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中国拟限制比特币,加密货币挖矿或成“淘汰产业”
China, a Major Bitcoin Source, Considers Moving Against It

来源:纽约时报    2019-04-10 12:16



         HONG KONG — China is planning new steps that could put a stop to making Bitcoin there, a move that could cut off one of the world’s largest sources of the popular but unstable cryptocurrency.        香港——中国正在计划采取新措施叫停比特币的生产,此举或将切断这个虽受欢迎却不稳定的加密货币全球最大的来源之一。
        The National Development and Reform Commission, China’s top economic planning body, this week added cryptocurrency mining to a list of about 450 industries that it proposes to eliminate. If the move is finalized, local governments in China would be prohibited from supporting makers of Bitcoin and other digital currencies through subsidies or other benefits.        本周,中国最高经济规划机构国家发展和改革委员会(以下简称“国家发改委”)将加密货币挖矿添加至一份拟取消的约450个行业清单中。如此举最终确定,中国的地方政府将不得通过补贴或其他福利形式,支持比特币和其他数字货币生产商。
        The commission said it would seek public comment until May 7 before making a final decision.        国家发改委表示,将在5月7日之前向社会公开征求意见,然后再做出最终决定。
        China was once the world’s largest maker of Bitcoin, though rising government pressure has forced many of those who make the cryptocurrency, known as miners, to other countries. Still, a number of Bitcoin miners could remain, especially if local governments ignore the instructions and find a way to prop up local producers, say people in the business.        中国曾是世界上最大的比特币生产国,但随着不断增大的政府压力,许多加密货币生产商(被称为矿工)已被迫迁往其他国家。不过,据业内人士表示,可能仍有一些比特币矿工会留下来,特别是如果地方政府不执行有关指示,并找到扶持当地生产商的方法的话。
        “It is categorized as an industry that is not encouraged or allowed to expand, but it is not a ban,” said Zhao Qianjie, a former executive at BTCChina, which was China’s first cryptocurrency exchange.        “定位为不支持不扩张的产业,并不是一个禁令,”中国首个加密货币交易所——比特币中国(BTCChina)的前高管赵千捷说。
        Instead, Mr. Zhao said, some producers may learn to live without subsidies and benefits like discounted electricity. “The change will be the mining cost will rise,” said Mr. Zhao, who still owns a Bitcoin mine in China’s northern region of Inner Mongolia.        相反,赵千捷说,一些生产商可能会学着在没有补贴或用电折扣这类福利的情况下生存。“所以改变就是挖矿成本会高,”赵千捷说。他在中国北方的内蒙古地区仍然拥有一家比特币矿场。
        Bitcoin miners use computers to crunch the mathematical formulas that create the basis for the currency. The business can be quite profitable, especially when Bitcoin prices are soaring, but the process requires considerable amounts of electricity. Prices of the currency move up and down considerably and are currently above $5,000, according to Blockchain, a cryptocurrency firm.        比特币矿工通过电脑来计算该货币建立基础的数学公式。这项业务非常有利可图,特别是在比特币价格飙升的时候,但这个过程需要耗费大量电力。根据加密货币公司区块链(Blockchain)的数据,比特币的价格波动很大,目前在5000美元以上。
        China initially embraced Bitcoin and saw local miners as the potential basis for a new industry focused on digital currencies. China also has plenty of power, thanks to its extensively built-out electricity system and the closure of a growing number of heavy industry factories as the economy matures. At one point, China accounted for roughly two-thirds of all Bitcoin produced.        中国起初支持比特币,并将本土矿工视为专注于数字货币的新行业的潜在基础。得益于广泛建成的电力系统,以及随着经济的成熟关闭了越来越多的重工业工厂,中国也拥有充足的电力。中国一度占到比特币总算力的三分之二左右。
        But China keeps a tight grip over how much money flows in and out of its borders, and cryptocurrencies — which are traded on decentralized computer networks and allow people to make transactions anonymously — threatened to undermine those capital controls.        但中国严格控制资金的进出,而加密货币在分散的计算机网络上交易,并允许人们匿名交易,这就有可能破坏它对资本的管制。
        Cryptocurrencies can also be used to circumvent laws to buy illegal goods, and Chinese officials were also spooked by the possibility that the wildly fluctuating prices could leave investors with big losses and lead to civil unrest.        加密货币还可用于避开法律管制以购买非法商品,中国官员还对大幅波动的价格可能给投资者带来巨大损失并引发内乱的可能性感到惧怕。
        The Chinese authorities began to ratchet up pressure on Bitcoin miners. In 2017, China ordered cryptocurrency exchanges to close. It has also banned initial coin offerings, a method by which start-ups or online projects can raise funds by issuing cryptocurrency. Many miners began to hide or flee to places with friendlier laws or abundant electricity, including the United States.        中国当局开始对比特币矿工施压。2017年,中国下令关闭加密货币交易所。它还封杀了首次代币发行,这是一种初创公司或在线项目通过发行加密货币筹集资金的方式。许多矿工开始躲藏或逃往法律更友好或电力充足的地方,其中就包括美国。
        “All the policies have created fear,” said Chandler Guo, who owned Bitcoin mines in China but moved to Silicon Valley in 2016. “Many have moved abroad.”        “各种政策让很多人恐慌,”曾在中国拥有比特币矿场的郭宏才说。他在2016年搬到了硅谷。“大量的都出国了。”
        Still, China remains a significant force in the Bitcoin world. Based on different estimates, between 40 percent and 70 percent of the world’s mining power is still in China.        尽管如此,中国仍然是比特币世界的一支重要力量。根据不同的估计,世界上40%至70%的比特币挖矿算力仍在中国。
        The National Development and Reform Commission’s proposal is the first time a central government body has publicly announced a restrictive policy on Bitcoin mining, and it could make it difficult for miners to get loans to expand, said Wu Huiyao, president of the Center for China and Globalization, a research organization in Beijing.        国家发改委的提议是中央政府首次公开宣布对比特币挖矿采取限制性政策,这可能使矿工难以获得扩张所需的贷款,位于北京的研究机构中国与全球化智库(Center for China and Globalization)理事长王辉耀表示。
        “Local governments won’t act against it, so it will be more difficult for them to be approved or receive loans,” Mr. Wu said.        “地方政府不会违背这个,所以贷款和批项目会难。”王辉耀说。
        Miners said that while the crackdown on cryptocurrency has driven some miners abroad, the total cost of mining is still lower in China, where most of the mining machines are produced.        比特币矿工表示,尽管对加密货币的打压已导致一些矿工迁往海外,但中国的采矿总成本仍然较低,且大多数采矿机都是在中国生产的。
        Yu Wei, a former executive with Bitmain, which makes products for mining cryptocurrencies — and who owns mines in Xinjiang and Yunnan Province in China, as well as in Central Asia — said the move could benefit the industry in the long run. “That means more miners will move abroad,” he said. “That will be good for decentralization of cryptocurrency.”        生产加密货币挖掘设备的比特大陆(Bitmain)前高管喻伟表示,从长远来看,此举可能使该行业受益。他在中国的新疆、云南以及中亚地区拥有矿场。“这就意味着更多矿工会出海,”他说。“更加去中心化。”
                
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