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挥别炮火与敌意,金门接受中国大陆示好
Once a Cold War Flashpoint, a Part of Taiwan Embraces China’s Pull

来源:纽约时报    2018-09-03 04:47



        KINMEN COUNTY, Taiwan — The islands of Kinmen County, and the Nationalist troops stationed there, withstood artillery shelling from China long after the Communist victory in the Chinese civil war.        台湾金门县——在共产党取得了中国内战胜利后的很长时间里,金门县的岛屿和驻扎在那里的国民党军队经受住了来自中国的炮击。
        Today, relations between China and Kinmen, just miles apart, are very different indeed.        中国和金门相隔仅数英里,今天,它们之间的关系确实非常不同了。
        Kinmen, about twice the size of Manhattan, has been governed from Taiwan since the defeated Nationalists fled China for the islands in 1949. But Taiwan’s main island is 140 miles away, while China looms visibly in the near distance. That distance is narrowing — both literally and figuratively.        金门的面积大约是曼哈顿的两倍,自1949年被击败的国民党逃离中国以来,这里的岛屿一直由台湾统治。但台湾主岛距它有140英里(约合225公里),而中国却近在眼前。如今这个距离还在缩小——无论是从字面意义还是从比喻的意义来说。
        A new airport for the Chinese city of Xiamen is being built just north of Kinmen, on an island three miles away, and land reclamation for that project will bring Chinese territory almost a mile closer.        中国城市厦门正在金门以北3英里(约合4.8公里)的一座岛上修建新机场,这个项目填海造地将使中国同金门的距离缩短至1英里(约合1.6公里)。
        A proposed bridge to the Xiamen airport from Kinmen would essentially eliminate the remaining gap. Last month, China began supplying Kinmen with drinking water through a new 10-mile pipeline. And Kinmen will probably soon get cheaper electricity from its onetime enemy.        拟建的从金门通往厦门机场的大桥将从根本上消除剩余的距离。上个月,中国开始通过新修建的10英里(约合16公里)管道向金门供水。金门还可能很快会从其曾经的敌人那里获得更便宜的电力。
        The Aug. 5 ceremony to open the pipeline underscored how much Kinmen, home to about 130,000 people, has been pulled into the orbit of China, whose ruling Communist Party has never controlled Taiwan and wants to annex it.        8月5日,新供水管道的开通仪式表明,大约有13万人居住的金门已被拉入中国的轨道;中国执政的共产党从未控制过台湾,并且希望吞并台湾。
        Liu Jieyi, the director of Beijing’s Taiwan Affairs Office, used his speech at the ceremony on the island to demand that self-governing, democratic Taiwan accept the “One China” policy, which declares that Taiwan and China are part of the same country.        北京的台湾事务办公室主任刘结一在该岛举行的仪式上发表讲话时,要求自治、民主的台湾接受“一个中国”的政策,即台湾和中国属于同一个国家。
        “The vast populace of Taiwan will certainly make the correct choice,” Mr. Liu said.        “广大台湾民众一定会做出正确的抉择,”刘结一说。
        He almost certainly wouldn’t have made such a speech on Taiwan’s main island, where suspicion of China runs high. When Mr. Liu’s predecessor toured Taiwan in 2014, he was met with protests in multiple cities and his car was splashed with paint.        几乎可以肯定,他无法在台湾主岛上发表这样的讲话,那里对中国猜疑的情绪正在高涨。刘结一的前任于2014年访问台湾时,在多个城市遭到抗议,车上被泼了油漆。
        Wang Ting-yu, a Taiwanese lawmaker with the Democratic Progressive Party, said the freedom and democracy enjoyed in Kinmen made it unlikely that its residents would want to be part of authoritarian China. But he said China’s ruling Communist Party had had some success on the island with so-called United Front tactics, under which it works with non-Communist groups to achieve its goals.        台湾的民进党立法委员王定宇表示,金门享有自由民主,因此居民不太可能愿意成为威权主义中国的一部分。但他表示,中国执政的共产党在该岛采取所谓的“统一战线”战术,与非共产党团体合作实现其目标,并取得了一些成功。
