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With Pressure and Persuasion, China Deflects Criticism of Its Camps for Muslims

来源:纽约时报    2019-04-09 02:22

        In the opulent halls of the Emirates Palace hotel, a seat of power in Abu Dhabi where 114 domes decorate the vast rooftop, a delegation of about a dozen Chinese diplomats lobbied foreign ministers of the Muslim world last month.        阿联酋皇宫酒店(Emirates Palace hotel)是阿布扎比的一个权力中心,巨大的屋顶上装点着114个穹顶。上月,在酒店富丽堂皇的大厅里,一个由十几名中国外交官组成的代表团游说了穆斯林国家的外交部长。
        China has been fighting criticism that it has detained as many as one million members of Muslim ethnic minorities in indoctrination camps in its western Xinjiang region. But at the two-day conclave in early March, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation — a group of 57 nations that has been a vocal defender of the Rohingyas and Palestinians — handed Beijing a significant victory.        中国一直在驳斥有关它在西部新疆地区拘留了多达100万穆斯林少数民族的指责。但在3月初为期两天的秘密会议上,由57个国家组成的伊斯兰合作组织(Organization of Islamic Cooperation)令北京取得一场重大胜利。该组织一直是罗兴亚人和巴勒斯坦人直言不讳的捍卫者。
        In a resolution on protecting the rights of Muslim minorities around the world, the group praised China for “providing care to its Muslim citizens.”        在一项关于保护世界各地穆斯林少数民族权利的决议中,该组织赞扬中国“为其穆斯林公民提供照顾”。
        Its vast system of detention without trial has drawn condemnation from the State Department and Congress, but no sanctions, and only scattered criticism in Europe and at the United Nations. That is still more of a response than in the Muslim world, where nations — including Pakistan, Indonesia and other recipients of big Chinese loans — have overlooked China’s abuses against ethnic Uighurs, Kazakhs and others.        中国不经审判便实施的大规模拘留制度遭到了美国国务院和国会的谴责,但没有制裁措施,在欧洲和联合国也只遭到零星的批评。这些回应很大程度上仍比穆斯林世界强烈,后者——包括巴基斯坦、印度尼西亚和其他接受中国巨额贷款的国家——无视中国对维吾尔族、哈萨克族和其他民族的虐待。
        And as Muslim countries fall in line, the West is under less pressure to take action.        随着穆斯林国家相继表示顺从,西方国家采取行动的压力也随之减小。
        The major deterrent to antagonizing Beijing is its blunt economic power.        对抗北京的主要障碍是其显而易见的经济实力。
        In Washington, President Trump’s trade talks hang in the balance. China is building ports, railways and roads in countries rich and poor across Asia, Europe and Africa in its global trillion-dollar infrastructure push, the Belt and Road Initiative.        在华盛顿,特朗普总统的贸易谈判悬而未决。中国正在亚洲、欧洲和非洲各地的富国和穷国建设港口、铁路和公路,这是其耗资数万亿美元的全球基础设施建设项目“一带一路”的一部分。
        Some of the recipients are moderate Muslim countries, like Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia and Malaysia, which human rights advocates had hoped would counter conservative Arab states’ lack of concern for Muslim minorities.        其中一些受助国是温和的穆斯林国家,如土耳其、巴基斯坦、印度尼西亚和马来西亚。人权倡导者曾希望这些国家能够对抗那些对穆斯林少数群体缺乏关注的保守阿拉伯国家。
        Even New Zealand’s Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, who forcefully condemned violence against Muslims after mass shootings at two mosques in Christchurch last month, focused on promoting trade with China during a visit to Beijing last week.        就连上月基督城两座清真寺大规模枪击事件后强烈谴责针对穆斯林暴力的新西兰总理杰茜达·阿德恩(Jacinda Ardern)上周访问北京时,也把重点放在促进对华贸易上。
        She raised the treatment of the Uighurs with China’s top leaders only in private, and told reporters afterward, “You can’t do much more than that.”        她只是在私下里向中国最高领导人提出了维吾尔人的待遇问题,之后告诉记者说,“你没法做更多事情了。”
        Confident at Home and Abroad        对国内外市场充满信心
