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Chinese Military May Gain From Western University Ties, Report Warns

来源:纽约时报    2018-10-31 10:17

        SYDNEY, Australia — The Chinese military is expanding its collaborations with foreign universities, sometimes concealing its scientists’ military ties, according to an Australian report published Tuesday. The report raises questions about whether countries wary of China’s rising power are in fact directly contributing to its military advancement.        澳大利亚悉尼——据澳大利亚周二发布的一份报告,中国军方正在扩大与外国大学的合作,而且有时会隐瞒其科学家与军方的联系。这份报告提出了一个问题:那些对中国崛起持谨慎态度的国家,是否其实在为中国的军事进步做直接的贡献。
        In the past decade, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army has sent 2,500 military scientists, researchers and engineers abroad, according to the report from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, a nonpartisan research institution in Canberra, the capital.
        据这份来自澳大利亚战略政策研究所(Australian Strategic Policy Institute)的报告,中国人民解放军在过去的10年里,把2500名军方科学家、研究人员和工程师派往海外。
        While they work with academics and scientists at institutions around the world, they are especially concentrated in the United States, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the so-called Five Eyes nations that broadly share intelligence.        这些人与世界各地的学者和科学家合作,尤其集中在美国、英国、澳大利亚、新西兰和加拿大,也就是广泛共享情报的所谓“五只眼”(Five Eyes)国家。
        The number of peer-reviewed papers jointly published by Chinese scientists and their Western counterparts has increased more than sevenfold in that time, according to the report, to 734 last year from 95 in 2007. The research they conduct is sometimes in areas with strategic military applications like navigation technology, quantum physics and cryptography.        据这份报告,中国和西方科学家联合发表的同行评议论文数量在同一时期增长了七倍多,从2007年的95篇增加到去年的734篇。这些合作研究有时是在具有战略军事应用的领域,如导航技术、量子物理和密码学。
        The report’s author, Alex Joske, said that Western countries risk inadvertently giving an edge to a rival military.        这份报告的作者亚历克斯·乔斯克(Alex Joske)说,西方国家有可能在无意中给对手的军事力量带来优势。
        “China is not an ally; it’s increasingly a competitor in the Pacific,” he said in an interview. “We shouldn’t be helping them improve their military technology by helping their scientists train to get military advantage.”        “中国不是盟友,它日益成为太平洋地区的竞争对手,”乔斯克在接受采访时说。“我们不应该通过帮助他们的科学家获取军事上的优势,来帮助其改进军事技术。”
        In his report, Mr. Joske also notes that while most of the scientists sent by the People’s Liberation Army are open about the institutions they come from, some appear to hide their military affiliations by using “misleading historical names for their institutions” or even naming ones that do not exist.        乔斯克在报告中还指出,虽然中国人民解放军派出的大多数科学家不隐瞒他们来自的机构,但有些人似乎通过“用自己单位让人产生误导的历史名称”,甚至用不存在的名称来隐瞒他们的军方背景。
        Adam Ni, a China researcher at the Australian National University who was not involved in the report, said, “You often see people who are dual-hatted, a P.L.A. organization that is under a certain department that is presented to the civilian world as a civilian organization, and their researchers would go overseas in their civilian capacity or name in order to study and do research.”        澳大利亚国立大学的中国问题研究员倪凌超(他没有参与这份报告的撰写)说,“经常能看到带两顶帽子的人,解放军某部的机构以平民组织的身份出现在平民世界里,为了学习和做研究,这些机构的研究人员在海外会使用他们的平民身份或名义。”
        “The P.L.A. have been doing this for a long time in a fairly deliberate way,” he added, “to obtain or learn expertise and bring that back into China to advance China’s economic development and its military modernization efforts.”        “解放军长期以来一直在这样做,而且是相当有意地这样做,”他补充说,“以获取或学习专业技能,并将其带回国去推进中国的经济发展和军事现代化努力。”
        In a separate article published Tuesday, Mr. Joske cited the case of a Chinese student named Huang Xianjun, who in 2016 completed a Ph.D. at the University of Manchester in England. While there he worked with the discoverers of graphene, which some researchers describe as a wonder material 100 times stronger than steel that has enormous technological potential.        在周二发表的另一篇文章中,乔斯克提到了一名叫黄贤俊的中国学生的例子。黄贤俊于2016年在英国曼彻斯特大学(University of Manchester)获得博士学位,他曾在那里与石墨烯的发现者合作。一些研究人员把石墨烯描述为一种神奇材料,强度比钢高100倍,具有巨大的技术潜力。
