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安瑟尼·波登:讲出真相的反叛美食家
Anthony Bourdain Was a Teller of Often Unappetizing Truths

来源:纽约时报    2018-06-11 09:00



        Anthony Bourdain entered the literary stage with an inside tip, delivered in the gruff whisper of a racetrack tout: Don’t order fish on Mondays.        安瑟尼·波登(Anthony Bourdain)的文字生涯始于一则内幕消息,他用透露小道消息的低沉语调恶狠狠地说:周一不要点鱼。
        It was the part that everybody remembered from his first published work, a long essay about the unglamorous and sometimes unsavory work of cooks and dishwashers that ran in The New Yorker in 1999 and that made it almost impossible for waiters to sell seafood between Sunday and Tuesday for at least a decade.        所有人都记住了他发表的第一篇文章中的这句话。那是1999年的一篇《纽约客》长文,介绍的是厨师和洗碗工的那些不怎么光彩的、有时难以下咽的工作。那篇文章导致在至少十年的时间里,让餐馆服务生几乎不可能在周日和周二之间卖出海鲜。
        And the advice gave Mr. Bourdain, a journeyman cook and chef nobody had heard of, a new career. Before he was found dead on Friday, in what the authorities were treating as a suicide, he was the witty, connected guide who, in memoirs, cookbooks and television shows, would tell you things that others wouldn’t.        这条建议让波登——一个谈不上才华横溢的熟练厨子,一个没人听说过的大厨——开启了一个全新的事业。周五,他被人发现死于酒店房间里——当局目前将案件定性为自杀。在此之前,他是一个风趣、交际广泛的导游。他通过回忆录、烹饪书和电视节目告诉你一些其他人不会说的东西。
        In the glossy, cheerful, relentlessly promotional realms of food and travel writing, that left him a fair number of truths he could claim as his own, and he took full advantage of the situation.        在光鲜、欢快、宣传意味十足的美食和旅行写作领域,这让他掌握了大量可以说属于他自己的真相。他充分利用了这一点。
        A close reader of Orwell, he modeled that first essay and the book that grew out of it, “Kitchen Confidential: Adventures in the Culinary Underbelly,” on Orwell’s “Down and Out in Paris and London.” While other restaurant writers had helped build the cult of the creative, artistic chef, Mr. Bourdain made folk heroes out of the dishwasher and the line cook — a job description previously known only to restaurant employees. He described their lives and their day-to-day work in concrete, indelible detail.        他深入地研究过奥威尔的作品,并仿照奥威尔的《巴黎伦敦落魄记》(Down and Out in Paris and London)写出了自己的第一篇文章,以及由此文发展而成的书——《厨房机密档案》(Kitchen Confidential: Adventures in the Culinary Underbelly)。别的美食作家在营造对富有创意和艺术性的大厨的崇拜,波登却让洗碗工和帮厨成了平民英雄——在此之前,只有餐厅员工知道这些人的工作内容。他通过具体的、令人难以忘怀的细节,描写了他们的生活和日常工作。
        When kitchens were being wrapped in a shimmering gauze of glamour, Mr. Bourdain got busy unwrapping them, revealing the injuries and addictions, low wages and high tempers that took a toll on workers.        当厨房笼罩在耀眼的光环之中时,波登忙于拨开这些光环,揭露严重损害餐厅员工的伤病和嗜瘾、低薪和火爆脾气。
        Among other things, he was one of the first writers to tell the dining public that many high-profile New York restaurants would cease to function without the work and talents of Mexican employees. It was almost a casual aside, yet it suddenly opened new subjects to the purview of food writing: immigration policy, labor conditions, racism.        此外,他还最早告诉食客,如果没有墨西哥员工的工作和才华,纽约很多知名餐厅都会停业。那几乎是一句随意的旁白,但突然为美食写作领域开启了新的主题:移民政策、劳工状况、种族主义。
        He identified with the grunts, portraying himself as a slinger of cheap steaks and French fries. The grunts, in turn, identified with him, not because of his contributions as a chef — who can name an Anthony Bourdain dish? — but because he told the world what the work was really like. And once he left kitchens behind for a career in travel television, he didn’t lead his camera crews on a tour of the world’s most luxurious resorts. He went to Detroit and the Bronx, Libya and Beirut.        他同情那些做粗活的人,把自己描绘成一个嗜好廉价牛排和薯条的人。反过来,他们也理解他,这不是因为他作为一名大厨的贡献——谁能说出一道安瑟尼·波登的菜?——而是因为他向全世界说出了这份工作的真实面目。当他离开厨房,进入旅游电视行业时,他没有带领摄制组探访全球最豪华的度假胜地。他去的是底特律、纽约布朗克斯、利比亚和贝鲁特。
        “Good food, good eating, is all about blood and organs, cruelty and decay,” he wrote in the opening sentence of that New Yorker piece, and it set the tone for all the work that followed.        “好的食物,好的饮食,都跟血和器官、残忍和腐坏有关,”他在《纽约客》那篇文章的开头写道。这为他以后的所有作品奠定了基调。
