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北京大兴国际机场,光鲜背后的挑战与难题
A Big New Airport Shows China’s Strengths (and Weaknesses)

来源:纽约时报    2018-11-26 04:23



        BEIJING — Rising out of the farmlands of southern Beijing in a web of concrete, rebar and glass, one of the world’s largest airports is preparing to open after just five years of construction — a striking contrast to the infrastructure travails of far richer places. (See: New York City, subway; Britain, train service; Berlin, airport.)        北京——在北京南郊的农田里,一个由混凝土、钢筋和玻璃构成的网状建筑拔地而起,这个世界上最大的机场之一已做好了投入使用的准备,其建设仅用了五年的时间,与那些更富裕的地方令人痛苦的基础设施项目,形成了鲜明的对比。(见:纽约的地铁,英国的火车服务,柏林的机场。)
        Just as impressive as its speed are the airport’s broader goals. It is meant to shift the Chinese capital’s center of gravity away from its high-tech university district in the north toward its poorer southern suburbs — part of an even more ambitious plan to remake Beijing and its hinterland into an 82,000-square-mile economic locomotive for northern China. And it will do so by relocating thousands of residents with few protests, at least so far.
        这个机场更广阔的目标与其建设速度一样令人惊叹。其目的是把中国首都的重心从北部的高科技大学区转移到更为贫困的南部郊区,这是一个更加雄心勃勃计划的一部分,该计划旨在把北京及其腹地改造成中国北方一个21万平方公里的经济引擎。这需要重新安置成千上万的居民,但至少到目前为止,几乎还没有人提出抗议。
        Yet the airport also reflects a less glamorous side of China’s rapid change: a reliance on the heavy hand of big infrastructure as a salve for deeper problems in politics and economics.        然而,这个机场也反映出中国的快速变化中不太光鲜的一面:依赖大型基础设施的重拳,作为解决更深层次的政治和经济问题的药膏。
        These intractable problems include an overbearing military, whose dominance of Chinese airspace hobbles existing airports, as well as a broad retreat from market-driven economic reforms, leading to a dependence on infrastructure investment to increase growth.        棘手的问题包括专横的军队——军方对中国领空的控制妨碍了现有机场的发展,还包括从以市场为导向的经济改革的全面退却,从而转为依赖基础设施投资来提高经济增长。
        In China everything is related to economic development,” said Guo Yufeng, chief executive of Q&A Consulting, a China-based aviation advisory firm that has studied the new airport.        “中国的所有事情都与经济发展有关,”问答商务咨询(Q&A Consulting)首席执行官郭宇峰说,这家总部设在中国的航空咨询公司对这个新机场项目进行了研究。
        “They needed something to drive growth.”        “他们需要某种东西来推动经济增长。”
        Cue the new airport.        提示:新机场。
        Scheduled to open next September, the Beijing Daxing International Airport will lift China’s capital into the stratosphere of aviation superlatives. The golden, starfish-shaped terminal designed by the Iraqi-British star architect Zaha Hadid, who died in 2016, is billed as the world’s largest at 7.5 million square feet (700,000 square meters) but promises short walking distances despite its size.        北京大兴国际机场定于明年9月投入使用,它将把中国首都提升到航空领域的顶级水平。金色海星状的航站楼由伊拉克裔英国明星建筑师扎哈·哈迪德(Zaha Hadid)设计(哈迪德已于2016年去世),航站楼建筑面积70万平方米,被宣传为世界上最大,尽管如此之大,该建筑承诺旅客的步行距离却很短。
        By 2025, the airport will be able to serve 72 million passengers a year. That, along with the existing Beijing Capital International Airport’s annual capacity of 96 million passengers, would make Beijing one of the world’s busiest city airport systems, rivaling for top spot the 170 million carried by London’s six airports, based on 2017 figures. Ultimately, Daxing is expected to handle 100 million passengers a year.        到2025年,该机场每年将接待7200万乘客。连同现有的北京首都国际机场每年9600万的旅客吞吐量,将让北京拥有世界上最繁忙的城市机场系统之一,足以与世界第一的伦敦机场系统媲美,伦敦六个机场2017年的数据是接待了1.7亿人次的客运量。大兴机场预计最终能力是每年接待1亿人次的旅客。
        One reason for the new airport is rapidly increasing passenger volumes, which rose in 2017 by nearly 13 percent nationwide. Aviation experts say, however, that at least some of this could be handled with existing infrastructure, were it not for the military’s heavy hand.        建设新机场的原因之一是迅速增长的客流量,中国的航空旅客吞吐量在2017年增长了近13%。但航空专家说,如果没有军方严格限制的话,现有基础设施本来可以至少接待一部分增加的客流量。
