喝多少酒对健康无害?研究称:一杯也不行_OK阅读网
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喝多少酒对健康无害?研究称:一杯也不行
How Much Alcohol Is Safe to Drink? None, Say These Researchers

来源:纽约时报    2018-08-31 04:37



        Just one alcoholic drink a day slightly increases an individual’s risk for health problems, according to a large new study.        一项新的大型研究表明,每天仅喝一杯酒也会导致出现健康问题的风险轻微增加。
        No level of alcohol consumption conferred any health benefits, the authors also concluded — a finding that runs contrary to much previous research and public health guidelines in many countries.        该研究的作者还得出结论,不管喝多少酒,都不会给健康带来任何好处,这一发现与许多国家此前的大量研究和公共卫生指南相悖。
        The analysis, involving 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016, relied on 694 sources of data and analyzed 592 studies to determine the health risks of alcohol use. While the study is among the largest of its kind, it was also observational, linking population-wide consumption to population-wide trends.        该分析涉及1990年至2016年的195个国家和地区,依据694个数据来源,分析了592项研究,以确定饮酒的健康风险。它是同类研究中规模最大的之一,同时也是一项观察性研究,在全体人口的消耗和全体人口的趋势之间建立关联。
        The methods left many experts unconvinced.        许多专家对这项研究的方法持怀疑态度。
        Online in Medium, David Spiegelhalter, a statistician at Cambridge University in England, wrote of the study’s conclusion: “Claiming there is no ‘safe’ level does not seem an argument for abstention. There is no safe level of driving, but governments do not recommend that people avoid driving.”        在Medium网站上,英国剑桥大学(Cambridge University)统计学家戴维·施皮格霍尔特(David Spiegelhalter)在评论该研究的结论时写道:“声称没有‘安全’的饮酒水平,似乎并不构成不喝酒的理由。不存在安全的驾驶水平,但政府并不会因此而建议人们不要开车。”
        The researchers relied on sales data and surveys to estimate the prevalence of drinking in each country and calculated alcohol consumption in standard drinks daily, defined as 10 grams, or about one-third of an ounce, of pure ethyl alcohol — the equivalent of 3.4 ounces of red wine at 13 percent alcohol, 12 ounces of beer at 3.5 percent alcohol or one ounce of 80-proof whiskey.
        研究人员依靠销售数据和调查来估算每个国家的喝酒流行状况,并且计算出每天标准的酒精消耗量,得出的结论是10毫克,也就是三分之一盎司的纯酒精——这相当于3.4盎司酒精含量为13%的红酒、12盎司酒精含量为3.5%的啤酒,或者1盎司标准酒度为80的威士忌。
        They also devised a method for distinguishing alcohol consumption among tourists from that of resident populations, and linked consumption data to 23 health outcomes, ranging from car accidents, suicides and tuberculosis, to liver cirrhosis, cardiovascular disease and cancers.        他们还设计了一种区分游客与常住人口饮酒量的方法,并将消费数据与23种健康后果联系起来,其中包括车祸、自杀,以及肺结核、肝硬化、心血管疾病和癌症。
        In 2016, 25 percent of women and 39 percent of men were currently drinkers — about 2.4 billion people worldwide. Women consumed an average of 0.73 drinks a day, while men had 1.7 drinks.        2016年,25%的女性和39%的男性是饮酒者——全球的饮酒人数达到24亿。女性平均每天喝0.73杯酒,而男性每天喝1.7杯。
        Rates of alcohol consumption vary widely by country, but in general the higher a country’s income level, the higher the prevalence of drinking.        不同国家的酒精消费量存在巨大差异,但总体来说,一个国家的收入水平越高,饮酒的流行程度也就越高。
        The study, published in the Lancet, concluded that alcohol consumption is involved in 2.8 million deaths annually worldwide, making it the seventh leading risk factor for death and disability.        发表在《柳叶刀》(Lancet)杂志上的这项研究得出的结论是,全球每年有280万人死于喝酒,使其成为导致死亡和残疾的第七大风险因素。
        Among people aged 15 to 49, alcohol use is the single most common risk factor for death and disability. In 2016, alcohol accounted for 6.8 percent of male and 2.2 percent of female deaths.        在15岁至49岁的人群中,喝酒是导致死亡和残疾的最常见风险因素。2016年,6.8%的男性和2.2%的女性死于酒精。
        “The main difference between alcohol and smoking is that no one is surprised that smoking is bad,” said the lead author, Emmanuela Gakidou, a professor of health metrics sciences at the University of Washington.        该研究的第一作者、华盛顿大学(University of Washington)的健康计量科学教授埃马努埃拉·贾齐杜(Emmanuela Gakidou)说,“酒精和吸烟之间的主要区别是,没人会对抽烟不好感到惊讶。”
        “But there’s a lot of surprise, even among experts, that alcohol is as bad for you as it is.”        “但即便是在专家当中,也有很多人惊讶酒精有害健康。”
        Many studies and most health guidelines suggest that moderate drinking — one or two drinks a day — is safe and may even reduce the risk of heart disease, stroke or diabetes.        许多研究和大多数健康指南都显示,适量饮酒——一天一两杯——是安全的,甚至有可能降低心脏病、中风或糖尿病的风险。
        But Dr. Gakidou and her colleagues found that just one drink a day for one year increases alcohol-related health problems slightly, to 918 per 100,000 people from 914 per 100,000.        但贾齐杜和她的同事们发现,每天喝一杯酒,一年下来,也会导致与酒精相关的健康问题轻微增加,出问题的人从每10万人当中914人增加到了918人。
                
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