        According to a Chinese military newspaper, Mr. Joske wrote, Dr. Huang now works as a researcher at the army’s National University of Defense Technology, which had originally sent him overseas. Mr. Joske quotes the newspaper as saying that Dr. Huang aims to open up graphene’s possibilities in fields like artificial intelligence and develop a team to work on them, “while sticking close to the needs of the military.”        乔斯克写道,据一家中国军方报纸报道,黄贤俊现在是中国人民解放军国防科技大学的研究员,最初就是这所大学派他去国外学习的。乔斯克引用报道中的话说,黄贤俊打算“紧贴军事需求”,拓展把石墨烯应用于军事智能等领域的可能性,并建立一支相关团队。
        The top universities outside China for collaboration with the Chinese military, as measured by the number of peer-reviewed publications that P.L.A. scientists wrote with foreign colleagues, were Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, followed by the University of New South Wales in Australia, the University of Southampton in England and the University of Waterloo in Canada, Mr. Joske reported.        乔斯克的报告说,用解放军科学家与外国同事联名发表的同行评议论文数量来计算,国外顶尖大学与中国军方合作最多的依次是:新加坡南洋理工大学、澳大利亚新南威尔士大学、英国南安普顿大学,以及加拿大滑铁卢大学。
        The top three American ones he cited are Georgia Tech, the Illinois Institute of Technology and the United States Naval Academy.        他提到的美国前三名分别是佐理工理工学院、伊利诺伊理工学院,以及美国海军学院。
        Mr. Joske said that universities had been mostly muted in their responses when he raised his concerns with them.        乔斯克说,当他向大学提出自己的担忧时,它们的反应基本上是不明确回答。
        “Their responses were basically, ‘We haven’t breached any laws; this is civilian research and doesn’t represent a security risk,’” he said.        “他们的回答基本是‘我们没有违反任何法律,这是民用研究,没有安全风险’,”乔斯克说。
        Prof. John Fitzgerald, a China specialist at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia, welcomed the report and said it should prompt universities to reconsider their policies.        澳大利亚墨尔本斯威本科技大学的中国问题专家约翰·菲茨杰拉德教授(John Fitzgerald)对这份报告表示欢迎,他说,该报告应该促使大学重新考虑自己的政策。
        “The evidence is now out there,” he said. “A lot of the universities claimed they had no knowledge before; this is what they need to make a judgment.”        “证据现在摆在那里,”他说。“许多大学声称他们以前不知道这些;这是他们做判断所需要的。”
        “The other aspect of this is, which institutions in the Five Eyes countries are collaborating with Chinese institutions that have military affiliations?” he continued. “Why are Western universities supporting research with universities that are waging cyberwarfare and apparently preparing for war?”        “这件事情的另一面是,“五只眼”国家中有哪些机构在与有军事背景的中国单位合作?”他继续说。“西方大学为什么要支持与那些正在发动网络战、显然是在为战争做准备的大学的合作研究?”
        In a statement to The Times, Prof. Ian Jacobs, president and vice chancellor at the University of New South Wales, defended collaborations with institutions like China’s National University of Defense Technology “as part of our work as a globally engaged university.”        新南威尔士大学校监兼校长伊恩·雅各布斯(Ian Jacobs)教授在发给《纽约时报》的一份声明中,为与中国国防科技大学等高校合作进行辩护,他说,“这是我们作为一所全球参与大学工作的一部分。”
        “This research has been published in internationally peer-reviewed academic journals which are in the public domain,” he said, adding that the university “conducts rigorous assessments” to ensure collaborations do not end up exporting military expertise.        他说,“所从事的研究已在有国际同行评议的学术期刊上发表,这些期刊属于公有领域”,并补充,大学为确保合作不会最终输出军事专长“进行严格评估”。
        But Mr. Joske questioned the ability of Australia’s export control laws to limit the flow of secret technology overseas, in part because much of it involves the “intangible transfer of technology” rather than physical goods.        不过,乔斯克对澳大利亚出口管制法限制秘密技术流向海外的能力提出了质疑,部分原因是这种流动大多涉及“无形的技术转让”,而非实物的转移。
        “In Australia we need responses in the form of the defense laws and better scrutiny of their applications on foreign military personnel,” he said. “We don’t have any controls over any technology transfer. So for any P.L.A. member in Australia, it’s totally legal to transfer technology to that person, even if it were illegal to do it across the border.”        “澳大利亚需要以国防立法的形式作出回应,并对这些技术对外国军事人员的适用性进行更好的审查,”他说。“我们对所有的技术转让没有任何控制。所以,对在澳大利亚国内的任何解放军人员来说,将技术转让给该人完全合法,即使是在跨越边界转移该技术非法的情况下。”
