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金钱可以买来幸福,但财富也是一种负担
Balancing the Benefit and the Burden of Wealth

来源:纽约时报    2018-09-28 02:49



        So much for that old saw that money can’t buy happiness. A new survey of people who have built significant wealth on their own found that money has actually bought them a lot of happiness.        金钱买不到幸福的老话,可以休矣。一项针对靠奋斗积累起巨额财富的人所做的新调查发现,金钱的确给他们带去了很多的幸福。
        The majority of those surveyed — 300 people with assets of $1 million to $20 million — said they equated wealth first and foremost with peace of mind. Happiness came in second, with more than half of the respondents citing it.        300名资产在100万至2000万美元之间的受访者当中,大多数人都表示财富首先带来的是内心的宁静。幸福感次之——有超过半数的受访者提到了这一点。
        But life with money is not all Champagne and caviar. The respondents said that their wealth made them feel satisfied and grateful, but it also gave them a greater sense of responsibility. Many cherished the way their wealth had allowed them to spend time with their families, but some regretted losing the family time they had sacrificed in the pursuit of financial freedom.        但有钱的生活并非全是香槟和鱼子酱。受访者表示,财富让他们感到满足和感激,但也给他们带来了更大的责任感。许多人都很珍视财富所带来的与家人共度时光的方式,但也有人后悔在追求财务自由的过程中牺牲了与家人共处的时间。
        Such inherent tension between freedom and obligation ran, to varying degrees, through all age groups in the survey, which was conducted by CoreData Research in February and March.        自由与责任之间内在的紧张关系,在不同程度上贯穿于此次调查的所有年龄组。该调查由CoreData研究公司于今年2月和3月进行。
        Affluent Americans ages 25 to 65 were asked a series of questions about their attitudes toward wealth. Respondents were categorized by age, wealth level and whether they were business owners or employees. The more the responses were parsed by category, the more complications arose. About half of all respondents said the sacrifices they had made to accumulate such wealth meant they had spent less time with friends and family.        这次调查向25岁到65岁的富裕美国人提出了一系列跟财富态度有关的问题。受访者依年龄、富裕程度以及他们是企业主还是雇员进行分类。按类别对回复进行的分析越多,情况就越复杂。约半数的受访者表示,为积累这些财富所做的牺牲,意味着与朋友和家人共处的时间变少了。
        That regret rose to nearly two-thirds for people at the higher end of the wealth range in the study. More than half of business owners felt it, too, outpacing people who had accumulated their wealth by working for someone else.        在该研究中处在更为富裕那一端的人当中,持遗憾态度的比例上升到了近三分之二。超过半数的企业主也有同感,这个比例高于通过为其他人工作而积累起财富的人。
        “It’s the guilt over the time it took away from the family,” said David Murphy, head of wealth advisory at Boston Private, a wealth management firm that commissioned the study. “There’s a lot of emotion built into growing the business and the time it takes to do that. The employees also become part of the extended family.”        “随着时间的推移,与家人在一起的时间越来越少,这让人在心里觉得对不起他们,”该研究的委托方、财富管理公司Boston Private的财富咨询负责人戴维·墨菲(David Murphy)表示。“企业的成长需要投入很多的情感,而且这很耗时间。员工则成为了某种意义上的家人。”
        The results of the survey, titled “The Why of Wealth,” hint at what the more sophisticated advisers already know: The days of focusing solely on investment returns are on the wane.        这份名为《财富原因》(The Why of Wealth)的调查结果显示出那些经验丰富的顾问们早已经知道的事情:仅关注投资回报的日子正在过去。
        That goal is still important, but the most affluent want help with the more complicated aspects of wealth. They are also the demographic that wealth managers seek, often at the expense of people still building their wealth. This may explain why Boston Private paid for the study.        投资回报这个目标仍然重要,但最富裕的人希望在较精致的财富层面得到帮助。他们也是财富管理公司的目标人群,而仍处在财富积累阶段的人,这些管理公司则往往看不上眼。这或许可以解释为什么Boston Private要出钱做这个研究。
