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在整容和化妆盛行的韩国,她们渴望改变
South Korea Loves Plastic Surgery and Makeup. Some Women Want to Change That.

来源:纽约时报    2018-11-28 11:30



        SEOUL, South Korea — Kim Ji-yeon knew she wanted plastic surgery when she was 7. For the next 13 years, she destroyed photos of herself until her parents paid for double jaw surgery, a procedure that requires breaking the jaw to realign it.        韩国首尔——金志妍(Kim Ji-yeon,音)7岁时就知道她要做整形手术。在接下来的13年里,她不断毁掉自己的照片,直到她的父母出钱让她做了双颌手术,这是一种需要将颌骨切断然后调整位置的手术。
        Then Ms. Kim started to question why she devoted so much — $200 a month and two hours a day, she calculated — to her appearance. She cut her hair short. Then she crushed her makeup into pieces.        后来,金志妍开始对自己为什么在外表上花这么多钱产生了怀疑,按她的计算:每个月200美元、每天两个小时。她把头发剪短了。之后,还把自己的化妆品也都处理了。
        Ms. Kim, 22, is one of a growing group of South Korean women rebelling against their society’s rigid beauty standards — a push they call “Escape the Corset.” Inspired in part by the global #MeToo movement, which has shaken up politics and society in South Korea’s deeply patriarchal culture, the women are challenging long-accepted attitudes about plastic surgery and cosmetics in one of the world’s most beauty-obsessed capitals.        现年22岁的金志妍是越来越多反抗社会严格审美标准的韩国女性之一,她们称之为“脱下束身衣”。全球“#我也是”(MeToo)运动震撼了韩国高度父权文化下的政治和社会,这些女性部分受此运动的启发,在世界上最痴迷美容的首都之一,她们正在挑战人们长期以来所形成的对整形手术和化妆品的态度。
        “Misogyny is more extreme in South Korea, and the beauty industry has made it worse,” said Ms. Kim.        “韩国的仇视女性更极端,美容业让这种情况雪上加霜,”金志妍说。
        Beauty is big in South Korea. It has the world’s highest rate of cosmetic surgery per capita, and it keeps rising. It has become a destination for nip-and-tuck tourism. The beauty market — cosmetics and facial care products like masks — generated $13 billion in sales last year, according to Mintel, making it one of the world’s top 10 beauty markets.        美容在韩国很火。它拥有世界上最高的人均整容手术率,而且这个数字还在不断上升。它还成为了整容手术旅游的一个目的地。据英敏特(Mintel)的数据,韩国的美容市场——化妆品和面膜等面部护理产品——去年创造了130亿美元的销售额,使其跻身世界十大美容市场。
        While men are an increasing part of the market, the beauty pressure is aimed mostly at women. K-pop stars who often get extensive cosmetic surgery are held up as the standard. YouTube celebrities with millions of followers offer elaborate tutorials on how to apply makeup. Women are bombarded with ads across buses, in subways and on TV.        虽然这个市场中男性的比例越来越大,但美容的压力主要还是针对女性。那些通常做过大量整容手术的韩国流行音乐明星们被当成美的标准。拥有数百万粉丝的YouTube名人,向人们提供如何化妆的详细教程。在公共汽车、地铁和电视上,女性到处受到这类广告的轰炸。
        “Born pretty?” reads one in the Seoul subway. “That’s a big fat lie.”        “天生漂亮?”首尔地铁里的一幅广告这样问道。“那是一个弥天大谎。”
        “We go through 12 steps just to put on the basic products before we even apply makeup,” said Ms. Kim. “That basically defines the problem.”        “我们在化妆之前,先要经过涂抹基本产品的12个步骤,”金志妍说。“这基本上定义了问题的所在。”
        Women are now pushing back. This summer, tens of thousands gathered to protest against sexual assault, the proliferation of spy cameras taking voyeuristic videos of women and the harsher standards they face in other aspects of society, from beauty to the law.        女性现在开始反击。今年夏天,成千上万人参加集会,抗议性侵犯,抗议拍摄窥淫视频的隐蔽摄像头数量激增,抗议女性从美容到法律等社会其他方面所面临的更严酷标准。
        Political and economic disparities fuel the anger. South Korea’s wage gap is the highest among countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Women hold just one-sixth of the seats in the National Assembly and one-tenth of corporate management positions.        政治和经济上的不平等加剧了这种愤怒。在经济合作与发展组织成员国中,韩国的工资性别差距是最大的。女性只拥有国民议会六分之一的席位,以及十分之一的企业管理职位。
