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Revealed: 8 everyday habits affecting your eye health, from old mascara to smoking

来源:中国日报    2018-10-30 08:55

        1. Your daily swim        每天游泳
        Swimming is hugely beneficial for your cardiovascular system but if you're not wearing goggles, your eyes might be suffering, especially if you're a contact lens wearer and you open your eyes underwater.        游泳对心血管系统大有裨益,但如果游泳时不佩戴护目镜,双目可能会因此受损,尤其是在水下睁眼的隐形眼镜佩戴者。
        'The water in pools, rivers and the sea, or even the shower can leave your eyes vulnerable to bacterial infection,' warns Vision Direct optometrist Brendan O' Brien.        英国隐形眼镜网店Vision Direct验光师布兰登·奥布赖恩警告说:“泳池、河流和大海中的水,甚至是洗澡水都会让眼睛容易受到细菌感染。”
        'The microorganism acanthamoeba lives in water and can cause serious damage if it gets into your eye'.        “水中的微生物棘阿米巴原虫如果进了你的眼睛,会造成严重伤害。”
        'Wearing contact lenses makes us more vulnerable because the bacteria attaches to the lens and can cause the surface of your eye to become inflamed and eventually infected,' says O'Brien.        “佩戴隐形眼镜让我们更容易受到伤害,因为这种细菌会粘附在隐形眼镜上,导致眼睛表面发炎甚至被感染。”
        Contact lenses will also naturally absorb any water around them, which could change their shape dramatically. This will make them uncomfortable to wear, often causing your vision to become distorted and blurry.        隐形眼镜还会自然地吸收四周的水分,从而极大改变原有形状。这会让隐形眼镜戴起来不舒适,还会导致视物扭曲模糊。
        If you really must wear your lenses in the pool stick to daily disposables along with waterproof swimming goggles, or better still invest in a pair of prescription goggles which will help you see clearly without water coming in direct contact with your eyes.        如果你一定要在泳池中佩戴隐形眼镜,就佩戴日抛隐形镜片,同时戴上防水护目镜,如果能佩戴按度数定制的护目镜更好,既能让你在水下视野清晰,又不会有水直接接触眼睛。
        2. Your out of date mascara        用过期的睫毛膏
        You know how your mascara gets all clumpy after three or four months, but you don't want to buy a new one because that stuff is pricey?        你知道睫毛膏在使用三四个月后就会凝结成块吗?但是就因为睫毛膏价格不菲,你不舍得买新的。
        Well, it's time to cull your make-up bag of all out of date eye make-up, especially mascara, yes even your favorite Chanel one you bought in 2016.        是时候把你化妆包里所有过期的眼部化妆品都扔掉了,尤其是睫毛膏,就连你最爱的2016年买入的香奈儿也不例外。
        Mascara can harbor bacteria which can cause infections leading to redness, light sensitivity and irritation and, in rare cases, even blindness. Liquid liner and mascara have a shelf life of around three months once opened.        睫毛膏会滋生细菌,引发眼部感染,导致眼睛发红、怕光、不适,极少数情况下甚至可能致盲。液体眼线笔和睫毛膏开封后,保质期约为三个月。
        Unopened, well-formulated cosmetics can remain stable for a couple of years.        未开封的工艺成熟的化妆品可以在一两年内保持性能稳定。
        What's more, eye make-up applied inside the eyeline, such as eyeliner, can increase the risk of eye infection, according to research from the University of Waterloo published in the peer-reviewed journal.        此外,滑铁卢大学发表在同行评审期刊的研究指出,眼睑内用的眼部化妆品,比如眼线笔,会增加眼部感染的风险。
        The research by the scientist Dr Alison Ng found that contact lens wearers were more vulnerable to infection from eye make-up. Dr Ng recommends preventing bacterial transfer by sharpening eye pencils thoroughly before each use.        科学家艾莉森·吴的研究发现,隐形眼镜佩戴者的眼睛更容易因为眼妆而被感染。吴医生建议,每次用眼线笔之前都要彻底削干净,防止细菌传播。