        When the West imposed sanctions on China for the massacre of pro-democracy protesters in Tiananmen Square on June 4, 1989, policymakers gave little thought to retaliation. It was still a weak country then, without the economic leverage it now wields.        1989年6月4日,当西方因中国屠杀天安门广场亲民主抗议者而对其实施制裁时,政策制定者几乎没有考虑报复。当时中国仍然是一个弱国,没有现在所拥有的经济影响力。
        China is the European Union’s biggest trading partner, and several newer members are grateful recipients of China’s new infrastructure.        中国是欧盟最大的贸易伙伴,几个新成员国心存感激地接受了中国带来的新基础设施。
        “No one wants to do this alone,” said Mikko Huotari, deputy director of the Mercator Institute for China Studies in Berlin. “There’s a general fear of deterioration of relations with China.”        “没有哪个国家想独自做这件事,”柏林的墨卡托中国研究中心(Mercator Institute for China Studies)副所长胡谧空(Mikko Huotari)表示。“他们普遍担心同中国的关系会恶化。”
        In defending the detention camps to counterparts, Chinese diplomats have mounted some novel arguments. They have told American officials, for example, that Beijing is applying in Xinjiang best practices it gleaned from studying the United States.        在向其他国家为拘禁营做辩护时,中国外交官提出了一些新奇的论点。例如,他们告诉美国官员,北京是把研究美国时学到的最佳做法用到了新疆。
        The Chinese argue that the facilities in Xinjiang are no different from the American military prisons in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, where foreign terrorism suspects have been held without trial.        中方认为,新疆的设施与美国在古巴关塔那摩湾的军事监狱没有什么不同,外国恐怖主义嫌疑人未经审判就被关押在那里。
        The Americans have replied that the detainees in Guantánamo eventually had access to lawyers, fair trial and visits from the International Committee of the Red Cross, none of which have been available in Xinjiang, two American officials involved in the conversations said.        两名参与对话的美国官员说,美方回应,关塔那摩监狱的囚犯最终获得了律师的帮助,得到了公平的审判,还得到了红十字国际委员会(International Committee of The Red Cross)的探视,这些在新疆都没有。
        The government insists that the camps are vocational training centers that curb extremism. But witnesses and experts describe them as the heart of an immense campaign to transform Xinjiang’s 11 million Uighurs and other minority Muslims into loyal servants of the Communist Party.        中国政府坚称,这些营地是遏制极端主义的职业培训中心。但目击者和专家称,它们是一场大规模运动的核心,旨在将新疆1100万维吾尔人和其他少数民族穆斯林转变为共产党的忠实仆人。
        The campaign challenges traditional definitions of crimes against humanity, which complicates the world’s response, said Adrian Zenz, a lecturer at the European School of Culture and Theology in Germany.        这场运动挑战了反人类罪的传统定义,致使世界各国的反应复杂化,德国欧洲文化与神学学院(European School of Culture and Theology)讲师郑国恩(Adrian Zenz)说。
        “What we are witnessing in Xinjiang is different, not quantitatively but qualitatively: a massive, concerted campaign of coerced sociocultural re-engineering,” he said. “It is not so much a crime against physical bodies as it is against souls.”        “我们在新疆所目睹的是不一样的,不在于量而在于质:一场大规模的、协同一致的、强制性的社会文化再造运动,”他说。“它与其说是针对身体,不如说是针对灵魂的罪行。”
        There is also little dissent in China. The state’s censored news outlets run propaganda videos that make the camps seem like quiet oases of work, with Uighur inmates sitting in rows at work tables.        在中国也几乎没有异议。经过审查的新闻机构会发布政治宣传视频,使拘禁营看上去像适宜劳作的平静绿洲,里面有一排排的维族囚犯坐在作业台前。
        Many Chinese support the government’s policies in Xinjiang because of concerns about Uighur separatism, including violent attacks.        因担心包括暴力袭击在内的维族分裂主义活动,许多中国人支持政府在新疆的政策。