        “The intensity of feminism in South Korea is stronger than in other countries because women really are not part of the political and economic leadership,” said Yunkim Ji-yeong, an assistant professor of feminist philosophy at the Institute of Body and Culture at Konkuk University.        “韩国女权主义的强度比其他国家大,因为韩国女性真的不属于政治和经济领导层,”建国大学身体与文化研究所的女权主义哲学助理教授尹金智永(Yunkim Ji-yeong,音)说。
        In that environment, Escape the Corset has found an audience.Bae Eun-jeong, known as Lina Bae, was a YouTube star who gave beauty tutorials. After hearing about the anti-corset movement earlier this year, Ms. Bae, 21, took a closer look at the comments on her YouTube channel. Many were from young girls who said makeup gave them the courage to go to school.        “脱下束身衣”运动在这种环境中找到了受众。裴殷贞(Bae Eun-jeong,音),也就是裴莉娜(Lina Bae),是教人如何化妆的YouTube名人。今年早些时候,听说了“脱下束身衣”运动后,现年21岁的裴莉娜仔细读了别人在自己YouTube频道的留言。许多评论来自年轻女孩,她们说化妆给了她们上学的勇气。
        “I realized there was something very wrong,” said Ms. Bae. “I wanted to do a new kind of video to tell them that it’s O.K. not to make yourself up.”        “我意识到这里有一个很大的错误,”裴莉娜说。“我想做一个新的视频,告诉她们不化妆也没关系。”
        In June, Ms. Bae uploaded a video in which she goes through the laborious process of applying creams, foundation, eyeliner and fake eyelashes. A series of simulated messages like those she has received in the past scroll across the screen. One says: “Your eyes are freaking uneven.” Another one: “I would kill myself if I were you.”Then she takes off all the makeup and tells the viewer, “Don’t be so concerned with how others perceive you. You’re special and pretty the way you are.”        今年6月,裴莉娜上传一段视频,视频中,她过了一遍涂霜、上粉底、描眼线、戴假睫毛的耗时费力过程。同时,几条与她以前收到的评论类似的信息在屏幕上滚过。一条说:“你的眼睛特别的不对称。”另一条说:“我要是你,我会杀了自己。”然后她在视频中卸掉了所有的妆,对观众说,“别太在意别人怎样看你。你本来的样子就很特别、很漂亮。”
        The video has been watched 5.5 million times. Ms. Bae’s YouTube followers jumped to nearly 147,000 from 20,000. A publisher asked her to write a book. She has since cut her hair short and stopped wearing makeup, saving nearly $500 a month. Now her videos focus on cooking and sharing ideas.        这段视频被观看了550万次。裴莉娜在YouTube的粉丝从2万猛增到近14.7万。一个出版商邀请她出书。她从那时起剪了短发,不再化妆,每月省下近500美元。现在,她的视频集中在烹饪和分享想法上。
        Cha Ji-won, a video content creator at an urban renewal company, joined the movement earlier this year and created her own YouTube channel, which now has 30,000 followers. Ms. Cha, 22, once thought that spending as much as $700 on makeup each month was not enough. Now she has turned her makeup into slime to play with.        车智元(Cha Ji-won,音)在一家城市改造公司做视频内容,她于今年早些时候加入到这场运动中来,并创建了自己的YouTube频道,目前已有3万个粉丝。现年22岁的车智元曾认为,每月高达700美元的化妆品开支还不够多。现在,她把自己的化妆品拿来玩。
        “They are sort of like toys, like crayons,” said Ms. Cha. She used to feel like a second-class citizen, she said, but now that she has stopped wearing makeup “people listen to me when I say things.”        “它们有点像玩具,像是蜡笔。”车智元说,以前曾觉得自己像个二等公民,但现在不再化妆后,“我说话时人们会听。”
        The movement has sparked an ugly backlash.        这场运动也引发了恶意的反弹。
        Ms. Bae, Ms. Kim and Ms. Cha, who all have bowl haircuts characteristic of the movement, say they have become targets of verbal abuse and death threats. Ms. Kim was told by two prospective bosses that she did not look feminine enough. Feminists talk about their peers “coming out” publicly because many prefer to stay anonymous.“The violence against people who leave the mainstream path is very intense in South Korea compared to other countries,” said Seo Sol, 26, who has a YouTube talk show about feminism called “Because There Is Too Much to Say.”        留着运动式短发的裴莉娜、金志妍和车智元说,她们都成为了谩骂和死亡威胁的目标。金志妍去求职的两家公司老板对她说,她看上去不够女性化。女权主义者谈论起她们的这些同路人时会用公开“出柜”这样的字眼,因为许多人希望保持匿名。“与其他国家相比,针对离经叛道者的暴力在韩国要强烈得多,”26岁的徐雪(Seo Sol,音)说,她在YouTube上有一个关于女权主义的脱口秀节目《因为有太多的话要说》。