        “As far as bringing Kinmen closer to China, I’d say at present it still looks doubtful,” Mr. Wang said, “but you can’t deny that the resources China has invested in United Front work in Kinmen have had a certain effect.”        “要拉拢金门,我说现在还不太可能,”王定宇说。“但你不能否认中国在金门的统战工作投入的资源产生了一定的效果。”
        Chen Fu-hai, the magistrate of Kinmen County, who shared the stage with Mr. Liu at the pipeline ceremony, said he wasn’t concerned that the water supply would give China political leverage.        与刘结一一同出席通水仪式的金门县县长陈福海说,他并不担心供水会增加中国的政治影响力。
        “I think China and Taiwan should have more interaction,” he said in an interview.        “我认为中国和台湾应该有更多交流,”他在接受采访时说。
        The new pipeline will provide Kinmen with 30 percent of its tap water, making up for strains on water supplies from growing Chinese tourism, environmental factors and the two sorghum liquor distilleries that provide most of the county’s tax revenue.        新管道将为金门提供30%的自来水,弥补中国游客增长、环境因素以及金门税收大户——两家高粱酒厂所带来的供水压力。
        On a recent hot afternoon at Kinmen’s Tianpo Reservoir, where the pipeline from China empties, Hong Yanming, a Kinmen resident, called the new water connection a “joyous occasion for both sides of the Taiwan Strait.” She was taking photos with friends and family visiting from China.        前不久一个炎热的下午,中国的输水管将水注入金门的田埔水库,当地居民洪艳明(音)说,这个新的供水系统是“海峡两岸的欢乐庆典”。她和来自中国的朋友与家人合影留念。
        Ms. Hong moved to Kinmen from China 24 years ago after marrying a local man. She is one of a few thousand Chinese women to have married Kinmenese men in the last three decades, one aspect of the growing ties between Kinmen and China. Many Kinmenese own property or do business in China.        24年前,洪艳明与一名当地男子结婚后,从中国搬到了金门。在过去30年里,有数千名中国女性嫁到金门,这也是金门与中国之间关系日益密切的一个方面。许多金门人在中国有房产或者做生意。
        She said her home village, Weitou, was next to the lake that is now feeding the reservoir here. “There are about 40 women from Weitou village here in Kinmen,” she said. “I’m so happy — now we can all drink water from our hometown.”        洪艳明说,她的家乡围头村就位于给这里供水的湖边。 “金门大概有40个围头的女人,”她说。“我很开心——现在我们都能喝到家乡的水了。”
        As in mainland Taiwan, identity can be a complicated question for people born in Kinmen. The older generation tends to identify more as Chinese than Taiwanese, while younger people often view China’s growing influence warily.        和台湾本岛一样,对于在金门出生的人来说,身份定位可能是一个复杂的问题。老一辈人更倾向于认为自己是中国人,而不是台湾人;而年轻人往往对中国日益增长的影响力保持警惕。
        The island, along with adjacent Lesser Kinmen, was shelled sporadically by China from the 1950s through the late 1970s. It was heavily militarized and cut off even from mainland Taiwan until 1992, when martial law on Kinmen ended — five years later than in the rest of Taiwan — and residents participated in their first local elections.        从上世纪50年代到70年代末,这个岛屿以及邻近的小金门不时遭到中国的炮击。在1992年解除军事戒严以前,它一直处于高度军事化状态,甚至与台湾本岛隔绝。金门军事戒严的解除比台湾其他地区晚了5年,在这以后,居民们才参加了他们的第一次地方选举。
        Kinmen, unlike mainland Taiwan, did not spend half a century as a Japanese colony; it was a Chinese territory for most of that time. Such stark differences in their experiences, as well as the distance between the islands, have made the relationship awkward.        与台湾本岛不同,金门没有成为半个世纪的日本殖民地;在那段历史的大部分时间里,它都是中国领土。在经历上的如此明显的差异,以及岛屿之间的距离,使金门和台湾本岛的关系变得尴尬。
        Tourists visiting Kinmen from mainland Taiwan might find it odd to hear a resident speak of “going to Taiwan” for school or work, implying that Kinmen isn’t part of Taiwan.        当金门居民说“去台湾”上学或工作,好像金门不属于台湾一样时,从台湾本岛来到金门观光的游客可能会觉得奇怪。
