马克龙欲重启国民兵役制度 要求所有16岁法国公民强制服役_OK阅读网
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马克龙欲重启国民兵役制度 要求所有16岁法国公民强制服役

来源:中国日报    2018-06-28 17:14



        The new national service will cover all 16-year-olds, girls as well as boys, and will be divided into two distinct phases.        新国民服役计划将分为两个不同阶段,覆盖所有年满16岁的法国公民。
                 两个阶段的国民服役计划
        The first phase is a mandatory one-month placement with a focus on civic culture, which the government says will "enable young people to create new relationships and develop their role in society".        第一阶段是为期一个月的义务工作,与公民文化相关。法国政府称,这将“使年轻人能够结交新朋友,培养他们适应社会”。
        This includes activities such as charity work, voluntary teaching, or military preparation with the police, fire service or army.        这一阶段的活动包括慈善工作、志愿教学或警察、消防或军队的军事预备训练。
        The second phase is a voluntary placement of at least three months and up to a year, in which young people will be encouraged to serve "in an area linked to defense and security" - but again, they could opt to carry out volunteer work linked to heritage, the environment or social care.        第二阶段是至少三个月、至多一年的志愿工作,该阶段鼓励年轻人在“国防和安全相关领域”服务,但他们也可以选择从事与文化遗产、环境或社会关怀相关的志愿工作。
                 打折扣的兵役方案
        It's not quite the program Mr Macron initially had in mind.        这一计划并不是马克龙的最初设想。
        When he first floated the idea, during the 2017 race for the presidency, it was a sort of military service in miniature, with all French citizens forced to have a "direct experience of military life" for a minimum of one month between the ages of 18 and 21.        他在2017年总统竞选中第一次提出的是一种小型兵役政策,要求所有年龄在18-21岁的法国公民必须“亲身体验至少为期一个月的军旅生活”。
        That's now been softened and broadened into what's being called a Universal National Service - partly because of concerns that it would cost too much and overburden the country's armed forces.        该计划现在已经缓和并放宽为所谓的“普遍国民服役”,其中部分原因是担心兵役开销过多,国家武装力量超负荷。
        Even now, the program is estimated to cost €1.6bn a year to run, with €1.75bn of investment up front.        尽管这样,这项计划预计每年仍要耗资16亿欧元(约合人民币122亿元),前期投入17.5亿欧元(约合人民币134亿元)。
                 马卡龙的意图是什么?
        The goal of this new-style national service, the government says, is to encourage young French citizens to take part in the life of the nation, and promote social cohesion.        法国政府称,这种新式国民服役计划旨在鼓励法国年轻人参与国家生活,促进社会的凝聚力。
        Consultations will now begin, with a view to rolling out the program from early next year.        该计划的咨询工作将从现在启动,计划明年年初开始实施。
        But there is still a lot of detail to be hammered out, not least the legal basis.        但国民服役计划仍有许多细节有待完善,尤其是法律依据方面。
        A working group, set up to look into the scheme, has warned that the French constitution bans the state from forcing an entire section of the population to spend time away from home, except in the case of national defense.        研究这项计划的工作小组警告称,法国宪法禁止国家强制全国民众远离家乡,除非是国防需要。
                 国民服役计划受欢迎吗?
        Even before it was announced, 14 youth organizations objected to the "inconsistencies" in the plan, unhappy with the idea of being forced to take part in a project. "Choosing a commitment is just as important as the commitment itself, if not more so," they argued, calling for young people to be able to exercise freedom of choice.        在这项计划公布之前,就有14个青年组织反对其中的“矛盾之处”,对于强制服役的想法感到不满。他们认为,“选择服役和服役本身起码是同样重要的”。并呼吁年轻人能够行使选择的自由。
        More broadly, about 60% of the population are in favor, according to a YouGov poll carried out in March, although the number dips to just below half when younger people are asked for their views.        YouGoV三月份进行的民调显示,在广义层面,约60%的法国人赞成国民服役计划,但当问及年轻人的看法时,这一数字下降到一半以下。
        Mr Macron is the first French president not to have done military service; it was scrapped for the new intake in 1996, when Mr Macron was 18.        马克龙是第一位没有服过兵役的法国总统;1996年,法国的兵役制度在18岁的马克龙即将入伍之年取消了。
        Before that, all young French men were expected to serve for the best part of a year in the armed forces. When the old post-war draft ended, in 1997, there was a collective sigh of relief. Amid the nostalgia, many people here recognized that it had become a social exercise rather than a military one.        在此之前,所有法国年轻男性都要在军队中服役一年。1997年,旧的战后草案结束时,法国人集体松了一口气。在对过去的怀念中,许多人此时认识到服役已经成为一种社会锻炼而非军事需要。
        Twenty years later, it's that social cohesion President Macron now wants to recapture.        时隔二十年后,马克龙想要重新恢复的正是那种社会凝聚力。
                 世界各国的兵役制度
        Israel's compulsory military service is three years for men and two years for women        以色列义务兵役制要求男性服役三年,女性服役两年。
        Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, Austria, and Greece are among the European countries that still have compulsory military service        北欧国家、瑞士、奥地利和希腊是仍保留义务兵役制的欧洲国家。
        India has never had mandatory military service, even during British rule. It has the world's second largest army, made up of volunteers        即使在英国殖民时期,印度也从未实行过义务兵役制。印度拥有世界第二大军队,由志愿兵组成。
        The last time men were called to duty through conscription was 1960 in the UK and 1973 in the US        英国最后一次强制征兵是在1960年,美国是在1973年。
        Iran has two-year mandatory service for men, though there are exceptions for only sons, doctors and fire fighters, and gay and transgender people        伊朗的义务兵役制为两年,对象为男性,但独生子、医生、消防员以及同性恋和变性人除外。
                
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