        Yim Hyun-ju has experienced the criticism. The 33-year-old anchor at Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation, a national broadcaster, decided to wear her glasses on her morning news show on April 12. Her fake eyelashes were making her eyes so tired that she was going through a bottle of artificial tears every day.        任铉珠(Yim Hyun-ju,音)经历过这种批评。韩国文化广播公司这位33岁的主持人决定在4月12日的早间新闻中戴上眼镜。假睫毛让她的眼睛很难受,每天要用一瓶人工泪液来缓解。
        It became an online sensation. “I did not think it would become news,” Ms. Yim said.        她的做法在网上引起了轰动。“我没想到那会成为新闻,”任铉珠说。
        Ms. Yim’s producers reproached her. Viewers wrote to complain. But women came up to her in public to thank her. Now Ms. Yim wears her glasses from time to time, an act that she says sends viewers a message to judge her based on her competence and not her appearance. But she doesn’t want to be identified as part of any movement.        任铉珠的制作人责备了她。观众们写信投诉。但也有女性在公共场合走到她面前来感谢她。现在, 任铉珠会时不时地戴上眼镜,她说,带眼镜的做法向观众传递了一个信息,让他们根据她的能力而不是外表来评判她。但是她也不希望别人认为她是任何运动的一部分。
        “If I could act freely, I would apply makeup less,” Ms. Yim said.“But I’m stuck between my mind and heart, which says one thing, but there is the reality of my job,” she added.        “如果我能自行选择的话,我会少化妆,”任铉珠说。“但我陷入了理性和感性之间的纠结,感性告诉我一种东西,但我有我工作的现实,”她补充道。
        Many women in the anti-corset movement credit their actions as having had a small impact on the makeup industry. One recent ad, for the Missha cosmetics brand, features a short-haired model and one with freckles. “Get out, expose your flaws and follow your own standards rather than others’,” it says. Still, they note, the women in the ad largely stick to Korean beauty standards — and the women are wearing makeup.Kim Hong-tae, a spokesman for Able C&C, which owns the Missha brand, said the ad was meant to convey “that there is no predetermined standard of physical appearance.”        许多参加“脱下束身衣”运动的女性说,她们的做法已对化妆品行业有了小小的影响。化妆品牌谜尚(Missha)最近的广告启用了一个留短发、有雀斑的模特。广告说,“走出去,把你的缺陷露出来,听从自己而非别人的标准。”尽管如此,人们指出,这个广告中的女性在很大程度上仍遵循韩国的审美标准——广告里的女性都化了妆。谜尚品牌所有者Able C&C的发言人金弘斗(Kim Hong-tae,音)说,那个广告要传达的信息是,“没有预先确定的形象标准。”
        And the social pressure to wear makeup and have a small, heart-shaped face is still strong. Im Soo-hyang stars in a Korean drama called “My ID is Gangnam Beauty,” about a young woman who has plastic surgery and grapples with image issues. The name refers to the upscale Gangnam district in Seoul, where plastic surgery clinics line the streets.“I can’t say I’m free from being conscious about people paying attention to me because of the nature of my job,” Ms. Im said during an interview at a hair salon in Gangnam. “Look at me. I have my hair done, I’m wearing makeup, I have my nails done and I’m wearing pretty clothes.”        要化妆、要有一个心形小脸蛋的社会压力依然很强大。林秀香在韩剧《我的ID是江南美人》中担任主演,该剧讲的是一个年轻女性做整形手术努力解决自己的形象问题。剧名中的江南是首尔的一个高档住宅区,那里的街头到处都是整形医院。“我不能说,我不用在乎人们因为我工作性质的缘故对我的关注,”林秀香在江南一家美发沙龙接受采访时说。“看看我吧。我做头发,我化妆,我做指甲,我穿漂亮的衣服。”
        She smiled, then added, “I cannot be liberated.”        她笑了笑,然后补充说,“我不能被解放。”
                
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