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China Threatens New Tariffs on $60 Billion of U.S. Goods

来源:纽约时报    2018-08-06 01:41

        BEIJING — China threatened on Friday to tax an additional $60 billion a year worth of imports from the United States if the Trump administration imposes its own new levies on Chinese goods.        北京——周五,中国威胁称,如果特朗普政府对中国商品征收新的关税,就要对额外600亿美元的美国进口商品增税。
        The threat comes just two days after President Trump ordered his administration to consider increasing the rate of tariffs it has already proposed on $200 billion a year of Chinese goods — everything from chemicals to handbags — to 25 percent from 10 percent.        在中国发出这一威胁两天前,特朗普总统命令他的政府考虑,对每年2000亿美元的中国产品征收的关税从10%增加到25%,这些产品包括从化学品到手包在内的各种东西。
        The United States and China, the world’s two biggest economies, have for months been engaged in an escalating trade dispute. While they have targeted each others’ products, the interconnected nature of the global economy has meant that other regions, like Europe, have also been caught up in the back-and-forth.        美国和中国是世界上两个最大的经济体,几个月来一直卷入不断升级的贸易争端。虽然它们只是针对对方的产品,但全球经济的相互关联性意味着欧洲等其他地区也被卷入了这场拉锯战。
        Beijing and Washington imposed matching tariffs last month on $34 billion apiece of each others’ products, and have plans to add another $16 billion worth of goods to their lists. Previous rounds of tariffs cover a lengthy list of products from steel and aluminum to washing machines and even dried fruit.        北京和华盛顿于上个月各自向对方价值340亿美元的产品征收了相应的关税,并计划在它们的名单上再增加价值160亿美元的商品。之前的几轮关税涵盖了许多产品,从钢铝到洗衣机,甚至是干果。
        The latest Chinese tariffs would, if implemented, be up to 25 percent, and cover 5,207 tariff categories, the country’s commerce ministry said in a statement on its website.        中国商务部在其网站上发布的一份声明称,最新的中国关税方案一旦实施,将高达25%,涵盖5207个税目。
        “Because the U.S. side has repeatedly escalated the tension, disregarding the interests of enterprises and consumers of both sides, China has to take necessary countermeasures to defend the country’s dignity and the interests of the Chinese people, defend free trade and the multilateral system, and defend the common interests of all countries in the world,” the ministry said.        “由于美方不顾双方企业和消费者利益,一再升级事态,中国不得不采取必要的反制措施,以捍卫国家尊严和人民利益,捍卫自由贸易和多边体系,捍卫世界各国共同利益,”商务部称。
        China’s decision to threaten $60 billion of American goods is the first time this year that Beijing has not tried to match Washington’s tariffs dollar for dollar. China instead is threatening roughly two-fifths of its purchases from the United States after President Trump threatened two-fifths of China’s much larger exports to the United States, said Tu Xinquan, the executive dean of the China Institute for World Trade Organization Studies at the University of International Business and Economics in Beijing.        中国威胁对600亿美元的美国商品实施关税的决定,是今年北京第一次没有试图向华盛顿征收金额对等的关税。在特朗普总统威胁对中国向美国出口的五分之二产品征收关税后,中国也威胁对大约占来自美国进口量的五分之二征收关税,中国向美国出口的产品要多得多,北京对外经济贸易大学中国世界贸易组织研究院院长屠新泉表示。
        “It’s more proportionate,” Mr. Tu said.        “更多是按比例的,”屠新泉说。
        China wants to find a negotiated solution to the two sides’ trade policy differences, but also could not simply ignore President Trump’s threat earlier this week, Mr. Tu added.        屠新泉还说,中国希望通过谈判解决双方的贸易政策分歧,但也不能简单地忽视特朗普总统本周早些时候的威胁。
        Mr. Trump ordered the Office of the United States Trade Representative on Wednesday to consider the possibility of 25 percent tariffs on $200 billion a year worth of Chinese goods. The 25 percent tariffs could be imposed in place of 10 percent tariffs that are already under discussion. Those tariffs have not taken effect, and a final decision on their size and scope is not expected until next month.        特朗普周三下令美国贸易代表办公室(Office of the United States Trade Representative)考虑对每年价值2000亿美元的中国商品征收25%关税的可能性。这批可能征收的25%关税会用来代替已经在讨论中的10%关税。那些关税尚未生效,其规模和范围的最终决定要到下个月才能作出。