        With roughly 70 percent of airspace controlled by the military (versus 20 percent in the United States), commercial aircraft flying in China are limited to narrow tunnels in the sky. This restricts options for departure and arrival routing, cutting the number of takeoffs and landings that airports can handle.        中国领空的大约70%由军方控制(在美国,这个数字是20%),商用飞机只能在狭窄的航道中飞行。这限制了离港和到港线路的选择,减少了机场能够处理的起降航班数量。
        Beijing Capital, for example, was the world’s second-busiest airport based on passenger volume in 2017, but it ranked fifth based on takeoffs and landings, nearly a third fewer than the world leader, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.        例如,基于2017年的客流量,北京首都机场是世界上第二繁忙的机场,但如果基于起降数量,它排名世界第五,比世界领先的哈茨菲尔德—杰克逊亚特兰大国际机场(Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport)少了近三分之一。
        The lack of airspace is also a key reason delays are so common in China. Last year, flight delays increased 50 percent, with only 71 percent of flights taking off on time, according to government statistics. That’s helped push Chinese airlines to the bottom of punctuality rankings, with one study ranking three Chinese airlines as the worst among 20 large-scale carriers.        空域不足也是航班延误在中国如此常见的一个关键原因。根据政府统计数据,去年,航班延误增加了50%,只有71%的航班准时起飞。这使得中国的航空公司在准点率排名中垫底,有一项研究就将中国的三大航评为20家大型航空公司中最不准时的航司。
        Although aviation authorities blame the weather for half of the delays, Mr. Guo of Q&A Consulting said the underlying cause was the military-induced lack of airspace.        虽然航空当局将一半的延误归咎于天气,但问答商务咨询的郭宇峰表示,其根本原因还是军方所致的空域不足。
        When a corridor is blocked by a thunderstorm, for example, Chinese flight controllers often cannot reroute an airplane, because it would have to enter military airspace. That causes planes to sit on the ground or fly holding patterns when in other countries they could land or take off.        例如,一条空中通道被雷暴阻断,中国的空管通常无法改变飞机的航线,因为它必须进入军用空域。这导致飞机只能留在地面或是飞等待航线,而在其他国家,它们依旧可以起降。
        “The congestion takes place in the sky because the military only allows for a certain number of tunnels,” Mr. Guo said. “If that doesn’t change, the ground infrastructure needs to be expanded.”        “空中发生拥堵,因为军方只允许一定数量的通道,”郭宇峰说。 “如果不改变这一点,则需要扩大地面基础设施。”
        The new airport will help by initially opening four, then up to eight, new runways in the suburb of Daxing, 41 miles southwest of Beijing Capital. The number of air corridors available for civilian use stays the same, but the new runways will provide airlines with more ways to gain access to this limited airspace, allowing the Beijing area to facilitate more flights.        新机场将会改善这种状况,在北京首都机场西南部66公里的大兴郊区先兴建4条跑道,以后再增加到8条。可用于民用的空中通道数量不变,但新的跑道将为航空公司提供更多进入这个有限空域的路线,使北京地区能够为更多航班提供便利。
        The biggest challenge in building new airports is usually land, said Jean-Paul Rodrigue, who studies global infrastructure at Hofstra University.        霍夫斯特拉大学(Hofstra University)研究全球基础设施的让-保罗·罗德里格(Jean-Paul Rodrigue)表示,建设新机场最大的挑战通常是土地。
        “Size is just a matter of scaling up — you hire a good architect and a few consulting firms and they’ll give you a nice design,” Professor Rodrigue said. “But the major challenge is to find the piece of real estate in order to do that. It’s mind-boggling how much this takes.”        “大小只是一个扩大规模的问题——你请来一位优秀的建筑师和几家咨询公司,他们会给出一个很好的设计,”罗德里格教授说。“但主要的挑战是为新机场找一片地。难以想象这需要多少钱。”
        Beijing Daxing occupies 18 square miles of land, more than two-thirds the size of Manhattan, in southern Beijing and the adjacent province of Hebei. It’s trumpeted as a key part of the “Jing-Jin-Ji” economic development plan, which will unite Beijing, Hebei, and the port city of Tianjin into an economic region to rival the country’s more prosperous economic hubs, Shanghai and Guangzhou.        北京大兴机场占地面积达47平方公里,面积超过曼哈顿的三分之二,它位于北京市南部和邻近的河北省之间。它被宣传为“京津冀”协同发展规划的重要组成部分,该计划将把北京、河北和港口城市天津组合成一片经济区,与中国更繁荣的经济中心上海和广州相媲美。
