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中国手机品牌是如何在全球与iPhone竞争的
In Price and Value, Chinese Phone Makers Outpace Apple in Much of the World

来源:纽约时报    2019-01-08 10:45



        BEIJING — To most Americans, the names are unfamiliar, maybe a little hard to pronounce: Huawei, Xiaomi, Oppo, Vivo.        北京——对于大多数美国人来说,这些名字都不太熟悉,可能还有点难读:Huawei(华为)、Xiaomi(小米)、Oppo、Vivo。
        They are China’s biggest smartphone brands. Around the world — although not in the United States — they are making the handset business brutally competitive. This week, after Apple warned of disappointing iPhone sales in China, industry observers said that devices from the Chinese brands were a major culprit.        它们都是中国智能手机的大品牌。在世界各地——虽然不包括美国——这些品牌正在让手机行业的竞争变得残酷。上周,苹果(Apple)对iPhone在中国的销量令人失望做出警告后,业内观察人士表示,这些中国品牌的设备是影响其销量的一个主要原因。
        As the phone market in China reaches saturation and sales shrink over all, the country’s hardware makers are pushing hard, and increasingly winning fans, in places like France, Germany, India and Southeast Asia, where consumers find that the phones can do just about everything an iPhone can do at a fraction of the cost.        随着中国手机市场达到饱和,整体销售量减少,中国的硬件厂商正在努力拓展市场,开始在法国、德国、印度和东南亚等地赢得拥趸,消费者发现,这些中国手机基本上可以做iPhone可做的一切,但售价比iPhone低不少。
        Apple sits comfortably atop the market in many countries, including China, for the highest-end handsets. But companies like Huawei have started to do elsewhere what they have done in China, competing with the iPhone on experience and value and luring customers with price comparisons that make them rethink buying Apple’s signature product.        苹果在包括中国在内的许多国家的高端手机市场销量仍稳居首位。但像华为这样的公司已经开始在其他地方做它们在中国做的事情,在体验和价值上与iPhone竞争,通过价格对比吸引消费者,让他们重新考虑是否购买苹果的标志性产品。
        The cost difference is notable: In China, an iPhone XR starts at around $950, while Huawei’s top-end handsets start at about $600, and Xiaomi’s comparable models start at even less. The iPhone XS starts at around $1,250.        这个价格差异很明显:在中国,iPhone XR起售价约合950美元,而华为高端手机起售价只约合600美元,小米的同类机型起售价更低。iPhone XS起售价约合1250美元。
        Companies like Huawei and Oppo have made improvements in features and overall quality that are enticing many wealthy Chinese people, said Mo Jia, an analyst in Shanghai for the technology research firm Canalys. Chinese brands’ aggressive marketing and sales campaigns in Europe indicate that the companies believe consumers there who have traditionally used iPhones will do the same thing.        为了吸引许多富裕的中国人,华为和Oppo等公司在手机功能和整体质量上已做了改进,技术咨询公司Canalys驻上海的分析师贾沫说。中国手机品牌在欧洲声势浩大的营销和促销活动表明,这些公司相信,传统上使用iPhone的欧洲消费者也将做出与中国消费者同样的选择。
        “Maybe it won’t happen this year or next year,” Mr. Jia said. “But Huawei is going in that direction.”        “这也许不会在今年或明年发生,”贾沫说。“但华为正朝着这个方向发展。”
        In its pursuit of the European market, Huawei (pronounced “HWA-way”), which has its headquarters in Shenzhen and is now the world’s No. 2 seller of smartphones, has gone far beyond the phone store. Huawei has sponsored summer concerts in Greece, teamed up with Lithuania’s basketball federation and backed a “China Festival” in Cologne, Germany. Vivo sponsored last year’s World Cup in Russia.        总部设在深圳的华为目前是全球第二大智能手机销售商,它为发展欧洲市场上所做的事情已经远远不止于开设手机专卖店。华为在希腊赞助夏季音乐会,与立陶宛篮球协会有合作,还为德国科隆的一个“中国节”当赞助商。Vivo赞助了去年在俄罗斯举行的世界杯。
        Xiaomi (pronounced “SHAO-mee”), which is based in Beijing and was founded in 2010, seemingly came out of nowhere to become the No. 4 mobile brand in Europe early last year, according to Canalys. The gadget maker has also become the top seller of phones in India, in part by opening hundreds of stores in rural areas.        小米成立于2010年,总部设在北京,虽然似乎是忽然冒出来的,但据Canalys,小米已在去年初成为欧洲第四大手机品牌。这家电子产品制造商也已成为印度最大的手机销售商,部分原因是小米在印度农村地区开设了数百家零售店。
        Clément Blaise, a 25-year-old banker in northern France, has an iPhone for work and a Xiaomi as a personal phone. He said he needed to recharge the Apple device “all the time” but could go two days without charging his Xiaomi.        25岁克莱芒·布莱斯(Clement Blaise)在法国北部的银行工作,他有一部工作用的iPhone,但他个人用的是小米。他说,他“总是”需要给苹果手机充电,但他的小米手机可以在不充电的情况下连续工作两天。
        “We have this false, preconceived idea that Chinese brands are not as good, that their products are of cheap quality,” Mr. Blaise said. “But the price gap leavens the fears. For 150 euros” — around $170 — “what do you risk anyway?”        “我们有一种错误的先入之见,认为中国品牌的东西都不怎么好,认为中国产品的质量低劣,”布莱斯说。“但价格差距减轻了这种担忧。150欧元(约合170美元)对你来说还算什么风险吗?”
