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一桩凶杀案背后的香港司法困境
Murder Case Poses Dilemma for Hong Kong on Sending Suspects to China

来源:纽约时报    2019-03-05 06:10



        HONG KONG — Before she went on holiday with her boyfriend, the young woman from Hong Kong told friends about his pledge to her. “He said I am his first and last girlfriend,” the woman, Poon Hiu-wing, 20, wrote on Facebook. It would be her last Facebook post.        香港——在和男友去度假之前,这名年轻的香港女子把他对自己的承诺告诉了朋友们。“他说我是他的第一个也是最后一个女朋友,”20岁的潘晓颖(Poon Hiu-wing)在Facebook上写道。这将是她在Facebook上发的最后一个帖子。
        After their trip to Taiwan in February 2018, the boyfriend, Chan Tong-kai, returned alone. Her family grew worried and called the police. One week later, investigators found her body in the bushes near a light rail station in northern Taiwan. An autopsy determined that she had been four to five months pregnant.
        2018年2月,他们去台湾玩,之后男友陈同佳(Chan Tong-kai)独自返港。她的家人开始担心起来,并且报了警。一周后,侦查人员在台湾北部一个捷运站附近的灌木丛中发现了她的尸体。尸检显示,她已有四到五个月的身孕。
        The police in Hong Kong arrested Mr. Chan, and last year he was charged over possession of his girlfriend’s cellphone, digital camera and $3,000 in cash.        香港警方逮捕了陈同佳,去年他被控侵占女友的手机、数码相机和3000美元现金。
        But he was not charged with killing Ms. Poon.        但没有谋杀指控。
        Under Hong Kong law, Mr. Chan must face charges related to her death where it happened, in Taiwan. But Hong Kong does not have an extradition agreement with Taiwan, so Mr. Chan has remained in Hong Kong.        根据香港法律,陈同佳必须在台湾接受与谋杀有关的指控。但由于香港与台湾没有引渡协议,因此他一直留在香港。
        To break the logjam, Hong Kong has proposed easing renditions to and from Taiwan — and also to mainland China, touching off concerns that Hong Kong residents would be exposed to China’s harsh legal system while losing the singular legal protections they enjoy at home.        为了打破僵局,香港提出放宽与台湾之间——以及与大陆之间——的引渡,这让人担心香港居民将面临中国严厉的法律制度,失去他们在香港享有的特殊法律保护。
        Hong Kong, a former British colony, returned to China under a framework of “one country, two systems,” which allowed the territory to maintain its own political, legal and economic systems. Opposition lawmakers have accused the Hong Kong government of taking advantage of the desire for justice for Ms. Poon to push a broader agenda of promoting Hong Kong’s integration with the rest of China.        香港曾经是英国殖民地,在“一国两制”的框架下回归中国,该地区得以维持自己的政治、法律和经济制度。反对派议员指责香港政府利用为潘晓颖伸张正义的愿望,来推动香港与中国其他地区融合的总体议程。
        “I think the whole thing is a political maneuver more than anything else,” said Claudia Mo, a lawmaker who leads the pro-democracy camp in Hong Kong’s legislature. “Ever since the handover, it’s been stipulated in the law that we do not hand over fugitives to mainland China. Now they are taking advantage of this particular Taiwan case and pretend it is for compassion and humanity.”        “我认为,整个事件完全是一个政治策略,”香港立法会民主派会议召集人、立法会议员毛孟静表示。“自从回归以来,法律明文规定我们不会将逃犯移交给中国大陆。现在他们在利用这个特殊的台湾案例,而假装出于同情和人道。”
        Hong Kong officials say the suspect may avoid more serious charges if the government does not act quickly. Ms. Poon’s mother publicly implored lawmakers to help bring her daughter’s accused killer to trial.        香港官员表示,如果政府不迅速采取行动,疑犯可能会逃避更严重的指控。潘晓颖的母亲公开恳求议员们帮忙将被指杀害女儿的凶手绳之以法。
