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澳洲通过反外国干预法,或使中澳关系更加复杂化
Australia Approves Sweeping Security Laws Targeting Foreign Interference

来源:纽约时报    2018-06-29 11:14



        SYDNEY, Australia — Australia approved sweeping national security legislation on Thursday that bans foreign interference in politics, stiffens the punishment for leaking classified information and makes it a crime to damage Australia’s economic relations with another country.        澳大利亚悉尼——澳大利亚周四通过了一项影响广泛的国家安全法规,内容包括禁止外国干涉政治,加大对泄露机密信息的惩罚力度,并将损害澳大利亚与他国经济关系的行为定为犯罪。
        Attorney General Christian Porter told Parliament that the new laws represented the most significant counterintelligence overhaul since the 1970s.
        司法部长克里斯蒂安·波特(Christian Porter)对议会说,新法律代表着20世纪70年代以来最重大的反间谍法改革。
        “The practices of modern espionage are now being encountered in so many Western democracies around the globe,” Mr. Porter said.        “全球许多西方民主国家现在都遇到了实际的现代间谍活动,”波特说。
        “To counter this threat,” he continued, “Australia must have a robust, modern legislative framework to ensure our law enforcement and national security agencies are sufficiently empowered to investigate and disrupt malicious foreign interference.”        他接下来说,“为了应对这一威胁,澳大利亚必须有一个健全的、现代的立法框架,以确保我们的执法机构和国家安全机构有足够的权力去调查和阻止恶意的外国干涉。”
        The new laws are similar to but more far-reaching than those passed in Britain and the United States after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. They prioritize an approach favored by security officials and give great discretion to the Australian attorney general, with limited checks and balances.        这些新法律与2001年9月11日的恐怖袭击之后英国和美国通过的法律类似,但影响更深远。法律优先考虑了安全官员们喜欢的做法,并赋予澳大利亚司法部长很大的自行决定权,但只提供了有限的制约与平衡。
        Though government officials have said they are not aimed at any country, the laws have passed at a moment when Australia is especially anxious about Chinese power. They could further complicate Australia’s relationship with Beijing, which has treated the laws as an insult — especially since China is Australia’s largest trading partner.        尽管政府官员表示,这些法律并不针对任何国家,但法律是在澳大利亚对中国的影响力感到特别焦虑的时刻通过的。法律可能会使澳大利亚与中国的关系进一步复杂化。中国一直将这项立法视为一种侮辱,尤其是因为中国是澳大利亚的最大贸易伙伴。
        The extensive legislation adds 38 new crimes to the record, including stealing trade secrets on behalf of a foreign government, and broaden the definitions of existing crimes like espionage.        这项涉及广泛的立法正式增加了38项新罪行,包括替外国政府窃取商业机密,同时扩大了间谍活动等现有罪行的定义。
        The new laws do not ban foreign political donations (a separate law is being drafted for that), but they do require that foreign lobbyists register on a public list, similar to the way it works in the United States.        新法律并不禁止外国政治捐款(正在起草的另一项单独立法是针对这个问题的),但它们确实要求外国游说者在一个公开的名单上注册,这类似于美国的做法。
        They also make it illegal to engage in any covert activity on behalf of a foreign government that aims to influence the process of Australian politics — including activities typically protected in a democracy, like organizing a rally.        新法律还规定,代表外国政府参与任何旨在影响澳大利亚政治进程的秘密活动都是非法的,包括那些通常在民主国家受到保护的活动,比如组织集会。
        Punishments for foreign interference crimes range from 10 to 20 years in prison.        对外国干涉罪的刑事处罚是最低10年、最高20年的监禁。
        Some security experts argue the laws are overdue, and necessary for an age when Russian hackers can undermine American democracy without going near a voting booth, and when China’s mingling of economic and political interests is redefining geopolitics.        一些安全专家认为,早就该通过这些法律,它们在这个时代必不可少,现在,俄罗斯黑客可以在不接近投票站的情况下破坏美国的民主,而中国把经济利益和政治利益融合起来的做法也在重新定义地缘政治。