        Chinese phone makers have not made similar inroads in the United States. The American government has worked for years to stymie the sale of Huawei’s smartphones and telecom-network equipment, after a congressional inquiry in 2012 deemed Huawei a potential vehicle for cyberspying by the Chinese government. The Trump administration has urged Western allies to do the same.        中国的手机制造商还没有在美国取得类似的进展。2012年,美国国会的一项调查认为,华为可能是中国政府从事网络间谍活动的工具,之后,美国政府多年来一直在努力阻止华为智能手机和电信网络设备在美国的销售。特朗普政府已敦促西方盟友采取同样的做法。
        Security concerns have not dissuaded some buyers across the Atlantic. Giannis Vassilopoulos, a college student in Athens, said he had been bombarded by Huawei ads during his recent travels around Europe. He said he had bought a Huawei phone because the brand felt more familiar, more European even.        安全担忧并未阻止大西洋另一边的买家。雅典的大学生吉亚尼斯·瓦西里洛普洛斯(Giannis Vassilopoulos)说,他最近在欧洲各地旅行时,到处都能看到华为的广告。他说,他已买了一部华为手机,因为感觉该这牌子更熟悉,甚至更欧洲。
        “Seeing Huawei in the middle of London makes it look immediately more Western,” he said.        “在伦敦市中心看到华为,立刻让它看起来更西方,”他说。
        Apple still has a hold on consumers in many places. Announcing the sales slump in China this week, the company’s chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, said Apple expected to set revenue records in wealthier countries like Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea and Spain and in some emerging markets like Malaysia, Mexico, Poland and Vietnam.        苹果在很多地方仍牢牢掌握着消费者。苹果首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)上周宣布iPhone在中国市场的销售下滑时说,公司在德国、意大利、荷兰、韩国和西班牙等富裕国家,以及在马来西亚、墨西哥、波兰和越南等新兴市场,预计将创下营业额纪录。
        In China, though, Apple’s market share has been declining, and the company is clinging to the No. 5 spot in smartphone shipments, according to the market research firm Counterpoint. An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment.        但苹果在中国的市场份额一直在下降,市场研究公司Counterpoint的数据显示,苹果在中国的智能手机出货量勉强保持第五。苹果发言人拒绝发表评论。
        China became the world’s largest smartphone market over the past decade as rising incomes coincided with an explosion in mobile technology.        随着收入的增长和移动技术的迅猛发展,中国已在过去十年里成为全球最大的智能手机市场。
        People in China rely on handsets in an all-encompassing way, using them to rent bikes, sign into gyms and pay restaurant bills. The market is increasingly saturated, and there are fewer people in China who do not have an advanced device. But there are also new economic reasons to buy locally made goods: Consumers who are replacing or looking to upgrade are dialing back in light of China’s slowdown.        中国人用手机做的事情可谓无所不包,他们用手机租自行车、在健身房签到,还用手机支付餐馆账单。中国的手机市场正在日益饱和,没有先进设备的中国人已越来越少。但也有新的经济原因让人们购买本地产品:随着中国经济发展放缓,寻求更换或升级产品的消费者正在收紧腰包。
        Today, mainland China’s top smartphone seller is Huawei, whose handset line includes midrange devices and higher-end models with all the latest features. Vivo and Oppo, brands owned by the same Chinese parent company, are next. And then comes Xiaomi, whose phones, smart home devices and even sneakers command a passionate fan base.        现在,中国大陆最大的智能手机销售商是华为,其手机产品线包括中端设备、以及拥有所有最新功能的高端机型。同一个中国母公司旗下的Vivo和Oppo品牌的销量名列华为之后。然后是小米,小米的手机、智能家居设备,甚至其生产的运动鞋都拥有一批热情的粉丝。
        Samsung of South Korea, which sells more smartphones globally than any other brand, has only around 1 percent of the market in China.        韩国三星(Samsung)是全球智能手机销量最高的品牌,但在中国的市场份额仅为1%左右。
        Feng Yin, a 32-year-old engineer, has an iPhone now, but he is considering switching to a Huawei device.        32岁的工程师冯寅现在有一部iPhone,但他正在考虑改用华为的设备。
        “In the past few years, the technology in Apple’s phones has not had any big breakthroughs, while the technology in domestic phones has gotten better and better,” he said while browsing in a Huawei store in Shanghai on Friday. “The difference is getting smaller.”        “我觉得这几年苹果手机的技术没有很大的突破,而国产手机的技术越来越好,”他上周五在上海的一家华为门店逛时说。“差距越来越小。”