        I talked to some people who fit in this wealth cohort. What I found is something that won’t surprise anyone who struggles to pay their bills: More money is better than less. But that financial comfort does not make the feelings around wealth any less difficult.        我和一些属于这个阶层的人交谈过。入不敷出的人对我的发现不会感到意外:钱多就是比钱少好。但财富慰藉并没有让围绕着财富的种种感受变得轻松起来。
        Jane Daly, who was passionate about public transportation during her days growing up in Providence, R.I., turned a public sector transit career into a lucrative private sector venture when she and two partners started Alternate Concepts, which operates and maintains transportation systems.        简·戴利(Jane Daly)在罗德岛州普罗维登斯长大,从小对公共交通很感兴趣,她把一个属于公共部门的运输职业变成了利润丰厚的私营企业,与两名合伙人一起创办了Alternate Concepts公司,做运输系统的运营和维护。
        “Wealth wasn’t my goal,” said Ms. Daly, 62. “I wanted the company to be successful because we had a lot of families depending on us. But I’m grateful my career ended in such a way that the wealth gave me the freedom I wouldn’t have had otherwise.”        “财富并非我的目标,”62岁的戴利说。“我希望公司能取得成功,因为有很多家庭指望着我们。但我很感激自己的职业生涯有这样一个结果,财富给了我通过其他方式不会拥有的自由。
        That freedom allows her to support and run an educational nonprofit called the Rising Stars Foundation in Puerto Rico.        这种自由使她能够在波多黎各支持、运营一个名为新星基金会的非营利教育机构。
        Others I talked to also said they felt an obligation be a force for change.        与我交谈过的其他人也表示,他们觉得有义务成为变革力量。
        “For me, at an early age, wealth was about being able to create the change you wish to see in the world,” said Elizabeth Galbut Perelman, 29, a co-founder of SoGal Ventures, which has invested in more than 50 companies in the past two years.        “对我来讲,我很早就看到,财富就是能够创造出你想在世界上看到的变化,”29岁的伊丽莎白·加尔布特·佩雷尔曼(Elizabeth Galbut Perelman)说道,她是创投公司SoGal Ventures的联合创始人,在过去的两年里,该风投已经投资了50多家公司。
        Ms. Galbut Perelman said her mother had to give up her career as a doctor when she temporarily lost her sight while performing surgery. It was a complication of multiple sclerosis.        加尔布特·佩雷尔曼说,她母亲在给人做手术时暂时失明,因而不得不放弃自己的行医生涯。病因是多发性硬化的并发症。
        That motivated her to focus on how wealth can be harnessed to fund women-owned companies that are looking to create change. She has invested in companies like EverlyWell, which provides affordable at-home lab testing, and Winky Lux, a cosmetics purveyor in New York.        这段经历促使她专注在如何利用财富资助那些寻求进行变革的女性所拥有的企业。她投资了EverlyWell和Winky Lux这样的公司,前者提供平价的家用健康测试工具,后者是纽约的一家化妆品供应商。
        “Being an employee of a big company wasn’t going to generate the wealth and flexibility that I desired,” she said of her time at Deloitte, where she worked after college. “I wanted to figure out how to solve some problems and do it to the best of my ability.”        “在一家大公司工作并不能带来我希望的财富和灵活性,”她在谈到大学毕业后在会计事务所德勤(Deloitte)工作的经历时表示。“我想搞清楚有些问题要如何解决,并尽我所能地去做。”
        For some younger millionaires, wealth does not equate to yachts and homes. “Independence is the first word that comes to mind, and freedom goes hand in hand with it,” said Marc Hustvedt, 38, chief executive of Above Average, a digital entertainment company, who has also created and sold companies. “In my childhood, it might have meant the trappings of wealth — houses, cars, status. Now as I’m older, with more business experience, I understand it as income stream.”        对于一些年轻的百万富翁来说,财富并不等同于游艇和豪宅。“独立是我想到的第一个词,有了独立才会有自由,”38岁的马克·哈斯特维特(Marc Hustvedt)是数字娱乐公司Above Average的首席执行官,他创建了一些公司并成功出售。“在我小时候,它可能意味着财富的标志,比如房子、汽车、地位。现在,随着年龄的增加,有了更多的商业经验,我明白了财富就是收入流。”
        As boring as income stream sounds, it’s what allows independence.        收入流虽然听起来很枯燥,但它是获得独立的前提。