        Despite concerns about Chinese influence on academic freedom and even national politics, Australian universities have been bolstered by Chinese money flowing in, as have Australian businesses. At universities, it has often taken the form of student enrollment. Some have major partnerships with China like the Torch Innovation Project, which supports science and technology research at the University of New South Wales with up to 100 million Australian dollars, or about $71 million, in Chinese investment in exchange for sharing the findings.        尽管人们担忧中国对学术自由乃至国内政治的影响,但中国资金的流入对澳大利亚的大学已经形成了支撑作用,对澳大利亚的企业来说也是如此。在大学,这种支撑通常体现在学生的注册人数上。有些大学与中国有重大合作项目,比如新南威尔士大学的“火炬创新园区”。这个项目为新南威尔士大学的科研提供了高达1亿澳元(约合5亿元人民币)的中国资金,回报的方式是双方分享研究成果。
        “Universities are in the business of research,” said Professor Fitzgerald of Swinburne University. “This isn’t about recruiting students or student numbers, it’s really about being at the cutting edge of technology and the reputational advantages of being in on breakthroughs, and China at the present time is at the forefront.”        “大学是从事研究工作的,”斯威本大学的菲茨杰拉德说。“这不是招生或招生人数的问题,而是要有走在科技前沿、走在突破前沿的声誉优势问题,中国目前处于最前沿。”
        “The institutions see opportunities to fund research and to push themselves up the competitive ladder and to enjoy any potential commercial spinoffs of that research,” he said.        “中国机构看到了资助研究的机会,看到了提升自身竞争力的机会,看到了研究可能带来的商业派生品,”他说。
        But if Australian universities do not scrutinize Chinese applicants more carefully, the government may start doing it for them, Professor Fitzgerald said.        但是,如果澳大利亚的大学不对中国的申请者进行更细致的审查的话,政府可能会开始帮它们审查,菲茨杰拉德说。
        “It’s a risky argument for a university to make, saying there’s no law against it,” he said. “Are they inviting greater legislation? Wouldn’t it be better to act on the knowledge in their possession and behave like responsible autonomous institutions?”        “如果大学的说法是,没有法律禁止它那样做,这对大学来说是危险的,”他说。“这些大学是在请求更严格的立法吗?按照它们掌握的情况采取行动,像负责任的自治机构那样行事,不是更好吗?”
        The Australian government has signaled it may step in to protect against foreign threats if large organizations do not.        澳大利亚政府已暗示,如果大机构不采取行动的话,政府可能会为了防范外国威胁而介入其中。
        In a speech on Monday, Mike Burgess, the head of the Australian Signals Directorate, the government’s cybersecurity agency, noted that “strategic and economic power is shifting east, as are the centers of expertise for technology, research and development.”        澳大利亚政府的网络安全机构澳大利亚通信管理局(Australian Signals Directorate)负责人迈克·伯吉斯(Mike Burgess)在周一的一个讲话中指出,“战略和经济实力正在东移,技术、研发的专长中心也在东移。”
        While not naming China, Mr. Burgess elaborated on the government’s recent decision to bar the Chinese technology giants Huawei and ZTE from providing equipment to support Australia’s new fifth-generation, or 5G, telecommunications networks.        虽然没有指名中国,但伯吉斯详细阐述了政府最近做出的禁止中国科技巨头华为和中兴通讯为澳大利亚的新一代(既所谓的5G)电信网络提供设备的决定。
        “5G technology will underpin the communications that Australians rely on every day,” Mr. Burgess said at a national security dinner in Canberra. “This is about more than just protecting the confidentiality of our information. It is also about integrity and availability of the data and systems on which we depend. Getting security right for our critical infrastructure is paramount.”        “5G技术将支撑澳大利亚人每天依赖的通信,”伯吉斯在堪培拉的一个国家安全晚宴上说。“这不仅是为了保护我们信息的机密性。它也关系到我们所依赖的数据和系统的完整性和可用性,确保我们关键基础设施的安全至关重要。”
        He also said that the agency’s mandate was changing and that it now had “an important role in advising government how best to navigate major technology and strategic shifts.”        他还说,通信管理局的职责正在改变,现在“在为政府怎样最好地应对重大技术和战略变化的出谋划策上,扮演着重要的角色”。
        He added, “Our work is informed by us mastering technology.”        他补充说,“我们的工作得通过对技术的掌握来完成。”

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