撕裂的生活:朝鲜狱卒、富商和艺术家的脱北故事_OK阅读网
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撕裂的生活:朝鲜狱卒、富商和艺术家的脱北故事
Telling the Stories of Defectors From North Korea

来源:纽约时报    2018-04-03 02:57



        The life of a North Korean defector is brutally carved into two parts: before and after. Those who escape exchange their country’s near-total isolation for the headiness of freedom. But in the process, their history is erased.        朝鲜脱北者的生活被无情地撕裂为两个部分:叛逃前和叛逃后。脱北者们失去的是自己国家近乎完全的孤立,换来的是自由的冲动。但在这个过程中,他们的历史被抹去了。
        It was this disordered transition that Tim Franco, a photographer who splits his time between South Korea and China, decided to explore in a new portrait series called “Unperson.” A riff on an Orwellian construct from the novel “1984,” his work examines the “vaporization” of the defectors’ past, which has left many in limbo, free but incomplete. “[North Korea] is their home, they left people behind,” Mr. Franco said. “Even if they live in a modern country, they will never be completely happy in South Korea.”        蒂姆·弗兰科(Tim Franco)决定在一个题为“非人”(Unperson)的新肖像系列中探索这种无序的转变,这位摄影师在中国和韩国两地生活。该系列的题目是模仿小说《1984》的一个奥威尔式的构词,弗兰科的作品审视了脱北者过去的“蒸发”,这让他们之中的很多人处于不确定的状态,虽然有自由,但并不完整。“(朝鲜)是他们的家,他们离开了家人,”弗兰科说。“尽管他们生活在一个现代国家,他们在韩国也永远不会完全快乐。”
        An artist, a concert pianist and a political prison camp guard who is still haunted by his own brutality are among those who sat for Mr. Franco. Their testimonials vary in detail, but most share a shade of regret. Although their stories are impossible to confirm, Mr. Franco thinks that some accounts may be slightly exaggerated — perhaps because stories of defection become currency in South Korea. Fitting into a new society can be painful; distrust and indifference make it difficult to find work. As a result, Mr. Franco said, many defectors are forced to capitalize on their escape by writing books or appearing on TV shows.        一名艺术家、一名音乐会钢琴演奏家,以及一名仍被自己当年的残暴所困扰的政治犯狱卒,都让弗兰科为他们拍了照。虽然他们的叙述各有不同,但大都表达了一丝遗憾。虽然无法证实他们的故事,但弗兰科认为,有些人的说法可能有点夸张——也许是因为脱北者的故事在韩国是一块敲门砖。然而,融入一个新的社会可能是很痛苦的事情;人们的不信任和冷漠让他们很难找到工作。弗兰科说,结果就是,许多脱北者被迫用写书或在电视节目上露面的方式,把自己的叛逃经历变为赚钱的手段。
        Mr. Franco translated this exploration of identity into the photographic process itself. Working with an old wooden 4x5 camera, Fuji instant film and a series of chemical procedures, Mr. Franco reclaimed a negative from the developed print, an analog material that is not supposed to exist. It’s a long and risky business that he said echoes the dangerous journey of the North Korean migrant. The result is “uncertain, dirty and imperfect,” with scratches on the surface while the bleaching process creates an eerie green border (that can eat away at the image if applied imprecisely).        弗兰科把对身份认同的探索变成了摄影过程本身。他用一架老式木制4x5相机、富士即显胶片,以及一系列的化学过程,从立得的照片上把底片恢复出来,这是一种本不应该存在的模拟材料。这个过程漫长且有风险,他说,与脱北者的危险旅程有类似之处。其结果“不确定、不干净,也不完美”,照片的表面有划痕,漂白的过程给照片嵌上一个怪异恐怖的绿边(如果漂白剂上得不准确,绿边会侵蚀图像本身)。
        “This really fits,” Mr. Franco said. “They feel they will arrive in a perfect world … but far from it.”        “这真的很合适,”弗兰科说。“他们觉得他们将来到一个完美的世界……但远非如此。”
        The following stories are written by the photographer based on interviews with those he photographed, and have been edited for brevity and clarity.        下面的故事是摄影师根据他对拍摄对象的采访写就的。为了简洁和清晰,文字经过了编辑。
