of compromise but the art of conflict.”        我们的理性、善意、或原谅他人的意愿都去哪儿了?如此多标榜道德的批评之声开始听起来不那么真诚了。是的,有些人的态度很恶劣,但坚持每个人都认同西方民主世界形成的世界观同样也很幼稚且自以为是。我们被拖入了一场尖叫比赛中,分不清犯罪与判断力差。不是每个人都是“坏人”。我们有时候也会犯错。
        Bannon’s plan was to create such a cacophony of indignation that we would lose our focus. It’s the strategy that got Trump elected. And supposedly how Putin, too, has stayed in power. And though many of us may despise the politics of these men, we’ve all inherited that same tone. The din of disgust has absorbed both left and right. And it’s so deafening it’s blocking constructive debate. We are all full of fire and fury now.        译者/何黎
                
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