        Beijing did not really have the option of responding dollar for dollar because China simply does not buy that much from the United States. China sells goods each year to the United States worth nearly four times as much as it buys.
        But Chinese officials have suggested in recent weeks that if the United States proceeds with tariffs on a very wide range of Chinese goods, then Beijing may also retaliate against the Chinese-owned operations of big American companies. From Apple to General Motors, a long list of large American enterprises have transferred extensive operations to China and could be vulnerable to any response from Beijing.        但中方官员近几周表示,如果美国对大范围中国商品征收关税,那么北京也可能会对在中国的美国大型公司的业务进行报复。从苹果公司到通用汽车公司,一大批美国大企业已将大量业务转移到中国,北京的任何回应都很容易影响到它们。
        The iPhones, Chevrolets and other products manufactured and sold in China by American companies are mostly designed in the United States, and the Trump administration has declared various Chinese industries to be threatening American national security, illegally copying foreign intellectual property or causing widespread job losses in the United States. China has denied violating international trade norms.        iPhone手机、雪佛兰和其他美国公司在中国制造和销售的产品主要是在美国设计的,特朗普政府已宣布,多个中国产业正在威胁美国国家安全、非法抄袭外国知识产权或给美国造成大量失业。中国否认自己违反国际贸易准则。
        China’s latest threat on trade came at the end of a day during which Beijing also allowed its currency, the renminbi, to slide further against the dollar in foreign exchange markets. The currency is allowed to trade in a daily range set by the central bank.        中国最近的贸易威胁发生在一天结束之际,北京允许人民币兑美元汇率在外汇市场进一步下滑。人民币被允许在中央银行设定的每日交易区间内进行交易。
        China’s central bank has now let the currency slip almost 9 percent since mid-April, when it took less than 6.3 renminbi to buy a dollar. A weaker renminbi makes Chinese exports more competitive in foreign markets, while making imported goods more expensive within China. Government advisers and analysts have said that the government is not deliberately driving the currency down against the dollar to derive a trade advantage, but is being led instead by traders in currency markets, who are increasingly worried about China’s slowing economy and huge debt burden.        自4月中旬以来,中国央行已经让人民币汇率下跌近9%,当时人民币汇率不到一美元兑换6.3元人民币。人民币贬值使中国出口产品在国外市场上更具竞争力,同时令中国进口商品更加昂贵。政府顾问和分析人士表示,政府并没有刻意推动人民币兑美元汇率下跌以获得贸易优势,汇率下跌是由货币市场的交易者引起的,他们越来越担心中国经济放缓和巨额债务负担。
        By adding the option of 25 percent tariffs, however, the Trump administration would have an extra weapon in case the renminbi falls further and gives Chinese exporters an added advantage.        然而,通过增加25%的关税,特朗普政府将拥有额外的武器,以防人民币进一步下跌,从而为中国出口商提供额外的优势。
        The Chinese commerce ministry’s statement appeared to anticipate possible tariff levels that the Trump administration might impose, with the ministry saying that it was mulling tariffs at four possible levels on the $60 billion in goods, ranging from 5 percent to 25 percent.        中国商务部的声明似乎预计到了特朗普政府可能施加的关税水平,它表示,正在考虑对价值600亿美元商品加征四个水平的关税,从5%到25%不等。
        China sold $505.6 billion worth of goods to the United States last year and purchased $130.4 billion. The United States did run a $38.5 billion trade surplus last year with China in services, like banking and insurance. But part of this sum may have represented efforts by worried Chinese families and households to move money out of the country, as opposed to actual purchases of services provided by American companies and individuals.        中国去年向美国出口了价值5056亿美元的商品,进口了价值1304亿美元的商品。去年,在银行和保险等服务业领域,美国对中国确实有385亿美元的贸易顺差。但是,这笔款项的一部分可能代表了焦虑的中国家庭将资金转出国外的努力,而不是用于实际购买美国公司和个人提供的服务。

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