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2018年中国国防预算将增长8.1%
China boosts spending on new weapons

来源:FT中文网    2018-03-05 18:11



        China will raise its defence budget 8.1 per cent this year, a slight increase over the growth of the previous two years and an apparent effort to respond to a rise in US military spending under President Donald Trump.        今年中国国防预算将增长8.1%,略微高于前两年的国防预算增幅,此举似乎是在努力对美国在唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)总统执政下增加国防支出作出回应。
        The spending increase to Rmb1.1tn ($175bn) was announced on Monday in a budget report presented to the annual National People’s Congress in Beijing. It is the latest rise in three decades of military upgrades that have seen China become the world’s second-largest defence spender. Last year saw a 7 per cent increase.        周一,提交给在北京举行的全国人民代表大会年度会议审议的预算报告显示,中国的国防支出将增加至1.1万亿元人民币(合1750亿美元)。这是中国增加国防支出的最新举动。30年来,中国不断加强军队建设,该国已成为世界上国防支出第二大的国家。去年中国国防支出增长了7%。
        Beijing continues an ambitious plan to develop new weaponry. In January, the People’s Liberation Army announced that the J-20 fourth-generation stealth fighter had been armed and officially commissioned into China’s air force.        北京方面继续推进研发新武器的雄心勃勃的计划。2月,中国人民解放军宣布隐形的第四代战斗机“歼-20”(J-20)已经装备武器并正式进入中国空军服役。
        However, China’s military budget continues to be dwarfed by that of the US, which spends about as much on defence as the next 10 countries combined and has launched a hefty increase over the past two years — largely due to a perceived threat from China.        然而,与美国国防预算相比,中国国防预算仍然相形见绌。美国的国防支出相当于排在它之后的10个国防支出大国的国防支出总和,并且在过去两年大幅提高了国防预算——主要因为其感觉受到中国的威胁。
        Last month the White House revealed a defence budget of $686bn, a 10.7 per cent increase over the past year and its highest defence spending since 2011. The White House in December labelled China as a “strategic competitor”.Tai Ming Cheung, director of the Institute on Global Conflict and Co-operation at the University of California, San Diego, said that while the official defence budget increase was slightly higher than in the past two years, it was still below the average rise of the past couple of decades.        上月,白宫公布2019财年的国防预算为6860亿美元,同比增长10.7%,是自2011年以来国防支出最高的一年。去年12月,白宫把中国列为“战略竞争对手”。加州大学圣迭戈分校(University of California in San Diego)全球冲突与合作研究所(Institute on Global Conflict & Co-operation)所长张太铭(Tai Ming Cheung)表示,尽管中国官方设定的这一国防预算增幅略高于过去两年的水平,但它仍然低于过去二三十年的平均增幅数字。
        However, he said that it did not include new sources of finance for defence enterprises, including using private capital markets. If this were included, “the increases in defence spending will probably be significantly higher than the officially published level”, he said.        不过他表示,这不包括国防企业新的资金来源,包括利用私人资本市场。他说,如果算上这些的话,“国防支出增长可能会明显高于官方公布的水平”。
        Experts estimate actual spending by China may be anywhere from 40-55 per cent more than the stated defence budget because it does not include the costs of high-tech weapons imports, research and development, pensions and maintenance of nuclear forces.        专家估计,中国实际的国防支出可能比宣布的国防预算高出40%至55%,因为预算没有包括高科技武器进口、研发、退休金和核武器维护的成本。
        Zhang Yesui, a spokesman for the National Peoples Congress, on Sunday said that defence budget increases were mainly “to make up for past shortfalls and used to upgrade equipment and improve the welfare of servicemen and women and to improve training and living conditions for troops at the grassroots level”.        全国人大发言人张业遂上周日表示:“中国适度加大国防投入,其中相当一部分是为了弥补过去投入的不足,主要用于更新武装装备、改善军人的生活待遇和基层部队训练生活条件。”
        “If we take a look at the share of China’s defence budget in China’s GDP or national fiscal spending and in per capita terms, China’s defence input is still smaller than most developing countries,” he said.        他说:“无论从国防预算占国内生产总值、国家财政支出的比重看,还是从人均数额看,中国的国防投入水平都低于世界主要国家。”
        China pegs defence spending fairly reliably at 1.3 per cent of GDP. However, including off-budget costs, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute puts this at 1.9 per cent for 2016.        中国国防支出占国内生产总值(GDP)的比例多年来相当稳定地处于1.3%的水平。然而,计入预算外支出后,瑞典斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所(Stockholm International Peace Research Institute,简称SIPRI)计算出2016年中国国防支出占GDP的比例为1.9%。
        That is still far lower than highly-militarised countries such as Israel and Saudi Arabia and even the US, which spent 3.3 per cent of its GDP on the military in 2016, according to Sipri.        SIPRI的数据显示,这一比例仍远低于以色列和沙特阿拉伯等高度军事化的国家,甚至也远低于美国,后者2016年国防支出占GDP的比例为3.3%。
        Additional reporting by Katrina Manson        卡特里娜•曼森(Katrina Manson)补充报道
                
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