        Ahn Myeong-Cheol        安明哲(Ahn Myeong-Cheol,音)
        One night in 1994, Ahn Myeong-Cheol’s world was flipped upside down. Armed with an AK-47 and a few pistols, and wearing his prison guard uniform, he escaped in a jeep to the Tumen River, which marks the border with China. He swam across the river, getting rid of the weapons that were pulling him down, and half an hour later, he finally reached the Chinese side of the river.        1994年的一个晚上,安明哲的世界被颠覆了。他携带一支AK-47和几把手枪,穿着他的监狱看守制服,坐着吉普车逃到朝中边境的图们江。他游向对岸,抛下拖慢他的武器,半小时后,他终于到达江对岸的中国一侧。
        Eight years earlier, he had gotten his first job as a guard in a political prison camp. On the first day, he had been told to leave his humanity behind, that all the convicts were traitors or spies for the enemy and that even communicating with them was considered a serious offense. Beatings and killings were routine, and soon enough, he began to practice his taekwondo skills on a few of the convicts. After eight years of service, he discovered his father had committed suicide rather than face the consequences of speaking negatively about the regime. His entire family was then taken away to a detainment camp, and he finally understood why so many families were among the convicts. He decided then that it would be his last night in North Korea.        八年前,他在政治犯劳改营得到了当狱房看守的第一份工作。上班第一天,他被告诫要放下他的人性,所有犯人都是为敌方效力的叛徒或间谍,连和他们交流都被当成严重的罪行。殴打和杀人是常事,很快,他开始在几个犯人身上练习跆拳道。工作八年后,他发现自己的父亲宁可选择自杀也不愿意面对批评政权的后果。他的全家随即被关进一个拘禁营,而他终于明白了为什么犯人中有那么多家庭成员。他当即决定,那将是他在朝鲜的最后一晚。
        Lee So-yeon        李素妍(Lee So-yeon,音)
        The year 1997 may have been the worst in the North Korean famine. Lee So-yeon had joined the army voluntarily, hoping for a better future, regular meals and a chance to join the Worker’s Party. But she faced a very different reality. The famine had reached deep into the military, and recruits were fed only half-rations mixed with wild grass, while sexual harassment and abuse were a daily threat.        1997年可能是朝鲜饥荒最严重的一年。李素妍自愿参军,希望能有个更好的前途,每天有饭吃,并得到加入劳动党的机会。但她面临着一个截然不同的现实。饥荒也蔓延到了军队内部,新兵只能吃到一半的定量口粮,里面还掺着野草,无时无刻不在面临性骚扰和虐待的威胁。
        After 10 years in the military, she heard about defectors to South Korea and decided to leave. On her first attempt to cross the Tumen River, she was in her underwear, holding her only set of dry clothes above her head with her legs bleeding from the jagged rocks, and she was greeted on the Chinese side by human traffickers. She refused to go with them and was thrown back into the river to be captured again on the North Korean side. After a year in prison, she managed to gather enough tips from fellow inmates to finally make a second, successful attempt.        入伍10年后,她听说了关于逃往韩国的脱北者的事,决定要离开。第一次试图跨越图们江时,她穿着内衣,把唯一一套干衣服顶在头上,双腿因为被尖利的石块擦伤流血,在中国那一侧有人贩子在等着她。她拒绝跟他们走,因此被扔回了江里,再次被朝鲜士兵抓住。坐牢一年后,她从其他犯人那里收集了足够多的窍门,进行了第二次逃跑尝试,最终成功了。
        Now living in the South, she still struggles to identify herself to her South Korean neighbors. The prejudice in society, her strong accent and the fear of North Korean spies still make her feel that she has not completely found her place.        她现在生活在韩国,但仍然不太敢向邻居透露自己的身份。社会的偏见、她浓重的口音以及对朝鲜间谍的恐惧,让她仍然觉得还没有完全找到属于自己的位置。
