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How China Turned a City Into a Prison

来源:纽约时报    2019-04-10 02:31

        This is Kashgar, an ancient town in northwest China.
        Hundreds of thousands of Uighurs and other Muslims from this region have been detained in camps, drawing international condemnation.        该地区数十万维吾尔人和其他穆斯林被关入拘禁营中,引发了国际社会的谴责。
        But outside the camps, Uighurs live in a virtual cage.        但在拘禁营外,维人也生活在一个虚拟的笼子里。
        China has built a vast net of controls that shows the Communist Party’s vision of automated authoritarianism.        中国已经建立了一个庞大的控制网络,显示出共产党的自动化威权主义设想。
        Neighbors become informants. Children are interrogated. Mosques are monitored.        邻居成为告密者。儿童遭到审问。清真寺被监控。
        We visited Kashgar several times to see what life is like. We couldn’t interview residents — that would have been too risky for them, because we were constantly followed by the police. But the restrictions were everywhere.
        Every 100 yards or so, the police stand at checkpoints with guns, shields and clubs. Many are Uighurs. The surveillance couldn’t work without them.        每隔100码左右就有持枪械、盾牌和棍棒的警察站岗。其中很多人都是维吾尔人。没有他们,监视系统就无法运行。
        Muslim minorities line up, stone-faced, to swipe their official identity cards. At big checkpoints, they lift their chins while a machine takes their photos, and wait to be notified if they can go on.        少数民族穆斯林面无表情地排队刷身份证。大型岗哨会有机器给他们拍照,他们抬起下巴,等待放行通知。
        The police sometimes take Uighurs’ phones and check to make sure they have installed compulsory software that monitors calls and messages.        警方有时会拿走维吾尔人的手机,检查它们是否安装了用来监控通话和信息的强制安装软件。
        Xinjiang is in China’s far west, but it feels more part of central Asia. Ethnic minorities — including Uighurs, Kazakhs and Tajiks — outnumber the Han Chinese majority here. They are mostly Sunni Muslims with their own cultures and languages.        新疆位于中国最西部,但给人感觉更像是中亚的一部分。在这里,包括维吾尔族、哈萨克族和塔吉克族在内的少数民族人口超过了汉族人口。这些少数民族大多是逊尼派穆斯林,有自己的文化和语言。
        In Kashgar, we kept bumping into familiar faces.        在喀什,我们不断遇到熟悉的面孔。
        They were our police minders in plainclothes.         这些便衣是监视我们的警察。
        Every so often, a police officer in uniform stopped us, searched our phones for pictures and deleted any they said were sensitive.        每隔一段时间,就会有一名身穿制服的警察拦住我们,在我们的手机里搜索照片,删除他们所谓的敏感内容。
        Sometimes their choices made no sense. One erased this picture of a camel, though I was able to restore it. “In China there are no whys,” he said.        有时他们选出的内容毫无意义。其中,有一张骆驼的照片被删除了,尽管后来被我还原。“在中国没有什么为什么,”他说。
        For Uighurs, the surveillance is even more pervasive. Neighborhood monitors are assigned to watch over groups of families, as in this photo. An army of millions of police and official monitors can question Uighurs and search their homes. They grade residents for reliability. A low grade brings more visits, maybe detention.        对维人来说,监视甚至更为普遍。如上图所示,社区监察员被派去监视一组家庭。数以百万计的警察和官方监察员可以盘问维吾尔人并搜查他们的住所。他们给居民的可靠性打分。低分会导致更多的探访,甚至可能是拘禁。
        This is Dilnur. She fled Kashgar to Turkey three years ago and has lost touch with her family in Xinjiang. But she remembers the searches: “They don’t care if it’s morning or night, they would come in every time they want.”        这位是迪丽努尔(Dilnur)。三年前,她逃离喀什来到土耳其,与新疆的家人失去了联系。但她记得那些搜查:“不管早上还是晚上,他们想什么时候来就什么时候来。”
        Orphanages have been taking away the children of detainees. We don’t know how many, but the government says that orphanages like this one held 7,000 children across Kashgar alone last year.
        Surveillance cameras are everywhere. In streets, doorways, shops, mosques. Look at this stretch of street. We counted 20 cameras.