        Similarly, false eyelashes could put your eyes at risk. According to experts, false eyelashes are a hygiene risk because they tend to trap dirt and bacteria, while poor quality, unhygienic lashes increase the risk, so it's important to find a reputable beautician.        同样,假睫毛也会让眼睛陷入风险。专家称,假睫毛不卫生,因为很容易藏污纳垢,质量差、不卫生的假睫毛会让眼睛感染风险增加,所以找口碑好的彩妆品牌很重要。
        3. Skipping your annual eye test        放弃年度眼睛检查
        'An eye test can turn up health problems like diabetes, glaucoma and high blood pressure, all of which can lead to serious eye problems and even blindness if left unchecked,' says O'Brien.        奥布赖恩说:“眼睛检查可以发现糖尿病、青光眼和高血压等健康问题,这些毛病如果一直没有被检查出来,便可能引发严重的眼疾甚至致盲。”
        Even arthritis which causes joint inflammation can be spotted with an eye test, because the inflammation also turns up in the eye and will eventually attack the eye too if left untreated.        甚至连关节炎都可以通过眼睛检查发现,因为在眼部也可以察觉到发炎症状,如果关节炎拖着不治,到最后也会影响到眼睛。
        'Most optometrists recommended taking an eye test every two years, unless you have eye issues or are over 70, in which case, a test every 12 months is best to catch any health problems early,' says O'Brien.        奥布赖恩说:“多数验光师建议每两年检查一次眼睛,但如果你有眼疾或年过70岁,最好每年检查一次眼睛,以便尽早发现健康问题。”
        'Children up to the age of 16 should be tested annually too, according to the College of Optometrists, as children's vision can change very rapidly at this stage of their lives.'        “英国视光师学院建议,16岁以下的孩子每年都应检查眼睛,因为孩子的视力在这个阶段变化很快。”
        4. Staring at your smartphone        老盯着手机
        Staring at your smartphone or computer screen or TV for hours on end is not good for your eye health, says research by the University of Toledo, published in Scientific Reports.        托雷多大学的研究人员发表在《科学报告》上的报告指出,连续几个小时盯着智能手机或电脑屏幕、电视对眼睛健康有害无益。
        That's because these screens emit blue light which is absorbed by vital cells in the eye's retina triggering toxic chemicals, which can eventually kill the photoreceptors we need for vision. And the older you get the more vulnerable you are.        这是因为这些屏幕散发出的蓝光会被眼睛视网膜的核心细胞吸收,产生有害化学物质,最终会杀死视觉所依赖的感光细胞。而且,年纪越大,眼睛越容易受到蓝光伤害。
        The study's lead researcher Dr Ajith Karunarathne, an assistant professor in the UT department of chemistry and biochemistry says we shouldn't be checking phones and tablets in the dark, because this can dilate the pupils making them more vulnerable to damage.        该研究的首席研究员、托雷多大学化学和生物化学部的助理教授阿吉斯·卡鲁那拉斯尼医生说, 我们不应该在黑暗中看手机和平板电脑,因为这样会让瞳孔放大,眼睛更容易受到蓝光损害。
        Dr Karunarathne explains wearing glasses with an anti-glare coating that filters blue light, or adding a blue light filter screen to your phone or computer.        卡鲁那拉斯尼医生表示,可以佩戴有防眩涂层的眼镜能过滤掉蓝光,或者在手机或电脑上加一个蓝光滤光屏。
        5. That casual smoking habit        抽烟
        We hardly need to say it: smoking is BAD, but few of us realize it damages our eyes. 'Smoking increases risk of cataracts and age related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a common condition that affects the middle part of your vision. In fact, AMD is Britain's leading cause of sight loss.        抽烟不好,这一点都不用我们说,但很少人意识到抽烟对眼睛有害。“抽烟会增加患白内障和老年黄斑变性的风险,这是影响视野中心视力的常见疾病。事实上,老年黄斑变性是英国人视力缺失的首要诱因。”
