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澳大利亚与东帝汶重新划定海上边界
Australia-East Timor treaty unlocks $40bn oil and gas field

来源:FT中文网    2018-03-07 18:26



        Australia and East Timor have signed a treaty redrawing their maritime boundary, ending a decade-long dispute between the countries and unlocking tens of billions of dollars in oil and gas reserves in the Timor Sea.        澳大利亚同东帝汶签署了一项重新划定两国海上边界的条约,结束了两国间长达10年的争端,并在帝汶海(Timor Sea)“解锁”了价值数百亿美元的石油和天然气储量。
        The treaty signing in New York marked the first conciliation under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea — a process officials hope could offer other countries a path towards resolving contentious maritime boundary disputes.        这项在纽约签署的条约,是依照《联合国海洋法公约》(UNCLOS)达成的首个和解。官员们希望,这一进展可为其他国家解决剑拔弩张的海上边界争端提供一条路径。
        “The treaty is a historic agreement that opens a new chapter in our bilateral relationship,” said Julie Bishop, Australia’s foreign minister. “It establishes permanent maritime boundaries between our countries and provides for the joint development and management of the Greater Sunrise gasfields.”        “该条约是一项历史性的协议,为我们的双边关系开启了新篇章。”澳大利亚外长朱莉•毕晓普(Julie Bishop)说,“它为两国确立了永久的海上边界,为联合开发和管理巨日升气田(Greater Sunrise gasfields)创造了条件。”
        The deal is a coup for East Timor, one of the world’s most impoverished countries. Dili has fought a lengthy legal battle to scrap a 2006 maritime deal with Canberra, which it argued did not give it a fair share of revenues linked to the development of the Greater Sunrise oil and gas field in the Timor Sea.        东帝汶是世界上最贫穷的国家之一。对该国而言,该条约能达成是一个意外的巨大成功。为了废除2006年与堪培拉方面达成的一项海上协议,东帝汶打了一场旷日持久的官司。东帝汶政府认为,该国依照该协议从帝汶海巨日升油气田开发中拿到的收入分成并不公平。
        A joint venture between Woodside, ConocoPhillips, Royal Dutch Shell and Osaka Gas holds commercial rights over the Greater Sunrise project, which is estimated to have oil and gas reserves worth up to $40bn. In an unusual move, the commercial partners were involved in the recent maritime boundary negotiations between the two parties, highlighting the field’s importance to East Timor’s economy.        伍德赛德(Woodside)、康菲石油(ConocoPhillips)、荷兰皇家壳牌(Royal Dutch Shell)和大阪天然气集团(Osaka Gas)共建的一家合资企业在巨日升项目中拥有商业权益。该项目估计拥有价值最高达400亿美元的油气储量。不同寻常的是,这几家商业合作伙伴参与了近期东澳两国间的海上边界谈判,这凸显出巨日升气田对东帝汶经济的重要性。
        “Greater Sunrise has always been the prize in these negotiations and the bottom line is that under this new agreement East Timor would get more oil and gas money,” said Donald Rothwell, professor of law at Australian National University.        “巨日升一直是这些谈判中的争夺目标,而最终结果是,依照这项新协议,东帝汶将获得更多石油和天然气收入,”澳大利亚国立大学(Australian National University)法学教授唐纳德•罗思韦尔(Donald Rothwell)说。
        Under the terms of the deal, East Timor will get either a 70 or 80 per cent share of revenues flowing from the gasfields, depending on how they are developed by the joint venture partners. This compares with an equal share under the 2006 maritime agreement signed between Dili and Canberra.        依据协议条款,该气田所产生收入的70%或80%将分给东帝汶,具体比例取决于上述合资伙伴如何开发该气田。而依据东澳两国2006年签署的那项海上协议,东帝汶获得的收入分成是50%。
        East Timor later opposed the 2006 treaty and took legal action against Australia in the International Court of Justice in The Hague. It alleged that under the cover of an international aid programme, Australia bugged its cabinet office in 2004 to obtain commercial advantage in negotiations for the deal, which was struck when the country was still recovering from violence sparked by its 1999 vote for independence.        东帝汶后来对2006年的协议表示反对,并把澳大利亚告上了海牙的国际法院(International Court of Justice)。东帝汶声称,澳大利亚在一项国际援助计划的掩护下,于2004年对东帝汶内阁办公室实施了窃听,以在达成那项协议的谈判中获得商业优势。那项协议达成时,东帝汶尚未从1999年独立公投引发的暴力活动中恢复过来。
        The maritime dispute threatened East Timor’s fragile economy, as revenues from its sole operational gasfield, Bayu-Undan, are set to dry up in the early 2020s. The legal action in The Hague also embarrassed Canberra — one of the biggest overseas aid donors to Dili — which has called on Beijing to follow the rule of law in its activities in the contested waters of the South China Sea.        这一海上边界争端对东帝汶脆弱的经济构成了威胁,因为该国唯一运营中的巴宇-温丹气田(Bayu-Undan gasfield)产生的收入将在2020年代初枯竭。在海牙打的那宗官司也令澳大利亚(澳是向东帝汶提供援助最多的国之一)感到尴尬,澳曾呼吁北京方面在南中国海(South China Sea)争议水域活动时遵循法治。
        “The agreement is a testament to the way in which international law, in particular Unclos, reinforces stability and allows countries to resolve disputes peacefully. It is an example of the international rules-based order in action,” said Ms Bishop.        “该协议证明了,国际法、尤其是《联合国海洋法公约》是如何增进稳定、让各国能够和平解决争端的。这是一个证明基于规则的国际秩序在运转的例子,”毕晓普说。
        Agio Pereira, East Timor’s minister, said the treaty was a landmark for his country and the friendship between Australia and East Timor.        东帝汶国务部长阿吉奥•佩雷拉(Agio Pereira)表示,该条约对东帝汶以及东澳友谊来说是一个里程碑。
        Prof Rothwell said a potential threat posed to the new agreement would be Indonesia’s reaction. “There could be an issue if Indonesia decides it can also revisit the boundaries it negotiated in the 1970s,” he said.        罗思韦尔教授表示,新协议面临的一个潜在威胁是印度尼西亚的反应。他说:“如果印尼认定它也可以重新讨论1970年代它谈妥的边界,就可能会出现问题。”
                
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