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美国从与台湾断交的拉美三国召回外交官
U.S. Recalls Top Diplomats From Latin America as Worries Rise Over China’s Influence

来源:纽约时报    2018-09-10 09:55



        WASHINGTON — The United States has recalled three chiefs of mission from Latin American nations that cut diplomatic ties with Taiwan in favor of recognizing China.        华盛顿——美国召回了三名驻拉丁美洲国家的使团团长,这三个国家最近为了承认中国,与台湾断绝了外交关系。
        The move comes as American officials have expressed growing unease over China’s rising influence in the region.
        此举正值华盛顿官员对中国在拉美地区不断增长的影响表达越来越多的不安。
        The diplomats, who represent the United States in the Dominican Republic, El Salvador and Panama, will meet with leaders in Washington “to discuss ways in which the United States can support strong, independent, democratic institutions throughout Central America and the Caribbean,” a spokeswoman for the State Department, Heather Nauert, said in a written statement on Friday.        美国驻多米尼加共和国、萨尔瓦多和巴拿马的外交官将在华盛顿与领导人见面,以“探讨美国如何在中美洲和加勒比地区支持坚强、独立、民主的制度,”美国国务院发言人希瑟·诺尔特(Heather Nauert)周五在一份书面声明中说。
        For decades, Taiwan and China have competed for recognition. In 1979, the United States switched its support and officially established sovereign relations with China, and many other countries followed. But Washington has supported any decisions by nations to continue recognizing Taiwan, a self-governing island that China wants to bring under Communist Party rule.        几十年来,台湾和中国一直在竞相得到他国的承认。1979年,美国改变了对台湾的支持,正式与中国建立了主权关系。但华盛顿支持任何各国继续承认台湾的决定。台湾是一个自治的岛屿,中国希望将其置于共产党统治之下。
        In recent years, China has had success in courting Taiwan’s diplomatic partners. Only 17 nations recognize Taiwan; outside the Vatican and Swaziland, they are all islands in the Pacific and the Caribbean or countries in Latin America.
        近年来,中国在争取台湾的外交伙伴方面取得了成功。只剩下17个国家仍承认台湾;除了梵蒂冈和斯威士兰,其他的都是太平洋和加勒比海的岛国或拉丁美洲国家。
        American officials have expressed growing concern over the shift. The United States sells arms to Taiwan and maintains a diplomatic presence there, called the American Institute in Taiwan, now housed in a new $250 million compound. American officials see Taiwan’s de facto independence as an important hedge against Chinese dominance in the Asia-Pacific region — what the United States now calls the Indo-Pacific as it tries to strengthen ties with South Asian nations to balance against China.        美国官员对这种转变表示了越来越多的担忧。美国向台湾出售武器,并在那里保留着一个名为“美国在台协会”(American Institute in Taiwan)的外交机构,目前该机构位于一个造价2.5亿美元的新馆内。美国官员把台湾事实上的独立视为对抗中国在亚太地区主导地位的一个重要手段——随着美国为了制衡中国,试图加强与南亚国家的关系,美国现已改称亚太地区为“印太”地区(Indo-Pacific)。
        Last month, El Salvador severed ties with Taiwan, prompting the White House to accuse China of “apparent interference” in El Salvador’s domestic politics. American officials fear that the four nations in Central America that still recognize Taiwan — Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua — could soon follow. Last May, Burkina Faso switched recognition to China, leaving Swaziland as the lone holdout in Africa.        上个月,萨尔瓦多与台湾断交,引起白宫指责中国对萨尔瓦多内政的“显然干涉”。美国官员担心,中美洲仍然承认台湾的四个国家——伯利兹、危地马拉、洪都拉斯和尼加拉瓜——可能很快也会倒戈。今年5月,布基纳法索转向承认中国,让斯威士兰成为非洲唯一拒绝承认中国的国家。
        In June 2017, Panama cut ties with Taiwan, which surprised the United States government. The American ambassador to Panama at the time, John Feeley, said he learned about the switch from the president, Juan Carlos Varela, only an hour or so before Mr. Varela announced it, and only because he had called Mr. Varela to discuss an unrelated matter.        2017年6月,巴拿马与台湾断交,让美国政府感到意外。美国当时的驻巴拿马大使约翰·费利(John Feeley)说,他是在胡安·卡洛斯·瓦雷拉(Juan Carlos Varela)总统宣布断交大约一小时前,才从瓦雷拉那里得知这一消息的,而且只是因为他为了讨论一件无关的事情,给瓦雷拉打了电话。
        Mr. Feeley, who left his post in March and is now a consultant for Univision, said in an interview on Saturday that the recall of top American diplomats was significant.        费利已于今年3月离任,目前是Univision的顾问。他在上周六接受采访时说,美国召回高级外交官意义重大。
        The diplomats returning to Washington are Robin Bernstein, ambassador to the Dominican Republic; Jean Manes, ambassador to El Salvador; and Roxanne Cabral, the chargé d’affaires in Panama. A State Department official said they would return to their posts by Sept. 14.        返回华盛顿的外交官是驻多米尼加共和国大使罗宾·伯恩斯坦(Robin Bernstein),驻萨尔瓦多大使珍·曼内斯(Jean Manes),以及驻巴拿马代办罗克珊·卡布拉尔(Roxanne Cabral)。美国国务院一名官员表示,这三人将于9月14日之前返回岗位。