        Apple products have long been seen in China as conferring on their owners the ultimate in cachet and cool. But Chinese companies have used slick marketing and celebrity endorsements in hopes of giving their products more personality, while promoting advances in camera technology, battery life and microchips.        长期以来,苹果产品在中国一直被视为能赋予其拥有者威望和酷炫之感的终极物品。但中国企业已通过巧妙的营销手段和名人代言,希望使自己的产品更加个性化,同时也推销它们在相机技术、电池寿命和微芯片等方面的进步。
        On Friday, Xian Longfei, a restaurant chef, and a friend were at an Oppo store in Shanghai. When it comes to cellphone brands, Mr. Xian, 35, has tried many: Nokia, Motorola, Samsung and three different iPhone models. He switched to an Oppo a few months ago.        上周五,餐厅厨师冼龙飞和一个朋友正在逛上海的一家Oppo店。现年35岁的他试过许多手机品牌:诺基亚(Nokia)、摩托罗拉(Motorola)、三星,以及三款不同的iPhone。几个月前,他改为使用Oppo。
        He acknowledges that Apple’s devices still seem better on the whole. But so many of his friends in Shanghai and people in his hometown are Oppo users. And the price — around $400 on sale — was hard to beat.        他承认,苹果的设备似乎在总体上仍更好。但他在上海的很多朋友、以及老家的许多人现在都是Oppo的用户。而且Oppo手机约合400美元的售价没有对手。
        Also, he said, holding up his pink handset, “the form factor is pretty.”        而且,他拿着自己粉红色的手机说,“外型漂亮”。
        Another factor working against Apple in China is the dominance of WeChat, a messaging, social media and payments app used by more than a billion people. It works on Google’s Android operating system as well as Apple’s, making a phone’s software less of a differentiating factor.        中国市场另一个不利于苹果的因素是占主导地位的微信,有逾10亿人使用这个即时通讯、社交媒体和手机支付应用。微信在谷歌的安卓操作系统和苹果的手机操作系统上都可以运行,这就让手机软件不再是一个区别品牌的因素。
        “Why would people pay such a high price for an iPhone,” asked Kiranjeet Kaur, an analyst for the industry research firm IDC, “if, from a hardware perspective, there isn’t much of an upgrade from Huawei and, from a platform perspective, there’s nothing to lock people in?”        “如果从硬件的角度来看,iPhone比华为没有多大升级;从平台的角度来看,苹果没有什么东西可以锁定用户,那人们为什么要花这么高的价钱卖iPhone呢?”行业研究公司IDC的分析师科兰吉特·考尔(Kiranjeet Kaur)说。
        In Europe, buyers of Chinese brands describe undergoing a sort of conversion. Irritating flaws in their iPhone or Samsung devices lead them to seek alternatives. Presented with unfamiliar Chinese products, they initially have doubts. But after a while, they get hooked.        在欧洲,购买中国品牌的人讲述了他们经历的转变。他们的iPhone或三星设备令人恼火的缺陷导致他们寻找替代产品。面对不熟悉的中国产品,他们起初心存疑虑。但是过了一段时间,他们着了迷。
        When Alessandro Del Mastro, 33, bought a Huawei handset in southern Italy three years ago, he was skeptical.        当现年33岁的亚历山德罗·德尔·马斯特罗(Alessandro Del Mastro)三年前在意大利南部买了一部华为手机,当时他有过怀疑。
        “My friends teased me that it was not going to last, like most Chinese products, but we were all wrong,” he said.        “朋友取笑我说,这部手机和大多数中国产品一样,用不了多久就会坏,但我们都错了,”他说。
        Faruk Kaya uses an Apple iPhone and tablet but, as a salesman at a Berlin electronics store, he encounters German customers who prefer Chinese brands.        法鲁克·卡亚(Faruk Kaya)现在用的是苹果的iPhone和平板电脑,但在柏林一家电子产品商店当销售员的他常会遇到一些更喜欢中国品牌的德国消费者。
        “Now you can get a smartphone with the best photo and audio quality for about half the price of an iPhone or a Samsung,” he said.        “现在你花买iPhone或三星手机一半的钱,就可以买到能拍出最好的照片、音频质量最好的智能手机,”他说。
        Gregory Lauseiro, a telecom executive in Paris, bought his eighth Huawei phone last summer. He has turned his 56-year-old aunt, Christine Jankowski, into a believer, too.        去年夏天,巴黎电信高管格雷戈里·劳塞罗(Gregory Lauseiro)购买了他的第八部华为手机。他也把他56岁的阿姨克里斯汀·扬科夫斯基(Christine Jankowski)变成了华为手机的爱好者。
        “I wasn’t really worried about the fact that it was a Chinese brand,” Ms. Jankowski said of her Huawei phone. She added: “We know that they make amazing technological products.        “我真的不担心它是一个中国牌子的东西,”扬科夫斯基在谈到自己的华为手机时说。她补充说:“我们知道他们制造令人惊叹的科技产品。”
        “If I had to buy a Chinese frying pan, I don’t know,” she said. “But a phone?”        “如果我不得不买一个中国的平底煎锅的话,我不知道该不该,”她说。“但手机不是问题。”
                
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