        “It’s a big deal,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “It modernizes our intelligence laws at a time when the government’s saying that the spying threat is extremely high.”        “这是一件大事,”澳大利亚战略政策研究所(Australian Strategic Policy Institute)执行主任彼得•詹宁斯(Peter Jennings)说。“在政府声称间谍威胁极高的时候,立法将我们的情报法规现代化了。”
        But the laws have met with opposition since they were proposed six months ago.        但这些法律自从六个月前提出以来就一直遭到反对。
        The Chinese government has responded coolly, canceling visas for Australian business leaders and suggesting that the country’s politicians are motivated by xenophobia and racism.        中国政府已做出冷淡反应,取消了澳大利亚商界领袖的签证,并暗示,澳大利亚政客这样做的动机是仇外和种族主义。
        Lu Kang, spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry, said in response to a question this week about the new Australian laws that China does not interfere in other countries’ affairs.        中国外交部发言人陆慷本周在回答有关澳大利亚新法律的问题时说,中国不干涉他国内政。
        “We hope that all countries could cast off Cold War mind-set and strengthen exchanges and cooperation on the basis of mutual respect and equal treatment,” he said.        “希望各国都能摒弃冷战思维,在相互尊重、平等相待的基础上,更好推进相互交流和合作,”陆慷说。
        Some experts worry that Australia is neglecting or even undermining traditional diplomacy by focusing on covert activity that security officials tend to hint at but do not fully explain.        一些专家担心,澳大利亚正在忽视甚至削弱传统的外交手段,将重点放在了安全官员往往只暗示、但并不完全解释的秘密活动上。
        “No compelling evidence has been offered to show why these laws are really needed,” said Hugh White, a prominent defense strategist. “We have been asked to take that on trust, but there is a risk that we are jumping at shadows.”        “没有人提供过令人信服的证据,解释为什么真正需要这些法律,”著名的国防策略师休·怀特(Hugh White)说。“我们被要求听信这一点,但这里的风险是,我们在捕风捉影。”
        Human rights groups, scholars and journalists have been arguing for months that too much is being given up out of fear. They said first drafts of the laws went too far in restricting democratic rights — making it a crime, for example, to receive something marked “classified” even if its disclosure served the public interest.        几个月来,人权组织、学者和记者一直在争辩新法案,他们认为,法案出于恐惧放弃了太多的东西。他们说,最初的法律草案在限制民主权利方面做得太过火了——比如,接受标有“机密”的信息就是犯罪,即使这些信息的公开符合公共利益。
        Some even said the laws threatened to make Australia more like the authoritarian regimes that it aims to resist.        一些人甚至说,这些法律有让澳大利亚变得更像法律旨在抵制的威权政府的危险。
        Amendments to the laws sought to address some of those concerns.        间谍法修正案寻求解决一些上述担忧。
        The secrecy offenses have been narrowed. Journalists accused of violating the restrictions on sharing government information can also now claim a “public interest” defense, arguing that the information they disclose has value for democracy.        有关保密信息的犯罪定义已被缩小。因公布政府信息而被指控违反保密法的记者,现在也能用“公共利益”的说法为自己辩护,他们可以争辩说,信息的披露对民主有利。
        Beyond journalists and secrecy, though, the laws have few exceptions.        但除了记者和保密法规外,新法律几乎没有考虑其他的例外。
        Churches, charities and human rights groups with international interests or funding may still need to be listed on the public register for foreign lobbyists, one of the core tenets of the laws, which aim to make foreign influence on Australian politics more transparent.        与国际利益有关、或有国际资金的教堂、慈善机构和人权组织仍可能需要在外国游说者的公开登记部上注册,这是旨在让外国对澳大利亚政治的影响更加透明的新法律的核心原则之一。
        David Brophy, a senior lecturer in modern Chinese history at the University of Sydney, said he was worried about the threat to transnational activism.        悉尼大学(University of Sydney)中国现代史高级讲师戴维·布罗菲(David Brophy)说,他担心新法律会威胁跨国活动人士。