        “The whole guiding principle was, I liked to be independent,” said Tom Aley, an entrepreneur who had three young children when he quit a high-paying job at Reed Elsevier Ventures to start a company called Generate. “I could do more things. I didn’t have to be beholden to anyone.”        “总的指导原则是,我喜欢独立,”有三个小孩的创业者汤姆·阿利(Tom Aley)说;他辞去在风投Reed Elsevier Ventures的高薪工作,创办了一家名为Generate的公司。“我现在可以做更多的事情了。我不需要欠任何人情。”
        He even managed to persuade one of his brothers to join him at Generate in 2004. Four years later, they sold the company to Dow Jones.        他甚至设法说服他的一个兄弟在2004年加入Generate。四年后,他们把公司卖给了道琼斯(Dow Jones)。
        This is where wealth can bring freedom. Mr. Hustvedt said his flexible schedule allowed him to spend time with two children and still run a company. He said there were other social issues he would like to tackle, like the growing wealth gap, but he felt he had little time to address them.        财富就是这样带来自由的。哈斯特维特说,弹性工作时间使他可以一边陪伴两个孩子成长,一边打理公司。他说,自己还想解决其他的一些社会问题,比如日益扩大的贫富差距,但他觉得自己时间不够。
        Time is a similar lament for Ms. Galbut Perelman. “You’re sacrificing time with your friends, time with your loved ones, time with your own health,” she said. “If I’m working at my business 16 hours a day, how do I have a sense of wellness and also take care of my employees? Business owners aren’t getting that support in their community.”        对于时间不够用,加尔布特·佩雷尔曼也有类似的感叹。“你牺牲了与朋友、与所爱的人在一起的时间,以及关注自己健康的时间,”她说。“如果我在自己的公司每天工作16个小时,我怎么保持健康,照顾好自己的员工呢?企业主没有得到他们所在社区的支持。”
        For Mr. Aley, though, having more freedom now, at age 52, is worth any sacrifices he made earlier in his career. He now has better control of his time and how he spends it.        但对阿利来说,52岁的他现在拥有更多的自由,在职场生涯早期的牺牲都值了。现在,时间掌握在他的手中,可以自己做主。
        “Sometimes, it doesn’t always work out, but for me, but it’s invaluable,” he said. “It also means I can go to lunch with my wife and it doesn’t have to be confined to a Saturday, and I can see my kids’ games.”        “有时候,这并不总是奏效,但对我来说,却还挺宝贵的,”他说。“它还意味着我能跟太太出去共进午餐,不用非得周六,而且我可以看着孩子们玩游戏。”
        The Boston Private survey found that business owners in particular felt the burdens of wealth more intensely than people who grew wealthy working at companies. These entrepreneurs said they felt pressure from other people’s expectations as well as judgments about their wealth.        Boston Private所做这这项调查发现,企业主与通过打工积累起财富的人相比,对于财富的负担感受更为强烈。这些企业家表示,来自他人的期望,以及对其财富的指指点点,令他们备感压力。
        But some people I talked to also mentioned the gratification they felt, even if it was tinged with regret.        但我交谈过的一些人也提到他们从财富种获得的满足感,尽管这种满足感是不无遗憾的。
        Ms. Daly said she was pleased with how her wealth had allowed her to give back to a group of children in Puerto Rico, where her company managed a rail system. But how she thought about wealth and financial independence earlier in her career left her with one regret: She had neglected her personal life.        戴利说,她很高兴能用自己的财富回馈波多黎各的一群孩子们,她的公司在那里管理着一个铁路系统。但她在职业生涯早期对财富和经济独立的看法,也给她留下了一个遗憾:忽略了个人生活。
        “I turned down a couple of proposals,” she said. “I didn’t have a family.”        “我好几次回绝了别人的求婚,”她说。“我没有成家。”
        Still, she remains fulfilled by nonprofit work with children that would not be possible without the money she made in business.        不过,跟孩子有关的非盈利工作让她感到满足,如果没做生意赚钱,这是不可能实现的。
        “I have more children than anyone I know,” she said. “There is so much joy in what I’m doing now.”        “谁也没有我的孩子多,”她说。“我现在所做的事情,带给我很多快乐。”
                
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