        The move “is an appropriate and serious signal by the U.S. government to those three countries and to the Chinese government that it is now reviewing the implications of the diplomatic switch and is worried that U.S. interests could be jeopardized,” Mr. Feeley said.        此举“是美国政府向这三个国家和中国政府发出的一个适当且严重的信号,表明美国正在评估这种外交关系改变的影响,担心美国的利益可能会受到损害,”费利说。
        “My sense is that they will be most focused on the issue of industrial and commercial espionage and the possibility of Beijing using its embassies to expand that activity in those countries and the Caribbean Basin,” he added.        “我的感觉是,他们最关注的将是工商业间谍的问题,以及北京方面利用其大使馆扩大在这些国家和加勒比海地区间谍活动的可能性,”他补充说。
        China is now the world’s second-largest economy and is expected to overtake the United States as the largest one in 10 to 15 years.        中国现在是世界第二大经济体,预计将在未来10到15年内超过美国,成为世界最大经济体。
        It is difficult for any nation, especially a small one, to decide not to recognize the sovereignty of China.        让任何国家、尤其是小国不承认中国的主权相当困难。
        China and Taiwan have long engaged in what some observers call “checkbook diplomacy” to woo countries by offering aid or other incentives. China’s financial packages have increased in recent years, especially as it has promoted infrastructure projects abroad and related loans and contracts as part of what it calls its Belt and Road Initiative.        中国和台湾长期从事被一些观察人士称为“支票簿外交”的活动,通过提供援助或其他激励措施来争取他国的支持。中国提供的资助金额近年来有所增加,尤其是在中国推动的基础建设项目上,以及与中国称之为“一带一路”倡议有关的贷款和合同上。
        Jorge Guajardo, a former Mexican ambassador to China, said on Saturday that the recall was “heavy handed.” The United States should not be surprised as Latin American governments push back against American requests, he added, when President Trump has continued to alienate the people of Latin America.        墨西哥前驻华大使豪尔赫·瓜哈尔多(Jorge Guajardo)上周六说,召回使节是一种“高压手段”。他补充说,在特朗普总统继续疏远拉丁美洲人民的时候,拉美国家政府拒绝美国的要求,美国不应该感到惊讶。
        “Trump has openly and systematically offended Latin American countries and their people,” Mr. Guajardo wrote in an email. “He labels us as rapists and criminals, has never traveled to the region as president, has deported and separated families, and threatened to cut all sort of aid. China comes with an offer of friendship and economic development (albeit one that I don’t think will pan out). Why the surprise?”        “特朗普已几次公开地、有意地冒犯了拉美国家及其人民,”瓜哈尔多在一封电子邮件中写道。“他给我们贴上强奸犯和罪犯的标签,从未以总统的身份去过这个地区,他驱逐移民、拆散家庭,还威胁要切断所有形式的援助。中国以提供友谊和经济发展机会(尽管我认为这不会成功)的姿态来到这里。有什么可惊讶的?”
        The United States has yet to fill some ambassador posts in the region, including those in Mexico and Panama, Mr. Guajardo noted, whereas China has assigned ambassadors in all Latin American nations with which it has diplomatic relations.        美国在该地区的一些大使职位一直空缺着,包括驻墨西哥和巴拿马的大使职位,瓜哈尔多指出,而中国已向所有与之有外交关系的拉美国家派驻了大使。
        “Save a few countries in Latin America, the region as a whole has a historical preference for the U.S. as the main ally,” he said. “This changed when Trump assumed the presidency. It was his call, his choice, to turn away from the region.”        “除了拉丁美洲的少数国家外,整个拉美地区在历史上都倾向于把美国作为主要盟友,”他说。“特朗普就任总统后,情况发生了变化。是他决定、他选择离开这个地区的。”
        China has grown more strident over the issue of Taiwan since Tsai Ing-wen, a strong critic of Beijing, became president of Taiwan in May 2016. Chinese officials have worked to erase any recognition by corporations of Taiwan’s sovereignty. For example, they successfully pressured international airlines this summer, including those in the United States, to list just “Taipei,” a city designation, in their booking systems rather than phrases that included “Taiwan,” as was the case for decades.        自从强烈批评北京的蔡英文于2016年5月担任台湾总统以来,中国在台湾问题上变得更加强硬。中国官员一直在努力消除任何企业对台湾主权的承认。比如,今年夏天,中国官员成功地向国际航空公司(包括美国公司在内)施压,要求它们在订票系统中只把“台北”作为一个城市列出,而不是像过去几十年那样使用“台湾”的说法。
        Last month, Ms. Tsai made state visits to Belize and Paraguay to try to strengthen ties with those nations.        上个月,蔡英文对伯利兹和巴拉圭进行了国事访问,试图加强与这两个国家的关系。
                
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