        “Much of the discussion around the laws has centered on the need to defend our democracy against Chinese influence,” he said. “But ironically, someone collaborating with democracy activists in China to organize rallies in Australia could find themselves facing prosecution for illegal foreign interference.”        “有关这些法律的讨论大都集中在保护我们的民主制度不受中国影响这个需求上,”他说。“但具有讽刺意味的是,如果有人与中国的民主活动人士合作,在澳大利亚组织集会的话,他们可能会发现自己因外国干涉罪而受到起诉。”
        Elaine Pearson, Australia director at Human Rights Watch, said the laws also still included severe punishments for sharing classified information, including several years in prison, which “will have a chilling effect on disclosures.”        人权观察组织(Human Rights Watch)的澳大利亚负责人伊莱恩·皮尔森(Elaine Pearson)说,这些法律还包括对分享机密信息行为的严厉惩罚,包括数年的监禁,这“将对信息披露产生寒蝉效应”。
        “The problem remains that the definition of national security is overly broad,” she said, “and includes the political, military and economic interests with other countries.”        “现有的问题是,国家安全的定义过于宽泛,”她说,“把与他国有关的政治、军事和经济利益都包括了进来。”
        The next challenge for Australia will be enforcement. The new laws contain a “notice regime” that allows the attorney general to unilaterally name individuals as foreign agents without due process.        澳大利亚面临的下一个挑战将是新法律的执法。新法律包含一个“通知规则”,允许司法部长在不采取正当程序的情况下单方面地把某人列为外国代理人。
        That means Mr. Porter is likely to face pressure to add several wealthy Chinese-born businessmen whose political donations started the Australian debate about Chinese influence last year.        这意味着波特可能面临着把几个富有的、在中国出生的商人列上名单的压力,这些商人的政治捐款开启了去年澳大利亚就中国影响问题的辩论。
        Many of them, including Chau Chak Wing, an Australian citizen and well-known political donor, have denied links to the Communist Party of China.        他们中的许多人,包括澳大利亚公民、有名的政治捐款者周泽荣(Chau Chak Wing)在内,都否认自己与中国共产党有关系。
        Will the attorney general add them anyway?        司法部长仍会把他们列入名单吗?
        “The first prosecutions under the new anti-interference laws are now keenly anticipated,” said Clive Hamilton, the author of a recent book about Chinese interference, “Silent Invasion.” “I expect we will all be surprised at what the authorities reveal.”        “现在备受期待的是用新的反干涉法提起的首批诉讼,”克莱夫·汉密尔顿(Clive Hamilton)说,他是最近出版的关于中国干涉的书《无声的侵略》(Silent Invasion)的作者。“我预计,当局公布的消息将会让我们所有的人吃惊。”
        Speaking from Germany, one of several countries he has visited to discuss Chinese interference, Mr. Hamilton added: “Australia is now leading the world in measures to respond to foreign interference in democratic processes, and our response is being watched closely by other nations.”        汉密尔顿说此番话时人在德国,他为讨论中国干涉问题访问了包括德国在内的一些国家,他补充说,“澳大利亚在应对外国干预民主进程上目前处于世界领先地位,我们的反应正受到其他国家的密切关注。”
        But Stephen FitzGerald, Australia’s first ambassador to China, said that the Australian government may not yet realize the complexity of what it has taken on.        但澳大利亚的首任驻华大使斯蒂芬·菲茨杰拉德(Stephen FitzGerald)说,澳大利亚政府可能尚未意识到自己正在采取的措施的复杂性。
        “I think it is going to be tricky,” he said. Policing foreign influence is always complicated, he said, but “we don’t have a bill of rights in Australia. Governments have consistently rejected the idea, saying we have enough checks and balances in the system.”        “我认为这将会很微妙,”他说。对外国影响进行监管永远是复杂的事情,他说,但“澳大利亚没有权利法案。各届政府一直拒绝考虑权利法案,他们说,我们的体制中有足够的制约与平衡。”
        Australians may soon see, he said, whether those governments were right.        澳大利亚人可能很快会知道那些政府正确与否,他说。
                
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