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基因编辑科学家贺建奎或面临刑事指控
Scientist Who Edited Babies’ Genes Is Likely to Face Charges in China

来源:纽约时报    2019-01-22 09:56



        HONG KONG — A Chinese scientist who claimed to have created the world’s first genetically edited babies “seriously violated” state regulations, according to the results of an initial government investigation reported on Monday by Chinese state media.        香港——据中国官方媒体周一报道,政府已初步查明,一位声称创造了世界上第一个基因编辑婴儿的中国科学家“严重违反”了国家有关规定。
        The investigators’ findings indicate that the scientist, He Jiankui, and his collaborators are likely to face criminal charges.
        调查结果意味着这位名叫贺建奎的科学家及其合作者可能面临刑事指控。
        Dr. He shocked the world in November when he announced that he had used Crispr, a powerful gene-editing technique, to alter the genes of human embryos. He produced some data but no definitive proof during his presentation at an international conference in Hong Kong.        去年11月,贺建奎宣称用强大的基因编辑技术Crispr修改了人类胚胎的基因,全世界都为之震惊。他在香港一个国际会议上作报告时提供了一些数据,但没有给出最后的证明。
        The investigation found that Dr. He and his team had edited the genes of human embryos and then implanted the embryos in female volunteers, as he claimed last year. One volunteer gave birth to twin girls in November, and another volunteer is now pregnant, according to Xinhua, the Chinese state news agency.        据中国官方通讯社新华社报道,调查发现,正如他去年宣称的那样,贺建奎及其团队编辑了人类胚胎的基因,然后将这些胚胎植入了女性志愿者体内。一名志愿者于去年11月生下一对双胞胎女儿,另一名志愿者目前仍在怀孕。
        Dr. He’s announcement raised ethical concerns about the long-term effects of such genetic alterations, which if successful would be inherited by the child’s progeny, and whether other scientists would be emboldened to try their own gene-editing experiments.        贺建奎的宣布引发了伦理担忧,因为这种基因改造有长期后果,如果改造成功,这些基因将由基因编辑婴儿的后代继承下去。再就是,这可能会鼓励其他科学家也尝试基因编辑实验。
        Scientists inside and outside China criticized Dr. He’s work, which highlighted fears that the country has overlooked ethical issues in the pursuit of scientific achievement. The Chinese authorities placed Dr. He under investigation, during which time he has been kept under guard at a guesthouse at the Southern University of Science and Technology in the city of Shenzhen.
        中国内外的科学家都批评了贺建奎的工作,他的做法突显了中国在追求科学成就的过程中忽视伦理的问题。中国当局对贺建奎进行了调查,这期间他一直住在深圳南方科技大学的一家招待所里,受到看管。
        The university announced on Monday that it was rescinding Dr. He’s contract and canceling all of his teaching and research activities there.        周一,南科大宣布解除贺建奎的聘用合同,终止了他在学校的所有教学研究活动。
        In countries including the United States, such a clinical trial would be banned. But China has laxer regulations on such research, and it was not immediately clear which specific laws Dr. He was accused of breaking.        这种临床试验在包括美国在内的一些国家被禁止。但中国对此类研究的监管较为宽松,贺建奎被控违反了哪些具体法律目前尚不清楚。
        The government investigation found that starting in 2016, Dr. He had deliberately evaded supervision, used unsafe and ineffective methods, and forged ethical review materials, Xinhua reported.        据新华社报道,政府的调查发现,从2016年开始,贺建奎有意逃避监管,使用了安全性、有效性不确切的方法,伪造了伦理审查材料。
        “This behavior seriously violated ethics, scientific research integrity and relevant state regulations causing adverse effects at home and abroad,” Xinhua said.        “该行为严重违背伦理道德和科研诚信,严重违反国家有关规定,在国内外造成恶劣影响,”新华社说。
