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港珠澳大桥通车后的喧嚣与敌意
For Some in Hong Kong, New Bridge Has a Downside: ‘That Kind of Tourist’

来源:纽约时报    2018-11-27 10:03



        HONG KONG — It was meant to be a “people’s bridge” — a catalyst for China’s efforts to draw Hong Kong and Macau closer to the mainland.        香港——它本应成为一座“人民的桥梁”,是中国努力拉近香港、澳门与大陆关系的催化剂。
        But for the residents of the quiet Hong Kong suburb of Tung Chung, the initial fanfare following the opening of the world’s longest sea bridge last month has quickly given way to frustration. It’s an early sign that it will take more than a 34-mile megastructure to overcome the resentment that is festering between Hong Kong residents and mainland Chinese.
        但对于居住在安静的香港郊区东涌的民众来说,上个月世界上最长的跨海大桥通车后最初的喧嚣,很快就变成了不满。这是一个初期迹象,表明要克服香港居民与中国大陆民众之间日益加深的不满情绪,仅靠一座55公里长的巨型大桥是不够的。
        Nearly a million mainland tourists have crossed the new bridge into Hong Kong in the month since it opened. Most of these tourists have then poured out of buses in Tung Chung, a mostly residential town close to the port with a population of about 45,000, for a quick shopping stop before returning home.        自投入使用以来,在一个月的时间里,已有近100万大陆游客通过这座新大桥进入香港。大多数游客都是在东涌下大巴,在匆匆采购一番后就回家。靠近港口的东涌主要是一个居住区,人口大约4.5万。
        The sudden influx of mainland Chinese has sparked a litany of complaints among Tung Chung’s residents.        大陆人的突然涌入,在东涌民众当中引发了一连串的抱怨。
        Here they were, the locals complained, buying up all the infant formula and medicated oils in the local pharmacy. There they were, camping out at its doorstep and loitering in the shopping mall plaza. There was litter everywhere. The lines were longer. The noise levels were louder.        当地人说他们来到这里,买光了药店里的婴儿配方奶粉和各种药油。他们在购物广场门口露营,在里面四处闲逛。到处都是垃圾。排队的队伍变长了。噪音变大了。
        They even brought their own food and snacks, locals sniffed, a telltale sign that these “people from the bridge,” as one person described them, were “low-end” tourists.        当地人轻蔑地说,他们甚至自带食物和小吃,这说明他们是——用某个人的话说——“桥那边来的人”,是“低端”的游客。
        “I don’t mind tourists from overseas or even mainland China,” said Erica Wong, 46, a Hong Kong native and Tung Chung resident. “But not that kind of tourist, if you know what I mean.”        “我无所谓是来自海外抑或来自中国大陆的游客,”46岁的香港人、东涌居民埃丽卡·黄(Erica Wong)说。“但不是那种游客,你明白我的意思。”
        Tensions peaked earlier this month when local activists showed up at the Citygate Outlets, a mall that has become the central gathering point in Tung Chung for the tourists. The activists sought to root out unlicensed tour groups by surrounding group leaders and demanding to see their operating permits. Using bullhorns, they gruffly urged elderly tourists resting on shop ledges to stand up.        本月早些时候,当地活动人士出现在东荟城名店仓时,紧张气氛达到了顶峰。这个购物中心已经成为了东涌的游客汇集点。活动人士试图找出无证旅行团,他们将领队团团围住,要求他们出示运营许可证。他们还用扩音器,粗暴地让那些在店铺的台阶上休息的老年游客站起来。
        Shouting matches erupted between the activists and a local pro-Beijing group that had also showed up. Two people were arrested.        活动人士与来到现场的一个当地亲北京的组织之间爆发了骂战。有两人被捕。
        “There are so many mainland tourists invading our lifestyle and living space and we cannot tolerate that,” said Roy Tam, a local activist who helped organize the protests. “They are coming to our shops and buying baby milk powder, medicine and even menstruation pads. How could they buy those things in Hong Kong? They should buy them in their own cities.”        “太多大陆游客侵入到我们的生活方式和生活空间里,我们不能忍了,”协助组织抗议活动的当地活动人士谭凯邦说。“他们到我们的商店买婴儿奶粉、药品,甚至卫生巾。他们怎么能在香港买那些东西呢?他们应该在自己的城市里买。”