        Obtaining this land wasn’t a problem, because in China all land is owned by the state. Protests do occur in China when communities are razed to make way for megaprojects — especially in years past, when some people killed themselves rather than lose their homes.        拿下这片土地不是问题,因为在中国所有土地都归国家所有。当社区被夷为平地为大型项目让路时,中国确实会发生抗议活动——特别是在过去几年间,有些人宁愿自杀也不愿失去家园。
        But decades of forced evictions seem to have taught both sides some lessons.        但几十年的强制迁出似乎给双方都留下了一些教训。
        For residents, it’s the futility of opposition.        对于居民来说,反抗是徒劳的。
        “Who wants to leave?” said Li Zhengu, a resident of Ligezhuang village, one of 11 that are being demolished, along with 24 others where people are being moved to avoid noise. “But there wasn’t any discussion.”        “谁想离开?”李各庄的居民李振谷(音)说,这个村庄是拆迁的11个村庄中的一个,另外有24个村庄因为噪音需要搬迁。“但没有任何讨论。”
        Indeed, local media reported little about the relocation of more than 20,000 people, let alone broader questions about whether the increased traffic could be handled by Beijing Capital if the military loosened its grip on airspace. Instead, the new airport was portrayed as further proof of China’s rise.        事实上,当地媒体对超过2万人的搬迁报道甚少,更不要说更广泛的问题了——即如果军方放松对空域的控制,北京首都机场是否可以处理增加的交通量。相反,这座新机场被描绘为中国崛起的进一步证据。
        Besides clamping down on public discussion, the government is offering what residents say are generous packages. Residents say that on average, they are getting 50 square meters per person in living space, $150,000 per family in one-time compensation and a monthly stipend of $300 to cover basic living costs.        除了压制公众讨论以外,政府还提供居民所说的一揽子慷慨的补贴计划。居民们说,他们平均每人将得到50平方米的居住面积,每户家庭将获得15万美元的一次性补偿,以及每月300美元的补助金用于支付基本生活费用。
        Mr. Li said the money was fair, but added: “Then you don’t have land to grow on. And you have to figure out a new life.”        李振谷说,这笔钱是合理的,但补充道:“那么你就没有地可以种了。你必须找到新的生活。”
        As he spoke, a live broadcast echoed through the village: “Don’t complain,” a male voice said through large loudspeakers. “You could influence the entire village’s stability.”        在他说话的时候,村子里的现场广播响了起来:“不要抱怨,”大喇叭里传出来一个男的声音。“你可能会影响整个村庄的稳定。”
        Stability, though, can be defined in other ways.        但是,稳定可以通过其他方式被定义。
        Chen Zhen, a 29-year-old data processor at a local bank, said the older generation in his family was stunned by the destruction of their family home.        一家当地银行29岁的数据处理员陈真(音)表示,家里的老人对家里的房屋被拆感到震惊。
        “In my family, I’m fine, but my octogenarian grandma, she spent her whole life painstakingly building the courtyard home, one brick and one tile at a time,” Mr. Chen said. “Afterward, we didn’t dare go back to look.”        “在我家,我还好,但我八十几岁的奶奶,她用一生辛辛苦苦地建了这个院子,一砖一瓦,”陈真说。“后来,我们都不敢回去看。”
        Five minutes down the road is the village of Qigezhuang, which would lie in such a noisy area that it would no longer be habitable. Its brick-and-tiled courtyard homes were flattened in August. A muddy teddy bear lay on the road, across from old millstones strewn across the rubble.        沿着这条路走5分钟就到了祁各庄,这个村庄将处于噪音区而不再适合居住。8月,村里的砖瓦院住宅被夷为平地。一只脏兮兮的泰迪熊玩具躺在路上,对面是散落在碎石上的旧磨盘。
        Behind a corrugated fence, an elevated highway curled gracefully toward the orange terminal building in the distance.        在波纹状的栅栏后面,一条高架公路优雅地弯向远处的橙色航站楼。
        A late autumn wind crackled through the yellowing leaves, drowning out the enormous dump trucks and backhoes in the distance and making the scene seem unreal — that someone, somewhere, had decided that one way of life would end and another would begin.        晚秋的风在黄叶间噼啪作响,盖过了远处巨大的自卸卡车和反铲挖土机的声音,让这个场景看起来不真实——某些人在某地决定结束一种生活方式而开启另一种。
                
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