        “We must do everything to help,” Carrie Lam, Hong Kong’s chief executive, said last month. “But if we argue with each other, slowly consult the public or issue some consultation documents, I fear we will not be able to help in this particular case.”        “我们必须尽一切努力提供帮助,”香港特首林郑月娥上月表示。“但如果我们彼此争论,慢慢咨询公民意见,或发布一些咨询文件,我担心恐怕帮不到这个具体的案件。”
        The proposed changes to Hong Kong’s extradition law set up a mechanism for handling jurisdictions with which the territory does not have formal agreements. The most significant among those are Taiwan, mainland China and Macau, a former Portuguese territory that returned to Chinese rule in 1999. The proposal considers all three parts of the People’s Republic of China, although the Communist Party-run central government has never controlled Taiwan.        对香港引渡法拟议中的修改,将建立一个机制来处理与香港没有签订正式协议的地区的司法管辖权。其中最重要的是台湾、中国大陆和澳门。澳门曾是葡萄牙的领土,1999年回归中国。该提案把中华人民共和国的三个部分全部考虑在内,尽管共产党领导的中央政府从未控制过台湾。
        The obstacles to formal extradition agreements differ. With Taiwan, the issue has primarily been political, legal experts say. China considers self-ruled Taiwan to be part of its territory, and does not recognize its government.        达成正式引渡协议的障碍各有不同。法律专家表示,同台湾的问题主要是在政治上。中国视自治的台湾为其领土的一部分,且不承认它的政府。
        In 2009, when Taiwan had a president who sought closer ties with China, the two sides reached an agreement on transferring criminal suspects. But Taiwan’s present administration is much more wary of Beijing. An official with Taiwan’s Ministry of Justice said it would not agree to any extradition deal that considered Taiwan as part of China.        2009年,台湾时任领导人寻求与中国建立更密切的关系,双方签订了转交犯罪嫌疑人的协议。但台湾当前的政府对北京方面要警惕得多。台湾法务部一名官员称,台湾将不会同意任何视台湾为中国一部分的引渡协议。
        “Although Taiwan has been seeking mutual judicial assistance with different jurisdictions, including Hong Kong, the government will not accept an extradition agreement that erodes Taiwan’s dignity and sovereignty,” the official, Liu Yi-chun, said last week, according to Taiwan’s state-owned Central News Agency.        据台湾国有的中央新闻社(Central News Agency)报道,官员刘怡君上周称,“尽管台湾一直在寻求与包括香港在内的不同司法辖区的共同司法互助,但政府不会接受有损台湾尊严与主权的引渡协议。”
        In Hong Kong, the chief concern about an agreement with mainland China is doubts about the quality of justice in a place where defendants have little access to legal representation and courts are subordinate to the Communist Party.        在香港,对于同中国大陆达成协议的主要顾虑在于怀疑大陆的司法质量,在那里被告几乎没有获得法律代表的途径,法庭也从属于共产党。
        “If we now extend this arrangement to allow in particular the mainland to make requests for rendition, then the simple point is we are accepting that currently mainland China’s criminal justice system meet basic requirements for fair trials,” said Eric Chueng, a legal scholar at the University of Hong Kong.        “如果我们现在扩展这个安排,特别是允许大陆提出引渡请求,那么简单讲我们就是在承认当前中国大陆的刑事司法体系达到了公平审判的基本要求,”香港大学法律学者张达明(Eric Chueng)说。
        “If we are not satisfied with that,” he added, “why are we introducing an amendment of such far-reaching effect?”        “如果我们对此并不满意,”他补充说,“为什么要引入一项影响如此深远的修正案呢?”
