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美国公布对华关税清单,瞄准尖端技术产品
White House Outlines Hundreds of Chinese Products Subject to Tariffs

来源:纽约时报    2018-04-04 02:44



        WASHINGTON — The Trump administration said Tuesday that it will place a 25 percent tariff on electronic touch screens, iron and steel plates, medical devices, aircraft parts, batteries and other Chinese products, outlining more than 1,000 imported goods that will soon face tariffs as part of a sweeping trade measure aimed at penalizing China for its trade practices.        华盛顿——特朗普政府周二表示,将对电子触摸屏、钢铁板材、医疗器械、飞机零部件、电池以及其他中国产品征收25%的关税。作为大规模贸易措施的一部分,政府拟定的1000多项进口商品都即将被征收关税,旨在惩罚中国的贸易行为。
        The move, which stems from a White House investigation into China’s use of pressure, intimidation and theft to obtain American technologies, is likely to inflame an already-simmering trade war between the countries. On Monday, China said it would slap tariffs on 128 American products in response to a separate White House plan to tax steel and aluminum imports from China and other countries.
        该行动缘起于白宫就中国利用压力、恐吓及盗窃手段获取美国技术展开的调查,很可能点燃两国之间蓄势已久的贸易战。周一,中国表示将对128项美国产品征收关税,以应对白宫另一项对进口自中国和其他国家的钢铝产品征税的计划。
        The products targeted by the White House are part of its plan to go after China’s dominance in cutting-edge technologies like semiconductors, electric vehicles and advanced medical products — industries that China is pursuing dominance in as part of an industrial plan known as “Made in China 2025.”        白宫瞄准的这些产品符合它希望在中国占据主导的尖端技术领域内取胜的计划,如半导体、电动汽车和先进医疗产品。在一个被称为《中国制造2025》的工业计划下,中国正在这些行业里寻求着主导地位。
        The Trump administration said that trade analysts from multiple government agencies had identified products that benefit from these policies but had refined the list to remove goods that were likely to cause disruptions to the United States economy or consumers, or be subject to legal constraints. The list of products concentrated heavily on machinery and high-tech components, and largely excluded the kind of Chinese-made finished consumer products available for sale at Target or Walmart. The United States is levying tariffs on a total of $50 billion worth of Chinese products each year.        特朗普政府表示,来自多个政府机构的贸易分析师已经确定了哪些产品会在这些政策中受益,但也对清单进行了修订,移除了有可能对美国经济或消费者造成干扰,或受法律约束的产品。产品清单主要集中于机械和高科技零部件,基本排除了可直接在塔吉特(Target)或沃尔玛(Walmart)出售的中国制造消费品成品。征税涉及美国每年进口总值达500亿美元的中国商品。
        The list’s publication will be followed by a notice and comment period in which American companies can advise the Trump administration on the product choices. Companies will need to submit written comments by May 11, and a public hearing on the submissions on will be held May 15 in Washington.        清单公布后会有一个通知和评论期,美国公司可以在此期间内就产品的选择向特朗普政府提出建议。公司需在5月11日前递交书面意见,公开听证会将于5月15日在华盛顿举行。
        While many American companies say they are unfairly treated in China, they have rued the possibility of a trade war between the world’s two largest economies, and the economic harm it could cause, and have begun pushing back against the White House’s plans. China remains a key and growing market for companies like John Deere and Apple, as well as for soybean farmers and growers of other agricultural products.        虽然许多美国公司表示他们在中国受到了不公平待遇,但面对世界最大两个经济体之间可能发生的贸易战以及可能会带来的经济后果,他们后悔了,开始反对白宫的计划。对于约翰迪尔(John Deere)和苹果(Apple)这样的公司,以及大豆和其他农作物的种植者来说,中国依然一个是重要且在不断增长的市场。
        Financial markets fell sharply on Monday as China imposed its own retaliatory tariffs on American products but regained most of their lost territory on Tuesday.        周一,中国对美国产品实施了报复性关税,金融市场大幅下跌,但周二已经收回了大部分失地。
        President Trump, who has repeatedly promised tough action on China’s trade practices, said Tuesday that he intended to get along with China but that its unfair trade behavior had gone on too long. “It’s not something we can live with,” Mr. Trump said at the White House, adding, “I campaigned on that.”        多次承诺将对中国贸易行为采取强硬行动的特朗普周二表示,他本打算和中国和睦相处,但中国不公平的贸易行为已经持续太久。“这不是我们可以忍受的,”特朗普在白宫说,并补充道,“这是我的竞选承诺。”
        Trump advisers have criticized past administrations for allowing China to receive the benefits of global trade while continuing to break the international trade rules imposed by organizations like the World Trade Organization — a charge China denies.        特朗普的顾问批评过去几届政府允许中国在打破世贸组织(World Trade Organization)等组织实行的国际贸易规则的同时,从全球贸易中受惠——中国对这项指控予以否认。
        But the administration has struggled to persuade its critics that the kind of tough trade measures Mr. Trump favors can alter China’s behavior without tipping the world into a trade war and ultimately harming American workers and consumers. In addition to the tariffs, the White House is preparing to restrict Chinese investment in American technology and innovation.        但政府正在努力说服这些批评者,特朗普所支持的这种强硬贸易措施可以改变中国的行为,也不会让世界陷入贸易战并最终伤及美国的工人或消费者。除了关税,白宫还准备限制中国对美国科技和创新的投资。