        'AMD occurs when the small central portion of the retina, known as the macula, deteriorates and is the major cause of blindness in the over fifties, ' says O' Brien.        奥布赖恩说:“老年黄斑变性指的是视网膜中央的黄斑恶化,是50岁以上人口失明的首要病因。”
        Risk of AMD doubles with smoking over fifty, says one British study published in The British Journal of Ophthalmology. So that's another reason to sign up for Stoptober.        发表在《英国眼科学杂志》的一项英国研究称,年过五十后,吸烟会增加黄斑变性的风险。戒烟又多了个理由。
        6. Forgetting to wear sunglasses        忘记戴太阳镜
        You might think your sunnies are no longer needed now that the dark nights are closing in. Not so says O'Brien. UV is still an issue on overcast winter days.        日短夜长,也许你认为不再需要自己的太阳镜,但是奥布赖恩却表示:非也。即使在阴云密布的冬天,紫外线依然是个问题。
        'Although the UV count is typically higher on sunnier days, it is important to bear in mind that up to 80% of UV radiation can penetrate cloud, meaning that forgetting to wear sunglasses on an overcast day can still damage your eyes,' says O'Brien.        奥布赖恩说:“尽管晴天紫外线指数通常更高,但你要记住,多达80%的紫外线都可以穿透云层,这意味着阴天忘记戴太阳镜依然会对眼睛造成损害。”
        'That means it's just as good an idea to pop on a pair of shades on a sunny December morning as it is on a hot July afternoon.'        “这意味着在十二月阳光明媚的早上戴太阳镜和炎热的七月下午戴太阳镜一样有必要。”
        But don't think just because your glasses are dark tinted they offer ultra violet protection. 'The tint of a sunglasses lens has no effect on UV protection,' says O'Brien.        但不要以为太阳镜的颜色深就能更好地抵挡紫外线。奥布赖恩说:“太阳镜片的颜色对于紫外线防护没有效果。”
        'While wearing darker lenses means that less light will enter your eye and will help you see better, the same amount of UV is blocked as if you were wearing shades with a lighter tint.'        “佩戴深色太阳镜片意味着进入眼睛的光更少,你看东西更清楚,但是,深色太阳镜阻挡的紫外线和浅色镜片是一样多的。”
        And unless your sunglasses are offering good UV coverage, the tint means they will dilate your pupils and allow more UV light in than normal, so it's potentially worse than going without sunglasses if your glasses aren't up to scratch.        而且,如果你的太阳镜没有抵挡紫外线的功能,镜片颜色太深意味着你的瞳孔会放大,进入瞳孔的紫外线会比正常情况下更多,所以如果深色太阳镜不达标,效果比不戴太阳镜还糟。
        The message? Don't fall for those designer look-alikes, unless you can verify their UV credentials. 'Look for a CE mark (a European standard of UV protection),' says O'Brien.        所以呢?不要被那些仿大牌的太阳镜蒙骗,除非你可以核实它们的紫外线认证信息。奥布赖恩说:“注意看CE产品认证标志(欧洲紫外线防护标准)。”
        Look for styles that fit close to your face and don't let light in at the side and if you're a contacts wearer opt for brands like Acuvue with UV filters included or remember to wear sunglasses with your contact lenses.        选择贴合脸型的太阳镜款式,不要让光线从侧面射入,如果你佩戴的是隐形眼镜,选择Acuvue等可以过滤紫外线的品牌,或者在佩戴隐形眼镜时戴上太阳镜。
        Warning: Your eyes are even more susceptible to burning than your skin. As it's harder to tell when your eyes are getting burnt than it is when your skin starts turning red, it's easy to end up doing lasting damage to your eyes without knowing.        警告:眼睛比皮肤更容易被晒伤。眼睛是否晒伤很难辨别,因为眼睛不会像晒伤的皮肤一样发红,所以很容易不知不觉就让眼睛遭到持久损害。
        Frequent exposure to UV can lead to the development of eye conditions such as cataracts and AMD which can impair sight and even cause partial or total blindness.        频繁暴露在紫外线下会引发白内障和老年黄斑变性等眼部疾病,这种疾病会损害视力,甚至会导致局部或完全失明。