        In this little shop, dozens of locals come every day to buy samsa, a baked pastry filled with mince. 
        Here too, and in nearly every shop, cameras are watching.        这里也是如此,几乎每家商店都有监控。
        The cameras and checkpoints suck up oceans of information about people.        摄像头和检查站获取了海量人口信息。
        But who is viewing all these images?        但是这么多画面都是谁在看呢?
        Chinese companies are earning a fortune selling this surveillance technology. They make it sound like a sci-fi miracle allowing the police to track people with laser precision. 
        But spend time in Xinjiang and you see that the surveillance state acts more like a sledgehammer — sweeping, indiscriminate; as much about intimidation as monitoring.        但在新疆待一阵子,你就会发现监控的作用更像是一轮大锤——四处扫荡、不加区分;既是监控也是恐吓。
        The intimidation works.         恐吓是起作用的。
        We visited one of the few mosques in the city that remain open, the famed Id Kah mosque.         我们拜访了市区仍然开放的寥寥几座清真寺之一,著名的艾提尕尔清真寺(Id Kah Mosque)。
        Only a few dozen men came for the main prayers on a Friday, the main Islamic day of worship.        周五伊斯兰主麻日的“主麻拜”仅有几十人参加。
        A few years ago, thousands of worshipers gathered.        几年前,数千名礼拜者会在这里聚集。
        At the mosque, worshipers register and go through a security check.
        Inside, they pray under surveillance cameras that the police can monitor.        在里面,他们在警察可以监控的监视摄像头下做祷告。
        Children are interrogated. “In the kindergarten, they would ask little children, ‘Do your parents read the Quran?’” Dilnur told us. “My daughter had a classmate who said, ‘My mom teaches me the Quran.’ The next day, they are gone.”        儿童会被盘问。“在幼儿园,他们会问小朋友,‘你父母读《古兰经》吗?’”迪利努尔告诉我们说。“我女儿班上一个同学说,‘我妈妈教我读《古兰经》。’第二天,他们就不见了。”
        The very architecture of Kashgar has been altered to make the city easier to control.         喀什的城市构造本身也做了更改,以便更好地控制。
        The Old City, a maze-like area of mudbrick homes, has mostly been demolished. The government said it was for safety and sanitation. But the rebuilding has also created wider streets that are easier to monitor and patrol.        昔日老城迷宫般汇聚的泥砖房屋已大多被拆毁。政府称是出于安全和卫生考虑。但重建后出现的,是更易于控制和巡逻的宽阔街道。
        Some areas are still undergoing demolition and reconstruction.        一些片区仍处于拆除和重建之中。
        The new brick homes seem more comfortable, but Uighurs mourn their old neighborhoods. Tourists wander the refurbished alleys, often unaware of the ancient lanes they replaced. But visitors are kept far from the indoctrination camps on the edge of town.        新的砖房虽看似更舒适,但维人为失去他们的老街区而痛惜。在翻新的巷道间徘徊的游客常常看不到已被取代的古巷。而城镇边缘的再教育营也在游客的视线之外。
        This piece of land in southern Kashgar was empty in August 2016.         2016年8月,喀什以南的这片土地空无一人。
        Now this is a re-education camp with a capacity of roughly 20,000 people. The government says it is a vocational training center. A recent satellite image shows the camp occupies more than 195,000 square meters.        如今,这是一片能容纳约2万人的再教育营。政府称,它是个职业培训中心。近期一幅卫星图像显示,这片营地占地面积超过19.5万平方米。
        This camp is not the only one growing. These 13 camps in Kashgar have all jumped in size, reaching 1 million square meters last year.         扩张中的不单是这片营地。喀什的这13座拘禁营全都规模骤增,去年总共达到了1百万平方米。
        Tourists have been returning. But many Uighurs still live in corrosive fear.        游客数量在恢复。但许多维人依然生活在破坏性的恐惧之中。
        A careless comment, a vengeful neighbor, a frightened child —        一句无心之词、一个有宿怨的邻居、一个被吓坏的孩子——
        all could lead to questioning, searches, and maybe time in an indoctrination camp.        全都会招致盘问、搜查,或许还会被关进再教育营。

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