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为何美国企业反对特朗普对华贸易政策?
Looming China Trade Action Divides Industry and Roils Markets

来源:纽约时报    2018-04-03 05:04



        WASHINGTON — President Trump’s promise to take tough action against China’s unfair economic practices was one of his most popular campaign ideas. But as the United States prepares stiff trade measures and China retaliates, stock markets have plummeted and some of America’s biggest companies are pushing back.        华盛顿——特朗普总统承诺对中国不公平的经济做法采取强硬行动,是他最受欢迎的竞选理念之一。但随着美国准备采取严格的贸易措施和中国随之进行报复,股市暴跌,一些美国大企业也在要求美国后退。
        Industry giants like General Electric and Goldman Sachs, as well as agricultural firms, have lodged objections with the White House, saying that tariffs on both sides of the Pacific and limitations on investments will cut off American companies from the world’s most lucrative and rapidly growing market.        通用电气(General Electric)和高盛(Goldman Sachs)等行业巨头以及一些农业公司向白宫提出了反对意见,称太平洋两岸的关税和投资限制会导致美国无缘于世界上最赚钱、增长最快的市场。
        China imposed tariffs on Monday on more than 100 American products, including pork, fruit, recycled aluminum and steel pipes. Fears of an incipient trade war between the world’s two largest economies sent the Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index tumbling 2.23 percent and pushed markets into correction territory. Technology stocks bore the brunt of the slump, as a recent spate of bad news about tech firms like Facebook, Tesla and Amazon spooked investors.        中国周一宣布对100多种美国产品加征关税,包括猪肉、水果、回收铝和钢管。对全球两个最大经济体之间尚处于初期的贸易战的担忧,导致标准普尔500股指暴跌2.23%,市场进入回调区间。科技股在这一轮下跌中首当其冲,因为Facebook、特斯拉(Tesla)和亚马逊(Amazon)等科技公司最近爆出的坏消息让投资者陷入了恐慌,
        China’s action could be an escalation in a much broader trade dispute. The announcement was a direct response to the Trump administration’s tariffs on imports of steel and aluminum, which were directed at a range of countries, including China.        在一场范围更广的贸易争端中,中国的行动可能会升级。前述公告是对特朗普政府征收钢铝关税的直接回应。这些关税针对的是一系列国家,中国只是其中之一。
        Since then, the White House has announced another trade measure targeted specifically at China that would place tariffs on at least $50 billion worth of products imported to the United States and would restrict investment flows between the two economic giants. This week, the Trump administration is expected to announce a list of Chinese imports subject to tariffs, which could include high-tech products like semiconductors as well as cheap electronics and other goods that many Americans buy.        自那以后,白宫宣布了另一项明确针对中国的贸易措施,将对进口到美国的至少价值500亿美元(约合3100亿元人民币)的产品征收关税,并限制两个经济大国之间的投资流动。本周,特朗普政府预计会公布将被征收关税的中国进口商品清单,可能包括半导体等高科技产品,以及廉价电子产品和其他一些很多美国人会买的商品。
        Josh Kallmer, the senior vice president of global policy at the Information Technology Industry Council, which advocates for companies like Google, Facebook, Apple, Microsoft and IBM, said his group had been largely supportive of the administration’s targeting of China’s unfair trade practices. But the group had made it clear to the White House that it would not be pleased with any measure that had tariffs “as the primary or even a significant remedy.”        信息技术产业协会(Information Technology Industry Council)负责全球政策的高级副总裁乔希·卡尔默(Josh Kallmer)表示,该协会基本上支持特朗普政府打击中国不公平贸易行为的政策。但该组织已向白宫明确表示,它会对任何将关税“作为主要甚至是重要解决方案”的措施感到不满。该协会支持谷歌(Google)、Facebook、苹果(Apple)、微软(Microsoft)和IBM等公司。
        “The reason is that it would be a tax on consumers,” Mr. Kallmer said, “precisely the people we are trying to support.”        “原因是它将转化为对消费者征税,”卡尔默说,“而且主要是我们努力支持的那些消费者。”
        Many of the trade measures that Mr. Trump has proposed, including the steel and aluminum tariffs, have divided his own advisers, the business community and the Republican Party. But the White House has boasted that its targeting of China’s trade practices has broad support from industries on the losing end of the Chinese approach.        特朗普提出的许多贸易措施,包括钢铝关税,导致他自己的顾问、商界和共和党出现分裂。但白宫曾吹嘘称,它针对中国贸易行为采取的措施得到了因中国的行为而遭受损失的行业的广泛支持。
        That theory could make it more difficult for American companies to operate in a country that already puts up steep barriers.        这种理论可能会导致美国公司更难在中国这个已经设立过高壁垒的国家运营。