        Indeed, one systematic review published in 2014 of scientific research on the subject found that sunlight exposure to eyes was a key risk factor in the development of AMD.        2014年发表的一项对该课题科学研究的系统回顾发现,眼睛暴露在阳光下是导致老年黄斑变性的一个重要风险因素。
        7. Your fan        电风扇
        Leaving a fan running all night can increase irritation and dry eyes for contact lens wearers. Why? Because fans blow allergens like dust or pollen towards your eyes as you sleep, so that when you insert your lenses in the morning these deposits cause irritation and discomfort.        整夜开电风扇会加重隐形眼镜佩戴者的眼睛刺激和发干症状。为什么呢?因为电风扇会在你睡觉时把灰尘或花粉等过敏物吹到你的眼睛里,你在早上佩戴隐形眼镜时,这些积存在眼里的东西会引发刺激和不适。
        The fix? Thoroughly dust bedroom surfaces, including the fan blades and keep a bottle of contact lens solution handy to cleanse your lenses to remove any impurities.        解决之道就是彻底清理卧室表面的灰尘,包括风扇的叶片,随时备有隐形眼镜清洗液,去除隐形眼镜片上的任何杂质。
        Consider setting a timer on your fan, so it switches off shortly after you doze off and wear a sleep mask, so your eyes are protected.        考虑给风扇定时,这样你睡着后不久风扇就会关闭,或者戴睡眠眼罩来保护眼睛。
        8. Over-using eye drops        过多使用眼药水
        While it's tempting to reach for the eye drops rather than put up with looking like a pink-eyed bunny, you can have too much of a good thing, say experts, as plenty of eye drops can lead to a rebound effect.        尽管眼睛红肿的时候很想用眼药水,但是再好的东西也不能用太多,专家指出,用太多眼药水会产生反弹效应。
        Rebound redness results because the blood vessels in the eye dilate as the effects of the medication in the drops wears off, creating a vicious circle. What should we do instead? 'Try to pinpoint the cause and deal with it, ' says O'Brien.        随着眼药水的效力消退,由于眼内血管扩张,眼睛会再度红肿,并因此产生恶性循环。那我们应该怎么做呢?奥布赖恩说:“试着找出红肿原因并对症处理。”
        If, for example, your eyes are dry due to cold winter weather and central heating, invest in a humidifier and try not to sit too close to a radiator.        比如,如果你的眼睛是因为冬季寒冷和中央供暖系统而发干,就买一台加湿器,尽量不要坐得离暖气片太近。
        Rehydrate by drinking lots of water and eat plenty of foods rich in A, C and E vitamins and omega-3 fats, like salmon. And when the wind starts whistling, don your sunglasses to protect your eyes from the biting cold.        多喝水补充水分,多吃富含维生素A、C、E和欧米加-3脂肪酸的食物,比如鲑鱼。刮风的时候,戴上太阳镜来保护眼睛不受刺骨寒冷的伤害。
        How often you can use eye drops safely will depend on the type, says O' Brien.        奥布赖恩说,多长时间使用一次眼药水才安全,这取决于眼药水是哪种类型。
        'There are two types: eye drops with preservatives and preservative-free eye drops. Eye drops that contain preservatives have a longer shelf life. The preservatives are chemicals that prevent bacteria from growing. This allows you to use one bottle of eye drops for a length of time.        “有两种类型:含有防腐剂的眼药水和不含防腐剂的眼药水。含有防腐剂的眼药水保质期更长。防腐剂是防止细菌滋生的化学物质。这可以让你长时间使用一瓶眼药水。”
        'However, the preservatives in OTC eye drops cause eye irritation to become worse. Eye specialists typically recommend that you use this type of eye drop no more than four times a day.' Preservative-free eye drops are best for those with sensitive eyes.        “但是,非处方眼药水中的防腐剂会加重眼部刺激。眼科专家通常建议这种眼药水使用一天不要超过四次。”不含防腐剂的眼药水适合眼睛敏感的人。

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