        Dr. He and other personnel and institutions involved “will be dealt with seriously according to the law,” the report said, citing an unidentified lead investigator. The case will be handed over to public security organs, the report said, indicating the likelihood of criminal charges.        报道引用一位没有给出姓名的调查负责人的话说,将对贺建奎和其他相关人员及机构“依法依规严肃处理”。报道说,此案将移交公安机关,这意味着有刑事指控的可能性。
        The investigation also found that Dr. He had raised funds on his own “in pursuit of personal fame and fortune.” The allegations that he forged documents and financed his work independently could shield from punishment his university, the local authorities and the hospital where the trial was carried out.        调查还发现,贺建奎“为追逐个人名利”自己筹集了资金。他伪造文件、为自己的工作自筹资金的指控,可能会让他所在的大学、地方当局,以及让他进行这项试验的医院免受惩罚。
        Still, some critics have asked how Dr. He could have perpetrated such a scheme without some knowledge of the authorities. After his announcement, speculation swirled that the Shenzhen government had funded his work. Local officials have denied it.        尽管如此,一些批评人士一直想知道,贺建奎是怎样在当局完全不知道的情况下开展这一计划的。他宣布消息之后,外界纷纷猜测是深圳政府为他的工作提供了资金。当地官员对此予以否认。
        At the core of Dr. He’s legal problems is informed consent. Chinese medical ethics guidelines require that researchers obtain verbal consent from the subjects of their work. Civil charges can be brought against researchers who exaggerate the benefits of a particular experiment while playing down the risks.        贺建奎的法律问题的核心是知情同意。中国的医学伦理准则要求研究人员得到研究对象的口头同意。夸大某个具体实验的好处、淡化其风险的研究人员可能会受到民事指控。
        Dr. He said he had recruited couples in which the man had H.I.V., the virus that causes AIDS. He then used in vitro fertilization to create human embryos genetically altered to be resistant to H.I.V. infection. But there are simpler ways of preventing H.I.V. infection that do not involve the risks of such a trial.        贺建奎说,他招募的是男性为HIV病毒携带者的夫妇,这种病毒导致艾滋病。然后,他使用体外受精技术,创造经基因编辑、能够抵抗HIV感染的人类胚胎。但是目前已有更简单的预防HIV感染的方法,不必冒这类试验所涉及的风险。
        Bai Hua, the head of Baihualin, an AIDS support group that helped Dr. He recruit the couples, said that he now regretted doing so and was deeply worried about the families. In a statement posted on the social media platform WeChat, Mr. Bai, who uses a pseudonym, said he felt “deceived.”        曾帮助贺建奎招募受试夫妇的艾滋病公益组织“白桦林”的负责人白桦说,他现在后悔那样做,并对所涉及的家庭表示深切的担忧。白桦这个名字是化名,他在社交媒体平台微信一个账号发布的声明中说,他觉得自己“被骗了”。
        One H.I.V.-infected man whom Dr. He’s team tried to recruit said he was not told of the ethical concerns about editing human embryos, according to Sanlian Life Weekly, a Chinese newsmagazine.        据中国新闻杂志《三联生活周刊》报道,贺建奎的团队试图招募的一名感染HIV的男性说,他没有被告知有关基因编辑人类胚胎的伦理问题。
        Dr. He’s case has underscored China’s lack of updated laws governing genetic research.        贺建奎的案子突显了中国缺乏监管基因研究的最新法规。
        A former vice minister of health, Huang Jiefu, has called for the establishment of a central organization to supervise bioscience experiments, according to the state-run Global Times newspaper. He said the country’s 2003 regulations governing embryo experiments — which the government says Dr. He violated — were outdated.        据官方媒体《环球时报》报道,曾任卫生部副部长的黄洁夫呼吁成立一个监督生物科学实验的中心机构。黄洁夫说,中国2003年制定的有关胚胎实验的规定已经过时了(政府称贺建奎违反了该规定)。
        Dr. He, who is in his mid-30s, studied at Rice University in Houston, where he first worked with Crispr. He conducted postdoctoral research at Stanford University.        30多岁的贺建奎曾在休斯顿的莱斯大学(Rice University)读书,他在那里首次使用了Crispr技术。他还曾在斯坦福大学做过博士后研究。
                
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