        Not all locals were comfortable with how the tourists were being treated. Siu Wai-hay, 72, shook his head at the activists, saying they shouldn’t humiliate the mainlanders.        对于游客受到的对待,有些当地人感到不舒服。72岁的萧伟海(音)冲着活动人士直摇头,说他们不应该羞辱大陆人。
        “We’re all Chinese people with yellow skin. Why are you discriminating against your own people?” he asked, suggesting that more chairs be set up to accommodate the visitors.        “大家都是黄皮肤中国人,为什么你们要歧视自己的人?”他问道,并且建议多放一些椅子供游客使用。
        Still, the tensions in Tung Chung are the latest expression of growing concerns in Hong Kong about the mainland’s growing influence in the semiautonomous city. Much of the anger has been directed toward the government in Beijing, but there has been no shortage of complaints about mainland Chinese over the years.        不过,东涌的紧张局势再次表明,香港对于大陆在这个半自治城市日益增长的影响力越来越担忧。大部分的愤怒都指向北京政府,但这些年来,对大陆人的抱怨也不少。
        Middle-class families and younger residents in particular have felt the squeeze as mainland Chinese have poured money into Hong Kong, sending prices and rents soaring.        随着中国大陆大量资金涌入香港,香港的房价和租金飙升,尤其是中产阶级家庭和年轻人,感受到了很大的压力。
        Some activists who argue that Hong Kong has a unique identity that needs to be protected — known as localists — have advocated independence for the city, a topic that has become increasingly taboo. At times, they have used rhetoric seen by many as bigoted, calling mainlanders “locusts” and “invaders” and using a derogatory term, “Chee-na,” instead of saying “China.”        一些被称为“本土派”的活动人士提出,香港拥有需要保护的独特身份。他们一直倡导城市独立,而这一话题已日益成为禁忌。有时,他们使用被许多人看作偏执的言辞,称大陆人为“蝗虫”和“入侵者”,并使用贬义词“支那”,而不是说“中国”。
        Fueling the resentment, experts say, is a widespread feeling that the vision originally laid out for Hong Kong residents in 1997, when the former British colony was transferred to Chinese rule, is quickly slipping away.        专家说,一种普遍的感觉是,1997年这个前英国殖民地移交中国统治时承诺的愿景,正在迅速消失,这加剧了人们的不满。
        “Before 1997, the Hong Kong people believed that we were more advanced in terms of economic development and that China would make adjustments to be more like us,” said Ray Yep, a professor of politics at the City University of Hong Kong. “But no one expected China to grow that fast, and now it’s turned the other way around. We have realized that if we want to engage China, we are the ones that will have to make adjustments.”        “1997年之前,香港人认为我们在经济发展方面比较先进,中国会做出调整,变得更像我们,”香港城市大学政治学教授叶健民说。“但是没有人预料到中国会快速增长,现在形势已经反过来了。我们意识到,如果想与中国接触,必须做出调整的是我们。”
        The growing hostility between local residents and mainland Chinese has resulted in confrontations around the city, particularly on university campuses and in border towns like Tung Chung.        当地居民与中国大陆人之间日益增长的敌意,导致了整个城市都出现对抗情绪,特别是在大学校园和东涌等边境地区。
        Many mainland Chinese in Hong Kong have said they make an effort to speak English instead of Mandarin Chinese, believing that Mandarin speakers are often treated worse by locals.        香港的许多大陆人都表示他们在努力说英语而不是普通话,因为他们认为说普通话的人经常受到当地人的糟糕对待。
        Some, like Liu Chang, 34, who moved to Hong Kong with her family from the mainland two years ago, say they sympathize with the locals.        有些人表示同情当地人,比如34岁的刘畅(音),她和家人两年前一起从大陆来到香港。
