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来源:中国日报    2018-04-06 10:10

        A little-known not-for-profit group sued some 90 coffee retailers, including Starbucks, on grounds they were violating a California law requiring companies to warn consumers of chemicals in their products that could cause cancer.        一个没什么知名度的非营利组织起诉了包括星巴克在内的90多家咖啡商,理由是他们违反了加州要求企业警告顾客其商品中包含致癌物质的法律。
        Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Elihu Berle said in a decision dated Wednesday that Starbucks and other companies had failed to show there was no significant risk from a carcinogen produced in the coffee roasting process, court documents showed.        根据法庭文件,洛杉矶高等法院法官Elihu Berle周三在一项判决结果中表示,星巴克及其他咖啡公司没能证明在咖啡豆烘焙过程中产生的致癌物质不会有大风险。
        Studies have previously found that in large quantities, acrylamide can increase the risk of cancer in some animals. It's among the chemicals California lists as "known to cause cancer".        此前有研究表明,大量丙烯酰胺会导致某些动物患癌的风险提高。该物质也在加州化学物质名单上,被列为“已知致癌物质”。
        The Council for Education and Research on Toxics filed a suit in 2010 that claims Starbucks and other coffee sellers violate state law by failing “to provide clear and reasonable warning” of a known carcinogen.        2010年,有毒物质教育研究理事会状告星巴克和其他咖啡商家,称他们违反了加州法律,对已知致癌物不能“提供清楚合理的警告”。
        65号提案        Proposition 65
        Proposition 65 requires businesses to notify Californians about significant amounts of chemicals in the products they purchase, in their homes or workplaces, or that are released into the environment. By providing this information, Proposition 65 enables Californians to make informed decisions about protecting themselves from exposure to these chemicals.        65号提案要求商家告知加州居民他们购买的东西,家中、工作场所,或环境中所含的大量化学物质。通过提供此类信息,65号提案让加州居民在是否要让自己接触化学物质方面做知情决定。
        Several defendants in the case settled before Wednesday’s decision, agreeing to post signage about the cancer-linked chemical and pay millions in fines, according to published reports.        该案中数名被告在周三判决前,就同意张贴致癌物质提示标识,支付百万罚金。
        The industry is currently considering all of its options, including potential appeals and further legal actions. Cancer warning labels on coffee would be misleading.        整个咖啡行业目前正在考虑各项应对,包括继续提出上诉及采取进一步的法律行动。在咖啡产品上贴上致癌警告标签将会是一个误导消费者的行为。
        The US government's own Dietary Guidelines state that coffee can be part of a healthy lifestyle. The World Health Organization (WHO) has said that coffee does not cause cancer. Study after study has provided evidence of the health benefits of drinking coffee, including longevity — coffee drinkers live longer.        美国政府发布的营养指南中指出,咖啡是健康生活方式的一部分。世界卫生组织也明确指出咖啡不会致癌。许多学术研究都已经证明了饮用咖啡对健康的益处,并且咖啡饮用者通常更长寿。
        The chemical acrylamide is a white, odourless, crystal compound. It has the chemical formula C3H5NO.        丙烯酰胺是一种无味的白色晶体化学物质。化学式是C3H5NO。
        Acrylamide is created when starchy foods are roasted, grilled or fried for long periods at high temperatures.        淀粉类食物在高温下长时间被烘烤、烧烤、煎炸时,就会产生丙烯酰胺。
        Scientists believe the acrylamide in food is a product of the Maillard reaction. This reaction occurs when sugars and amino acids are heated above 120° C.        科学家认为丙烯酰胺是食物发生美拉德反应时的产物。美拉德反应是指糖和氨基酸加热到120摄氏度以上时发生的反应。
        Day-to-day we are exposed to acrylamide through smoking and secondhand smoke, as well as personal care products and household items.        日常生活中,我们通过吸烟和吸二手烟接触到丙烯酰胺,此外,还会通过个人护理品和家用产品接触到这种物质。
        But the thing is, the dose makes the poison.        关键是,剂量决定毒性。
        The devil is in the dose.        剂量才是恶魔。
        Workplace exposure to very high doses of acrylamide can cause nerve damage and disorders of the nervous system.        工作环境接触大量丙烯酰胺会损害神经,导致神经系统紊乱。
        However, the doses given to animals have been 1000–100,000 times larger than the amounts humans are exposed to through diet.        不过,实验中动物摄入的剂量是人类饮食中接触的剂量的1000到10万倍。
        They found instant coffee to have 100% more acrylamide than fresh roasted coffee, while coffee substitutes had 300% more.        速溶咖啡中的丙烯酰胺含量是新鲜烘焙咖啡的2倍,而咖啡替代品的丙烯酰胺含量则是其3倍。
        While a link between acrylamide intake and cancer in humans hasn't been proven, it cannot be ruled out.        虽然还没有确切证据证明丙烯酰胺和人类患癌之间有联系,但这一可能也不能完全排除。
        Coffee drinking has not been shown to increase your risk of cancer. In fact, it's linked with a reduced risk of developing some types of cancers.        没有迹象显示喝咖啡会增加患癌风险。事实上,有研究认为咖啡还会降低罹患某些癌症的风险。
        In 2016, the cancer agency of the World Health Organization moved coffee off its "possible carcinogen" list.        2016年,世界卫生组织下属国际癌症研究机构将咖啡从“可能致癌物”名单中移除。
        ☞ Quit smoking and try to minimize your exposure to secondhand smoke.        戒烟,尽量减少暴露在二手烟环境中;
        ☞ Keep frying to a minimum, as it produces the most acrylamide of all cooking methods.        尽量少吃油炸食品,所有烹饪方法中,煎炸产生最多的丙烯酰胺;
        ☞ Try not to burn or char foods on the grill.        尽量别把食物烤焦了。
        ☞ Toast bread to a light brown color and avoid burnt toast.        烤面包使烤至浅棕色即可,别吃烤焦的面包;
        ☞ Boil or use the microwave when possible.        可能的话多用煮和微波炉处理食物;
        ☞ Choose fresh roasted coffee and avoid instant coffee and coffee alternatives.        选择咖啡豆,避免喝速溶咖啡和咖啡替代品。

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