        “The administration is rightly focused on restoring equity and fairness in our trade relationship with China,” said Myron Brilliant, an executive vice president and the head of international affairs at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. “However, imposing taxes on products used daily by American consumers and job creators is not the way to achieve those ends.”        “政府致力于恢复我们与中国的贸易关系中的公平与公正,这无可厚非,”美国全国商会(U.S. Chamber of Commerce)高级副会长兼国际事务主管薄迈伦(Myron Brilliant)说,“但是,对美国消费者和工作岗位创造者每天使用的产品征税,并不是实现这个目标的正确途径。”
        Scott Kennedy, a China expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, said the Trump administration’s approach is drastically different from those of past administrations, which tried to reach agreement on trade practices with the Chinese through coordinated dialogues.        国际战略研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)的中国问题专家甘思德(Scott Kennedy)表示,特朗普政府的做法与过去几届政府截然不同,后者试图通过协商对话与中方就贸易行为达成协议。
        The Trump White House, in contrast, is trying to totally reset the relationship through aggression, Mr. Kennedy said. “They see this as a game of chicken.”        甘思德表示,相比之下,特朗普领导的白宫正试图通过敌对彻底重置两国的关系。“他们把这看成一场懦夫博弈。”
        The Coalition for a Prosperous America, an organization that has supported the president’s trade agenda, called the China action a shift from “naïve” to “strategic” trade. “The age of appeasement must end,” said Paola Masman, the group’s media director.        支持总统贸易议程的组织“繁荣美国联盟”(The Coalition for a Prosperous America)表示,针对中国的行动是从“幼稚”贸易转变为“战略性”贸易。“绥靖时代必须结束,”该组织的媒体主管葆拉·马斯曼(Paola Masman)说。
        But the administration’s trade measures are prompting concern among many American companies, who are wary of Beijing’s response. Chinese officials have already promised to erect trade barriers in response to the United States’ moves.        但特朗普政府的贸易措施导致许多美国企业对中国政府可能做出的反应感到担忧。中国官员已经表示,将设置贸易壁垒,回应美国的行动。
        “We will certainly take countermeasures of the same proportion and of the same scale, same intensity,” Cui Tiankai, the Chinese ambassador to the United States, said in an interview posted Monday on the Chinese news site CGTN America. He added that China had been strengthening its protection of intellectual property and was prepared to review any cases in accordance with its laws.        “我们势必会以同样的规模、同样的金额和同样的强度进行回击,”中国驻美国大使崔天凯在接受采访时表示。采访内容周一发布在中国新闻网站中国环球电视网北美分台(CGTN America)上。他还表示,中国一直在加强对知识产权的保护,准备根据自己的法律审查所有案件。
        It remains to be seen what additional levies China might add in response to new American tariffs.        为了回应美国的新关税,中国可能会增加什么关税,仍需拭目以待。
        Analysts said the Chinese government had designed its tariffs to hurt regions of the United States that supported Mr. Trump — a bid to encourage the president’s supporters to put pressure on him to change his policies. In an analysis, Mark Muro, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, found that tariffs on products like fruit, nuts, pork and steel pipes would fall disproportionately on counties that supported Mr. Trump.        分析人士表示,中国政府对关税的设计意在损害支持特朗普的美国地区,以刺激总统的支持者向他施压,迫使他改变政策。布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)的高级研究员马克·穆罗(Mark Muro)在一份分析报告中发现,水果、坚果、猪肉和钢管等被征税产品有相当多一部分来自支持特朗普的县。
        Farming communities, one of the country’s largest exporters and a solid base for Mr. Trump, are among the most vulnerable. Chinese tariffs of 25 percent will particularly hurt American pork farmers, who sent more than $1 billion worth of products to China last year.        农业社区是美国最大的出口者之一,也是特朗普的坚实选民基础,这个群体格外易受打击。中国的25%关税对美国猪肉供应商的打击会特别大,去年他们向中国出口了价值超过10亿美元的产品。
        Senator Joni Ernst, Republican of Iowa, said American farmers were already struggling to make ends meet. “Increasing tariffs on exports will harm Iowa producers and undermine the rural economy,” Ms. Ernst said. “It’s my hope that we can pursue policies that enhance our competitiveness, rather than reduce our access to foreign markets.”        艾奥瓦州共和党参议员约尼·厄恩斯特(Joni Ernst)表示,美国农民已经是在勉力支撑。“关税升高将伤害艾奥瓦州的生产者,损害农村经济,”厄恩斯特说,“我希望我们能推行提高竞争力的政策,而不是减少我们进入外国市场的机会。”
        The announcement came as the president ramped up threats about withdrawing from the North American Free Trade Agreement and sending troops to the southwestern border to combat illegal immigrants traveling through Mexico.        厄恩斯特之所以发表这样的言论,是因为特朗普总统进一步威胁退出《北美自由贸易协定》(North American Free Trade Agreement),并且派军队前往西南边境,以打击穿越墨西哥的非法移民。
        While White House advisers have been pushing for a timely conclusion to the ongoing talks over Nafta, Mr. Trump continues to threaten to withdraw from the pact. On Tuesday, he called it a “horrible, horrible, embarrassing deal for the United States.”        白宫顾问敦促尽快结束就《北美自由贸易协定》展开的旷日持久的谈判,同时特朗普继续威胁退出该协定。周二,他称该协定“对美国来说,是一个十分可怕而丢脸的交易”。
                
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