        Ms. Liu recalled visiting the border town of Sheung Shui, which in 2012 was the site of angry protests over a competition for resources — driven by the town’s many parallel traders, who evaded taxes by buying goods to sell at a profit over the border.        刘畅回忆她去过边境小镇上水,2012年,那里爆发了对资源竞争的愤怒抗议——这场竞争由该镇的许多同行交易商推动,他们通过购买商品然后过境销售获利来逃税。
        Seeing those traders, the litter on the ground and the suitcases blocking the path, she said, helped her understand why many Hong Kong residents had a negative view of mainland Chinese.        她说,看到那些商人,以及地上的垃圾和阻挡道路的行李箱,她理解了为什么许多香港居民对大陆人有负面看法。
        “It has really impacted their livelihood, I felt it very clearly, so I can understand where they are coming from,” she said.        “这真的影响了他们的生活,我非常清楚地感受到了,所以我可以理解这些情绪是怎么来的,”她说。
        But for some mainland Chinese, the backlash has only hardened the view that locals were not sufficiently grateful for the economic boost the mainland had given Hong Kong over the years.        但对于一些大陆人来说,这种强烈反对只会增强他们的观点,认为使当地人对多年来大陆给香港带来的经济增长不够感恩。
        Mainland tourists accounted for three-quarters of all tourism to Hong Kong last year, according to the Hong Kong Tourism Association.        香港旅游协会表示,去年大陆旅客占香港旅游总量的四分之三。
        “We are forgetting that Hong Kong’s wealth didn’t come from heaven,” said Timothy Chui, director of the tourism association.        “我们忘记了香港的财富不是从天上掉下来的,”旅游促进会总干事崔定邦说。
        In Tung Chung, many of the tourists have been arriving on day packages, paying mainland tour operators $14 to $72 for a ticket to ride the bus across the bridge and do some shopping before heading back to the mainland at night.        在东涌,有很多来做一日游的游客,他们向大陆旅行社支付14至72美元的车票,乘坐公共汽车过桥,然后在晚上返回大陆之前购物。
        He Shun, a retiree, paid $70 just to see the new bridge. Like others in his group, he had packed biscuits and fruit so he wouldn’t have to spend money at the restaurants.        退休人员何顺花了70美元看新桥。和旅游团里的其他人一样,他带了饼干和水果,所以不必在餐馆花钱。
        “We’re not really here to buy anything, only to see the bridge and take a walk around,” Mr. He said.        “我们不是来这里买东西的,是来看桥和走一圈,”何顺说。
        In recent days, the local government has moved to divert tourists away from Tung Chung to other parts of the city. Tourism authorities in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou issued an “urgent notice” this week saying that they would crack down on unregistered tour guides organizing trips to Hong Kong. The notice also told registered tour groups to avoid departing on weekends if possible.        最近几天,当地政府开始将游客从东涌疏导到城市的其他地方。中国南方城市广州的旅游部门本周发出“紧急通知”,称他们将严厉打击未经注册的导游组织前往香港。该通知还告知有注册的旅游团,如果可能的话,避免在周末出发。
        Experts say the measures provide short-term relief but do little to dispel the rising sense of helplessness among many Hong Kong residents.        专家表示,这些措施可以提供短期的缓解,但对于消除许多香港居民日益加剧的无助感并没什么作用。
        “Deep in our hearts we know that Hong Kong’s integration with China is important in an economic sense,” said Mr. Yep, the professor. “It’s going to happen anyway — we are a local government, so you can’t avoid China.”        “我们深知,香港与中国的融合在经济意义上很重要,”叶健民说。“无论如何,这种事都会发生——我们是地方政府,所以无法避开中国。”
        “On the other hand, we are frustrated in many ways,” he added. “So we try to find a middle ground.”        “另一方面,我们在很多方面都十分头疼,”他补充说。“所以我们试图找到一种妥协。”
                
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