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人类对汪星人的十大误解
Is your dog happy? Ten common misconceptions about dog behavior

来源:中国日报    2018-09-12 08:38



        Myth #1: Dogs have a human appreciation of sharing        误解1:狗像人一样,懂得分享。
        Humans can rationalize and appreciate the benefits of sharing. In contrast, among dogs, possession is ten-tenths of the law.        人类能够合理分析和重视分享的益处。相反,狗的世界里只有占领。
        So we should not take toys, bones and chews away from dogs unless we have trained them to accept this form of intervention.        所以,我们不应该从狗狗那里夺走玩具、骨头、咀嚼物等,除非它们曾接受训练,能够接受这种干预举动。
        Myth #2: Dogs always enjoy common human physical displays of affection        误解2:狗狗总是享受人类表达感情的举动。
        Humans often show their affection for others by hugging and cuddling them. Dogs simply do not have the limbs and joints to achieve this and so have not evolved to give each other a loving squeeze.        人类通过拥抱和搂抱表达感情。然而,狗没有进化出相应的肢体结构。
        When embraced by humans, many can find this uncomfortable or threatening. The same goes for patting dogs on the head.        因此,被人类拥抱时,它们常常感到不适或受威胁。拍打狗狗脑袋也是同样的道理。
        Myth #3: Barking and growling dogs are always threatening or dangerous        误解3:叫唤或怒吠的狗一定具有威胁性或很危险。
        These are distance-increasing behaviors. The dogs using these signals are chiefly trying to buy space so they can feel safer. All dogs, regardless of their temperament or training, can at times want more space.        它们之所以叫唤,主要是为了获得更多空间,让自己拥有安全感。无论性情如何,无论是否受过训练,任何狗狗在有些时候都想要有更多的空间。
        They usually try more subtle signalling first, but many dogs learn that subtle signals don't work and go straight for shouting.        它们通常会先尝试微妙的暗示。不过,很多狗狗知道暗示没用,所以就直接叫唤了。
        Myth #4: Dogs will welcome unfamiliar dogs to their home        误解4:狗会欢迎陌生狗来家里。
        Dogs evolved from wolves and are therefore primed to defend what is theirs. They have an attachment to their home territory and the resources within it. Dogs have no way of knowing that the dogs and human we invite around to our home, for example for a play-date, are ever going to leave. They can be forgiven for thinking that this is the way it is going to be from hereon.        狗从狼演化而来,因此防御性非常强。它们对自家地盘和内部资源具有依恋性。它们不知道我们邀请来的狗狗和客人聚会结束后会离开,很可能以为他们会永远待在此地。
        So it is to be expected that they will often try to lay out the local ground-rules and put the new arrivals in their place.        因此,它们常常会施展地盘法则,不让新来者“入侵”。
        Myth #5: Dogs like relaxing as much as humans do        误解5:狗和人一样,喜欢放松。
        We go to work and go to school, so we greatly value the opportunity to chill out at home and maybe watch TV. In contrast, dogs spend most of their time at home and so value exercise off the property far more than time spent on the sofa.        人类需要上学、上班,因此非常珍视待在家里休息和看电视的时间。狗恰恰相反,它们大部分时间都待在家里,因此更喜欢到户外玩耍,而不是待在沙发上。
        Myth #6: An effusive dog is a friendly dog        误解6:“热情洋溢”的狗是友好的狗。
        "Friendly" for one dog is not friendly for all dogs, and some dogs use excessive friendliness as a way to alleviate anxiety associated with meeting another dog or human.        狗狗们表示友好的方式不全都一样。有些狗狗会表现出过分的热情,以缓解和其它狗或人见面的焦虑。
        Owners of very friendly dogs may be surprised when every other dog does not cheerfully receive their dog. Some dogs prefer sedate greetings, and lots of personal space.        一些非常友好的狗狗的主人在其他狗狗没有表现出同样的友好时会感到吃惊。其实,有些狗狗喜欢沉着冷静的打招呼方式和大量的私密空间。
        Myth #7: Dogs approach when they want to engage playfully        误解7:狗接近对方,是想一起玩耍。
        Sometimes owners are confused when a dog approaches a human or another dog in a friendly fashion and then growls or snaps at them.        有时候,狗狗会以友好姿态接近其它狗或人,然后却开始咆哮或猛咬。这让一些主人感到很迷惑。
        These dogs may be motivated to approach chiefly to gain information, rather than to interact, and some may like strangers in principle, but nevertheless become anxious and overwhelmed all of a sudden.        它们之所以接近对方,主要是为了获取信息,而非交流互动。有些狗也许喜欢陌生人,但会突然感到焦虑或不知所措。
        If you are seeing this pattern, call your dog away from new dogs and humans after a couple of seconds.        如果你看到这种现象,就赶紧把狗叫回来。
        Myth #8: A big yard can replace walks        误解8:院子够大,就可以不遛狗。
        Because dogs spend so much time at home in the yard, they often find the area a little too familiar and sometimes rather dull. The size of a yard is far less important to dogs than what happens in it.        狗狗一直待在院子里,容易由于太过熟悉而感到无聊。院子大小不重要,有什么活动才重要。
        Dogs truly thrive on play with each other, with us and with toys. They particularly love to do so in a novel environment, so time spent out of the yard is the very best of fun.        狗狗喜欢玩耍——和主人、和其它狗、和玩具。它们尤其喜欢在新鲜环境里玩耍。所以,出门遛狗最能让狗狗开心。
        Myth #9: Dogs are wilfully defiant when they don't do as they are told        误解9:狗不服从命令时,就是存心违抗我们。
        Rather than deciding to disobey us, dogs sometimes simply can't do what we ask them to. Either they don't actually know what we're asking them to do, or they have much, much more pressing things to do at the time.        有时候,它们不是“决定违抗命令”,只是做不到罢了——要么不知道我们在下达指令,要么正在做更迫切的事情。
        Dogs are not great at generalizing, so just because they sit nicely when asked to in the kitchen when you have treats in your hand doesn't mean they automatically know what "sit" means when they are at the off-leash dog park.        狗狗不擅长“归纳总结”,因此,“坐”这个指令当你在厨房里手拿狗食的时候也许有效,当你在狗公园里解开狗绳的时候就无效了。
        And while your dogs might know what "sit" means when being trained at home without distractions, asking them to do so when visitors are at the door.        另外,你的狗狗在家专心训练时也许知道“坐”的意思,但当客人来访时下指令的话它就会容易不知所措。
        Myth #10: Barking, snapping, or lunging is the first sign of an unhappy dog        误解10:狗不开心时,第一信号就是叫唤、撕咬和猛扑。
        Dogs often give subtle signs they are becoming anxious, like avoiding eye contact with whatever is worrying them, licking lips, brow furrows, lifting a paw, tightening muscles in their face.        感到焦虑时,狗狗通常会先传递微妙的信号,例如回避眼神接触、舔嘴唇、皱脑门子、抬起一只爪、面部肌肉紧张。
        If nothing is done to help these dogs move away from whatever is worrying them, these signs can often escalate to more troubling behavior that is more obvious, such as growling and snapping.        如果没有采取任何缓解狗狗焦虑的措施,那么信号才会升级成更明显的令人不安的举动,例如咆哮、撕咬等。
                
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