        In 2017, Australia backed out of a proposed extradition treaty with China after lawmakers expressed concerns about China’s legal system.        2017年,在立法者对中国的法律体系表示担忧之后,澳大利亚放弃了一项拟议的引渡条约。
        In recent years, several people from Hong Kong have been ensnared in the mainland legal system by questionable means. Five Hong Kong booksellers involved in the publication of gossipy books about China’s political leadership disappeared into mainland custody in late 2015. They were later shown on state-run television broadcasts giving confessions that one later said was coerced.        近年来,几名香港人已被大陆的法律系统通过可疑的方式诱捕。2015年底,5名涉嫌出版中国政治领导层八卦图书的香港书商消失,后发现被大陆关押。他们后来出现在国有电视广播中认罪,其中一人后来表示是遭到胁迫。
        In 2017, Xiao Jianhua, a Chinese billionaire, was taken out of a Hong Kong luxury hotel in a wheelchair and transported back to the mainland without passing through border controls. His abduction has not been officially explained, but he is believed to be assisting investigations into the financial industry.        2017年,中国亿万富翁肖建华被用轮椅推离香港一家豪华酒店,且不经边境管制便被运回大陆。他的被捕一直没有给出官方解释,但据信是被要求协助金融行业的调查。
        The opening of a new train station in Hong Kong last year has also caused worries about encroachment of the mainland’s legal system. The station, in Hong Kong’s West Kowloon district, is the terminus of a high-speed line to the neighboring mainland province of Guangdong, and was built to hold border-crossing facilities as well. So once travelers cross through immigration, they are under mainland jurisdiction.        去年香港投入使用的新火车站也导致了遭大陆法律系统蚕食的担忧。该站名为西九龙站,是通往毗邻大陆省份广东的高铁终点站,也设有出入境设施。因此,一旦乘客穿过边检,他们就会处于大陆司法管辖之下。
        A Hong Kong resident was detained in the mainland side of the terminal in October because he was wanted by a court in the neighboring mainland city of Shenzhen for owing money in a home sale, the mainland news outlet Nanfang Plus reported.        据大陆新闻机构《南方+》报道,一名香港居民10月份在大陆一侧被捕,原因是他因在房产销售中欠钱,被毗邻的大陆城市深圳某法院通缉。
        John Lee, Hong Kong’s secretary for security, said the proposed changes to the law would leave in place protections for human rights, including assurances that those extradited will not face the death penalty. But suspects could be extradited for political crimes or other matters that are not considered crimes in Hong Kong, he said.        香港保安局局长李家超(John Lee)称,拟定的法律修订建议对于人权的保护条款将保留不变,包括确保被引渡者不会面临死刑。但他说,嫌犯也可能因政治罪行或其它在香港不被视为犯罪的问题被引渡。
        The possible political intentions behind charges like corruption and tax evasion could be hard to sort out, Hong Kong legal experts say. And legislators representing pro-business parties in Hong Kong have expressed concern about executives becoming ensnared in mainland criminal cases over commercial disputes that would be civil matters in Hong Kong.        香港法律专家称,贪腐及逃税这类指控背后潜在的政治动机可能难以厘清。并且代表香港亲商业政党的立法者已表示担忧,高管们可能会因在香港为民事纠纷的商业争端陷入大陆的刑事案件。
        Pro-government lawmakers have the vote to push through the proposed changes, Ms. Mo acknowledged. But her side is still looking toward a more limited proposal that would exclude renditions to the mainland.        毛孟静坦言,亲政府的立法者可以拿到足够的选票,以推动拟定的修订得以通过。但她这一方仍在期待有更多限制的提议,将排除引渡至大陆的条款。
        The legislature could also approve Mr. Chan’s extradition to Taiwan under the existing framework, undermining the need for new rules, Mr. Cheung said.        张宇人议员称,在现有框架下,立法机构也可以批准陈同佳被引渡至台湾,因而不需要通过新规。
        Mr. Lee has said that the Taiwan case exposed weaknesses in the current system, under which Hong Kong lacks long-term agreements with more than 100 countries.        李家超还表示,台湾案暴露出了现有体制的弱点,在该体制下,香港缺少与100多个国家的长期协议。
        “This is a loophole that we must address,” he said. “If I only deal with a single case now, this loophole will continue to exist. That would mean we will repeat the same problem.”        “这是一个我们必须解决的漏洞,”他说。“如果现在只是应对这一个案子,那么这个漏洞还将继续存在。那将意味着我们会再度面临同样的问题。”
                
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