        American companies and business groups have frequently complained that China blocks off valuable markets from American competition, including technology, media and finance, and that it does so in violation of commitments it made when it joined the World Trade Organization in 2001. China has imposed regulations that require American companies to share their technology with Chinese partners, for example, mandating that foreign companies operate through joint ventures if they want access to Chinese consumers. At times, the Chinese have resorted to stealing vital technologies through cyberwarfare, according to United States authorities.        美国的企业和商业团体经常抱怨中国阻止美国进入科技、媒体和金融等有价值的市场参与竞争,他们称中国这样做违反了2001年加入世界贸易组织(World Trade Organization)时做出的承诺。中国强行规定,美国公司必须与中国合作伙伴分享技术,例如,如果外国公司想获得中国消费者,就必须通过合资企业进行经营。美国当局还表示,中国有时会通过网络战窃取关键技术。
        Late last month, the White House said it would crack down on that behavior, outlining a series of actions aimed at punishing China for its trade barriers.        上个月底,白宫表示,它将严厉打击这种行为,还列出了一系列旨在惩罚中国贸易壁垒的措施。
        As Mr. Trump advances a series of tough trade measures to confront these behaviors, however, cracks have appeared in American industry’s seemingly united front.        但是,在特朗普提出了一系列应对这些行为的强硬贸易措施之后,美国产业看似统一的战线出现了裂痕。
        Companies in technology, investment and other industries now say that the measures the administration is taking to help them may actually end up doing irreparable harm to supply chains they have built up over decades. Any American company that wants to be a global player cannot afford to lose access to China’s growing market, executives say.        科技和投资等行业的公司现在表示,政府正在采取的措施旨在帮助它们,但最终可能会对它们几十年来建立起来的供应链造成无法弥补的损害。高管们表示,一旦失去进入中国日益增长的市场这个机会,任何想要成为全球玩家的美国公司都无法承受这样的损失。
        Technology companies argue that the restrictive measures the administration is taking to help protect them could end up penalizing American manufacturing, raising costs and making their firms less competitive globally. And industries most vulnerable to retaliation, like agriculture, are protesting about losing valuable export opportunities. While the Chinese did not target soybeans in their initial tariffs list, many in the soybean industry worry they will ultimately be penalized in a trade dispute given China’s importance as a market for exports.        科技公司主张,政府为了保护他们而采取的限制性措施最终可能会令美国制造业遭到惩罚,抬高成本,减弱公司的全球竞争力。而像农业这样受报复行为影响最大的行业,正因失去宝贵的出口机会而进行抗议。虽然中国并未把大豆列入初始的关税清单,但大豆行业里许多人担心,鉴于中国是重要出口市场,该行业终究会在贸易纠纷中受到惩罚。
        The 25 percent tariff on pork that China imposed Monday is expected to be particularly harmful, including in regions that supported the president, like Iowa, North Carolina and Indiana. Last year, American farmers sent more than a billion dollars’ worth of pork to China, their largest export market by value after Japan and Mexico.        周一中国对猪肉加征的25%的关税预计将带来尤其恶劣的影响,它涉及一些支持过总统的地区,如艾奥瓦州、北卡罗来纳州和印第安那州。去年,美国农民向中国输送了价值超过十亿美元的猪肉,按价值来算,中国是位列日本和墨西哥之后美国最大的出口市场。
        “Because we’re so blessed to have America feed the world, we’re also the first industry to get slammed whenever there are trade difficulties between the U.S. and other countries,” Denise Bode, the coordinator for the American Fruit and Vegetable Processors and Growers Coalition.        “因为我们如此幸运,美国在喂养世界,所以每当美国与其他国家产生什么贸易问题,我们也会是第一个受打击的行业,”美国果蔬处理者与种植者联盟(American Fruit and Vegetable Processors and Growers Coalition)的主管丹尼斯·博德(Denise Bode)说。
        “American farmers appear to be the first casualties of an escalating trade war,” said Max Baucus, a former senator from Montana and a chairman of a group called Farmers for Free Trade. “With farm incomes already declining, farmers rely on export markets to stay above water. These new tariffs are a drag on their ability to make ends meet.”        “在不断恶化的贸易战中,美国农民首当其冲,”前蒙大拿州参议员、农场主支持自由贸易(Farmers for Free Trade)团体的主席马克斯·鲍卡斯(Max Baucus)说。“农场收入已经下降,农民依赖出口市场才能勉强应付。这些新征关税拖累了农民维持生计的能力。”