        Choi Seong-Guk        崔圣国(Choi Seong-Guk,音)
        He wanted to be part of the North Korean elite to date the girl of his dreams, but Choi Seong-Guk was neither rich nor well connected. When South Korean dramas became popular on the North Korean black market, he saw an opportunity. He set up a small portrait studio where customers could replace the actors’ faces on popular forbidden TV drama screen- grabs with their own. This idea proved successful and very lucrative. He soon managed to make enough money to open one of Pyongyang’s first computer rooms. In 2006, he was arrested after smuggling movies. The offense was serious, but some of his customers were influential government officials and he was let off lightly. But he was sent away from the capital, and suddenly, all his work had been for nothing. He would not get the girl of his dreams.        他梦想成为朝鲜精英的一员,和心仪的女孩约会,但崔圣国既非富人也无显赫背景。当韩国电视剧在朝鲜黑市上流行起来时,他看到了一个机会。他开了一间小型肖像工作室,顾客可以把被禁止的流行电视剧里演员的截屏头像换成他们自己的照片。 这个想法结果很成功,而且盈利丰厚。他很快就赚到了足够的钱,开了平壤第一间电脑机房。2006年,他因走私电影被捕。这是项重罪,但他的一些客户是有影响力的政府官员,因此得到轻判。但他被赶出了首都,突然间,他所有的努力白费了。他得不到自己梦中的女孩。
        This was the moment he decided to defect to the South. Although he left North Korea and the rules of the regime behind, the dating culture in South Korea has proved not so different after all.        这一刻,他决定叛逃到韩国。尽管他脱离了朝鲜和那个政权的规则,但结果韩国的约会文化并没有那么不同。
        Park Soo-yeon        朴素妍(Park Soo-yeon音)
        Park Soo-yeon had been part of the new elite. Between big banquets halls, private hot springs and luxury resorts, her lifestyle differed greatly from what many associate with North Korea. When the first trade routes were opened into the country, she soon got her hands on a videocassette of the South Korean movie “The Green Fish.” She was immediately struck by the sensuality and level of intimacy that could be shown outside her country. She also became fascinated with the diversity of makeup used by South Korean women, especially the dark lipstick worn by the actresses. There was only one color allowed in the North. She realized, however, that by mixing that color with eye-shadow, she could achieve the same tint as in the movie, and the new trend spread quickly among the North Korea elite. But the more movies and dramas she discovered, the more her curiosity grew and the more she longed for the love that she could only glimpse through her television screen.        朴素妍曾是新精英阶层的一员。她穿行于巨大的宴会厅,私人温泉和豪华度假村之间,生活方式与许多人听到朝鲜时所想象的非常不同。朝鲜第一批商路开通后,她很快就拿到了一盒韩国电影《绿鱼》(The Green Fish)的录像带。她当即惊讶于这样的感官刺激,以及在国外居然可以展现如此的亲密场面,也深为韩国女人使用的各式化妆品着迷,尤其是女演员们使用的深色口红。朝鲜只允许使用一种颜色。然而,她意识到,把这个颜色和眼影混合,她也可以得到和电影里一样的颜色,这种新的潮流很快就在朝鲜的精英阶层传开了。但是,她看的电影和电视剧越多,好奇心就越强,也越能意识到,自己在渴望这种只能在电视屏幕上窥见的爱情。
        When she defected to the South, she found out for the first time about the hardships and difficulty most North Korean defectors face, and felt so ashamed that she would remain vague about her own story for many years. She is now the owner of a matchmaking company, helping North Korean defectors find love in the South.        叛逃到了韩国后,她第一次认识到了大多数朝鲜叛逃者的艰辛与困难,她感到十分羞愧,往后多年她都对自己的故事含糊其辞。她现在是一家婚介公司的老板,帮助朝鲜叛逃者在韩国找到爱情。
        Han Song-i        韩宋怡(Han Song-i,音)