        Mr. Bourdain was a blood-and-organs kind of guy, and he became identified with his unflinching, at times ostentatious, descriptions of life, death, sex and digestion. Footage of fly-speckled goats’ heads in open-air markets was to his travel shows what harbor sunsets were for other programs.        波登是那种关注血和器官的人,他以对生命、死亡、性和消化毫不收敛、时有浮夸的描写闻名。他的旅行节目的典型镜头是露天市场上落满苍蝇的山羊头,就像其他节目中的海湾日落。
        Although he wasn’t immune to hyperbole, he had an old-school chain-smoking newspaper editor’s hatred of self-serving hypocrisy, particularly in other television hosts. He delighted in mocking celebrity chefs like Guy Fieri (whose Times Square restaurant he called “the Terrordome”) and Paula Deen (“the worst, most dangerous person to America”).        虽然他难免也会夸张,但他具有一个一根接一根抽烟的老派报纸编辑对自私伪善的憎恨,尤其是对其他电视主持人。他喜欢嘲笑名厨,比如盖伊·菲耶里(Guy Fieri,他说菲耶里在时报广场的餐厅是“恐怖穹顶”)和葆拉·迪恩(Paula Deen,他说她是“美国最坏、最危险的人”)。
        At times Mr. Bourdain’s capacity as truth-teller could bleed into other, less salutary roles: the attention-seeking bully, the purveyor of well-polished shtick, the lecture-circuit fixture who, on cue, would curse like a line cook who has just chopped off the tip of his finger.        有时,波登讲真话的能力会渗透到他的其他那些不那么有益的角色中:喜欢被人关注的恶霸;精心打磨的滑稽风格的提供者;巡回演讲的常客,一逮到机会,他就会像刚切到指尖的帮厨一样破口大骂。
        “I do a lot of speaking engagements and sometimes I feel like I’m being paid to curse in front of people who haven’t heard it in a while,” he said in a 2008 interview.        “我做了很多演讲,有时我觉得我就是靠着在观众面前骂脏话赚钱,那些观众已经有一段时间没听到脏话了,”他在2008年的一次采访中说。
        In the past few months, as accusations of sexual harassment and predatory behavior have shaken the restaurant industry, Mr. Bourdain’s swaggering accounts of kitchen life have come in for re-evaluation. He certainly took pleasure in telling outsiders what it was like. Was there some pride in there, too, in belonging to a band of misfits and rule-breakers? Had he helped to popularize a workplace culture in which misogyny and abuse were overlooked, tolerated and sometimes even celebrated?        在过去的几个月里,随着对性骚扰和掠夺行为的指控动摇餐饮业,波登对厨房生活的狷狂陈述也开始被重新评价。他显然以告诉外人厨房里的情况为乐。他是否以自己被归为不合群、不守规矩的一类人为荣?他是否帮助推广了一种职场文化,在这种文化中,对女性的歧视和虐待被忽视、容忍,有时甚至被赞美?
        “To the extent which my work in ‘Kitchen Confidential’ celebrated or prolonged a culture that allowed the kind of grotesque behaviors we’re hearing about all too frequently is something I think about daily, with real remorse,” he wrote on Medium in December.        “我每天都带着深深的悔恨思考,我在《厨房机密档案》中写的那些东西,多大程度上是在赞美或延续那种容许可怕行为的文化,”去年12月,他在Medium上写道。
        Having regularly heaped disgust and outrage on Harvey Weinstein (who was accused of rape by Asia Argento, Mr. Bourdain’s partner), he was also confronted with serious and deeply unsettling allegations about Mario Batali, a friend. “In these current circumstances, one must pick a side,” Mr. Bourdain wrote. “I stand unhesitatingly and unwaveringly with the women.”        他经常对哈维·韦恩斯坦(Harvey Weinstein,波登的伴侣艾莎·阿基多[Asia Argento]指控韦恩斯坦强奸了她)表示厌恶和愤怒,但他也面临着对他的朋友马里奥·巴塔利(Mario Batali)的非常令人不安的严重指控。“在目前的情况下,人们必须选择立场,”波登写道。“我毫不犹豫、毫不动摇地站在这些女性这一边。”
        But if the feminist perspective was relatively new to his repertory, speaking out about sexual abuse was not. Long ago, in “Kitchen Confidential,” he had written about a union shop steward who had inserted his fingers into Mr. Bourdain’s rectum every day, in front of the other kitchen workers. Experiences like this may be common for male cooks, but they are not commonly discussed in public.        但是,如果说女性主义观点对他来说是相对较新的固定话题,那么,公开谈论性侵犯对他来说并不新鲜。他很久以前就在《厨房机密档案》里提到,一个工会代表每天都当着其他厨房工人的面把手指插进波登的直肠。这样的经历对男性厨师来说可能很常见,但很少有人公开讨论。
        Mr. Bourdain was too unsettled, his moral compass too twitchy, to have written an account of kitchen life that was purely celebratory or purely accusatory.        波登太不安了,他的道德罗盘太紧张了,以至于在讲述厨房生活时,他不会进行纯粹的称赞或指责。
        “Life is complicated. It’s filled with nuance. It’s unsatisfying,” he once said. “If I believe in anything, it is doubt.”        “生活很复杂。充满微妙的东西。让人很不爽,”他曾经表示。“你要是问我信什么,我会说,我只相信怀疑。”
                
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