        Many Kinmenese say they’ve been abandoned by Taipei, Taiwan’s capital, since the arrival of democracy. Mr. Chen, an independent politician who is Kinmen’s first elected magistrate not to be a member of the Nationalists, or Kuomintang, said none of Taiwan’s elected presidents had paid enough attention to the county’s needs.        许多金门居民说,自从民主制度建立后,他们就被台北——台湾的首府抛弃了。陈先生是一名独立政客,也是金门第一个不属于国民党的民选县长。他说,没有一个台湾民选总统对金门县的需要给予足够的关注。
        After Kinmen’s demilitarization in 1992, he said, “we lacked water, we lacked electricity and we lacked roads — we had nothing.”        1992年金门非军事化后,他说,“我们没有水,没有电,没有道路,什么都没有。”
        Economically, he said, Kinmen has largely had to fend for itself since then, relying primarily on sorghum liquor sales and, more recently, Chinese tourism. Ferry services to mainland China began in 2001, and Kinmen’s view of its giant neighbor has been softening since then.        他说,从经济上讲,从那以后,金门基本上不得不自食其力,主要依靠高粱酒的销售,以及最近的中国旅游业。通往中国大陆的渡轮服务始于2001年,此后金门对这个庞大邻居的看法一直在软化。
        “Right now, actually, I see the mainland as also being quite democratic, at least what I’ve seen in Xiamen,” Mr. Chen said of the booming Chinese city nearby. Asked to clarify that, he said he meant that the local government departments he’d met with had been “quite open.”        “现在,实际上,我认为大陆也是相当民主的,至少我在厦门看到的是这样。”陈先生在提到附近繁荣的中国城市时说。当被要求进一步说明时,他说,他的意思是,他会见的相关地方政府部门“相当开放”。
        Lauren Dickey, a researcher at King’s College London who specializes in Beijing-Taiwan relations, said China’s pull on Kinmen was only natural.        伦敦大学国王学院(King s College London)研究北京与台湾关系的研究员劳伦·迪基(Lauren Dickey)表示,中国对金门的吸引力是自然的。
        “If the local government on Kinmen is not finding the central government in Taipei to be meeting its needs, then it is perhaps only logical that the Kinmen government would reach out to the geographically closest resources to ensure needs are met,” she said.        她说,“如果金门地方政府发现台北中央政府并不能满足其需求,那么为确保需求得到满足,金门政府接触地理上最接近的资源或许是合乎逻辑的。”
        In the shadow of Xiamen’s urban buzz, much of Kinmen’s population has been hollowed out, with young people opting to move to the Taiwanese mainland or to China. Most of its photogenic traditional villages are only about one-third occupied, with many of the old courtyard homes in disrepair.        在厦门城市喧嚣的阴影下,金门的大部分人口已经被掏空。许多年轻人选择搬到台湾或中国大陆。那些风光秀美的传统村庄大多只剩下三分之一的人口,许多老院子年久失修。
        Some young people who have stayed say the political climate has changed.        一些留下来的年轻人说,政治气候已经改变。
        Wang Ting-chi returned to Kinmen after six years in New York and founded a company, Local Methodology, to provide a nongovernmental platform for promoting Kinmen culture. She said she was concerned that Kinmenese felt like “orphans” because of the distance from Taiwan’s main island, and that they might be tempted by overtures from an increasingly powerful China.        王莛颀在纽约工作6年后回到金门,成立了一家名为“敬土豆”的公司,为推广金门文化提供一个非政府的平台。她说她担心,由于与台湾主岛相距遥远,金门人感觉自己像“孤儿”,他们可能会被日益强大的中国的示好所诱惑。
        People who express concerns about Chinese influence, Ms. Wang said, are often dismissed as naïve. “I think Kinmen is going off on its own to establish relations with China,” she said.        王莛颀说,那些对中国影响表示担忧的人往往不被理会,被认为是天真。她说:“我觉得金门将会独立运作,和中国建立关系。”
                
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