        From a very young age, Han Song-i dreamed of becoming a star. Growing up in the northeast part of North Korea, she could observe China from the other side of the Amnok River. In those regions, North Koreans have greater access to imported goods and Chinese TV channels. This is how she discovered the K-pop phenomenon. At 17, she made up her mind to escape and fulfill her dream. Her family’s wealth made it easy for her to prepare for the trip, and after 10 days on buses, across China, Laos and Thailand, she finally reached Seoul. She found her place, fairly quickly, on a local TV show, in which serious interviews are mixed with entertainment to tell the stories and hardships of life in North Korea. Nowadays, people recognize her in the street and restaurants owners give her free meals. She’s made it.        韩宋怡从小梦想成为一个明星。在朝鲜东北部地区长大的她,可以从鸭绿江的这一边远眺中国。这些地方的朝鲜人有更多渠道接触进口商品和中国电视节目。她就是这样发现“韩流”现象的。17岁时,她下定决心脱北,完成自己的梦想。因为家里有钱,她的此行并不困难。在坐了10天的汽车,穿过了中国、老挝和泰国之后,她终于来到了首尔。她以相当快的速度,在当地一家电视节目上找到了自己的位置。节目是混合着娱乐的严肃访谈,讲述在朝鲜的故事和生活的艰辛。现在,她在街上会被人认出,餐馆也会给她免单。她成功了。
        Many North-Korean defectors make a living by telling their stories through TV shows, public talks or books. For Han Song-i, it has caused confusion about her own identity. Her North Korean life is what made her famous — her South Korean passport allowed her to become a star.        许多脱北者会通过在电视节目、公开演讲或书籍中讲述自己的故事谋生。对韩宋怡而言,这使她对自己的身份感到困惑。她出名,是因为她在朝鲜的生活——她能成为明星,却是因为她那张韩国护照。
        Kim Cheol-woong        金哲雄(Kim Cheol-woong)
        Born in the North Korean capital, Kim Cheol-woong enjoyed a privileged life. His parents had government positions and his talent for music was recognized from an early age. In 1995, he was even sent to the Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory to study. When he got back to North Korea, he became the youngest musician to join the National Symphony Orchestra.        出生在朝鲜首都的金哲雄享受着特权的生活。他的父母在政府任职,他的音乐才华也从小受人赏识。1995年,他甚至还被派往莫斯科国立柴可夫斯基音乐学院(Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory)学习。回到朝鲜后,他成为了朝鲜国家交响乐团最年轻的音乐家。
        In 2001, Kim Cheol-woong was in love. He planned to use music to propose to his girlfriend, and was practicing a piece by one of his favorite composers, Richard Clayderman. But playing foreign music in North Korea is forbidden, as only official propaganda music is allowed, and it did not take long for someone to report him. He was arrested by the State Security Department and was forced to write a self-criticism letter. The ordeal shifted his perspective, and a few weeks later he crossed the Tumen River into China in search of freedom.        2001年,金哲雄恋爱了。他计划用音乐向女友求婚,练习着他最爱的作曲家理查德·克莱德曼(Richard Clayderman)的一首曲子。但在朝鲜,弹奏外国乐曲是不被允许的,只能演奏官方的宣传音乐,不久他就被人举报了。他被朝鲜安全部门逮捕,被迫写了一份检讨书。这一次磨难改变了他的看法,几周以后,他跨越图们江进入中国,寻找自由。
        As he was being processed through national security after his arrival in South Korea, he began to realize that he had been lucky to have lived as he did in the North and that after this event he would never be able to go back. He leads a less privileged life in the South, and part of him misses his old North Korean life.        在抵达韩国等待国家安全机构处理的时候,他开始意识到,能像曾经那样生活在朝鲜是多么幸运,而经历过这件事,他再也无法回去了。他在韩国的生活少了些特权,他也有些想念旧时在朝鲜的生活。
                
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