        Since Mr. Trump announced the China measures on March 22, American officials, including Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin and the United States trade representative, Robert Lighthizer, have been in talks with the Chinese about ways to resolve their differences. The sides have discussed concessions like reducing China’s tariffs on American cars, opening up its market for financial services and purchasing more semiconductors or natural gas, people familiar with the talks said.        自特朗普3月22日宣布对华措施以来,包括财政部部长史蒂文·努钦(Steven Mnuchin)以及美国贸易代表罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)在内的美国官员一直在与中国人就如何解决双方分歧进行谈判。谈判知情者称,双方讨论了如减少中国对美国汽车征收的关税、开放金融服务市场、购买更多半导体或天然气等让步措施。
        However, analysts and companies involved in China said that these measures appeared unlikely to adequately resolve American concerns about China’s longstanding encroachment on American intellectual property.        然而,分析人士和涉及中国的企业表示,这些措施似乎不足以解决美国对中国长期侵犯其知识产权的担忧。
        Companies are waiting anxiously for the administration to release a list of Chinese products this week that will be subject to tariffs — most likely the kind of high-tech products that the administration has accused China of targeting. The retail industry, which lobbied the administration and Congress against an early plan to impose tariffs on Chinese-made apparel and footwear, is now cautiously optimistic that its products will be exempt.        企业焦虑地等待着政府在本周公布对中国产品的征税清单——很可能是政府谴责中国盯上的那类高科技产品。为反对向中国制造的服装和鞋履加征关税的早期计划,零售业曾向政府和国会进行游说,目前它保持着谨慎乐观的态度,希望自己的产品或能幸免。
        Restrictions on Chinese investment are expected to follow in the coming weeks. Administration officials have said those rules will aim to restore reciprocity with the Chinese, though it is not clear if the United States will go so far as to bar Chinese companies from investing in the same industries that China restricts. The White House is also considering the use of an emergency economy powers act that could allow it to restrict Chinese investments.        预计未来几周内还将会对中国的投资加以限制。政府官员表示,这些规定将旨在修复与中国的互惠关系,尽管目前尚不清楚美国是否甚至会阻止中国企业对美国受中国限制的同类行业进行投资。白宫也在考虑动用紧急状态经济权力法,以允许它对中国的投资设限。
        The measures come on top of proposed legislation in Congress to expand the authority of the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, which reviews foreign deals for national security concerns. Last month, the committee took the unprecedented step of stalling a hostile takeover of Qualcomm, a California-based chip maker, by a Singapore-based firm, largely over concerns about ceding semiconductor prowess to China.        在国会为扩大美国外国投资委员会(Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States)的权力所作提议的立法之中,这些措施位居首位,该委员会负责审查外国交易是否涉及国家安全问题。上个月,该委员会采取了前所未有的措施,阻止了一家总部位于新加坡的公司对加利福尼亚州的芯片制造商高通(Qualcomm)进行恶意并购,主要是担心该公司会向中国交出半导体技术。
        GE and IBM, which operate through joint ventures and other partnerships in China and around the world, have both lobbied against the expansion of Cfius over concerns that restrictions on joint ventures with foreign companies that include the transfer of valuable skills or technology could weaken the position of American companies abroad.        通过合资企业以及其他合作方式在中国及世界各地运营的通用电气公司和IBM都进行了游说,反对扩大美国外国投资委员会的权力,担心对外国公司合资企业的限制,包括重要技术或科技的转让,可能会削弱美国企业在国外的地位。
        Financial firms, including Goldman Sachs and the Carlyle Group, have also expressed concern about investment restrictions, saying they could provide a drag on the United States economy.        包括高盛和凯雷集团(Carlyle Group)在内的金融公司对投资限制也表示担忧,称这有可能拖累美国经济。
        White House advisers, in turn, have complained that previous approaches to dealing with China have not worked, and that companies are overreacting to legitimate trade measures.        然而白宫顾问则抱怨说,之前用来解决中国问题的措施都没有奏效,而且企业对合理的贸易措施反应过激了。
        Speaking Monday on CNBC, the White House trade adviser, Peter Navarro, defended the administration’s tough actions on China and said investors should not fear a trade war.        白宫贸易顾问彼得·纳瓦罗(Peter Navarro)周一在CNBC电视台上为政府对中国施行的强硬措施辩护,表示投资者不应担心贸易战。
        “Everybody needs to relax,” Mr. Navarro said. “The economy is as strong as an ox.”        “大家要放轻松,”纳瓦罗说。“现在的经济像公牛一样强劲。”
                
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