        “Most Chinese are very supportive of the iron fist policy,” said Zhu Feng, a professor of international relations in Nanjing. “The Chinese fear of deep Islamization and Islamic extremism is increasing.”        “大多数中国人对这种铁腕政策持支持态度,”南京国际关系教授朱峰说。“中国人对深层伊斯兰化及伊斯兰极端主义的恐惧在加剧。”
        Beijing at first denied the camps’ existence. But it has since switched tactics, playing on fears of Islamic extremism.        北京当局起初否认拘禁营的存在。但此后转变了策略,开始利用人们对伊斯兰极端主义的恐惧。
        Last month, Chinese officials even wrote letters to their counterparts urging them to avoid an event held by the United States mission in Geneva to discuss Xinjiang, suggesting that participation could hurt ties with Beijing.        上月,中国官员甚至写信给他国官员,敦促他们不要出席美国驻日内瓦代表团举办的一个讨论新疆问题的活动,并暗示参与该活动可能会损害同北京的关系。
        How China Won the Support of Islamic Leaders        中国如何赢得伊斯兰领导人的支持
        Before the Abu Dhabi gathering in March, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation held a December session on human rights.        在3月份阿布扎比会议之前,伊斯兰合作组织12月份曾举办过一个关于人权的会议。
        There, member countries expressed concern about China’s mass internment of Muslims, a campaign that they described as “disturbing” and said needed monitoring.        会上,成员国对中国大规模关押穆斯林纷纷表示担忧,他们形容该行动“令人不安”,称其需要予以监督。
        Around the world, rights activists cheered. It was a rare bright spot for Uighur advocates.        全世界的人权活动人士都为之欢呼。对维族权益的倡导者而言,那是个难得的亮点。
        Fatimah Abdulghafur, 39, a Uighur doctoral candidate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said that for the first time she had felt hopeful that her brother and father, whom she has been unable to contact for two years, would be released from the camps.        威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校(University of Wisconsin-Madison)39岁的维族博士生法蒂玛·阿卜都加富尔(Fatimah Abdulghafur)说,她头一回满怀希望,想着两年来一直联系不上的兄弟和父亲会从拘禁营获释。
        “Maybe hope is coming our way, maybe we can raise some global awareness among Muslims,” she recalled thinking after the December event.        “也许希望就会来临,也许我们能在穆斯林中间提高全球性意识,”她忆及12月那次会议后的想法。
        But China responded with a diplomatic campaign targeting the Muslim world.        但中国以一场针对穆斯林世界的外交行动作为回应。
        In January, China escorted eight officials from the Organization of Islamic Cooperation on a 10-day tour of Xinjiang that included visits to select facilities, said a human rights advocate who was briefed on the visit.        据获悉情况的人权活动倡导者表示,1月份,中国陪同伊斯兰合作组织的8名官员对新疆进行了为期10天的访问,其中包括造访一些经过挑选的设施。
        There were differences among the officials about what they saw at the camps. Still, they decided to close ranks because they did not want to upset China at the foreign ministers’ gathering, the advocate said.        到访官员对在拘禁营的见闻意见不一。但据该倡导者表示,由于不想在外长大会上令中国不快,他们决定统一看法。
        In the run-up to the Abu Dhabi meeting, China cemented its ties with two Arab friends — Saudi Arabia and Kuwait — who have a history of remaining silent on the plight of non-Arab Muslims.        在阿布扎比会议举行之前,中国加强了与沙特阿拉伯和科威特这两个阿拉伯友邦的关系——它们向来对非阿拉伯穆斯林的困境保持缄默。
        It also made an example of a country that dared to criticize the camps.        此外,中国还把一个胆敢批评拘禁营的国家拿出来作为示例。
        In February, the spokesman for Turkey’s foreign ministry, Hami Aksoy, called the “systematic assimilation” of the Uighurs a “great shame for humanity” and urged China to close the camps.        2月份,土耳其外交部发言人哈米·阿克索伊(Hami Aksoy)称对维族进行“系统性同化”是“对人道的一大羞辱”,并敦促中国关闭拘禁营。
        Beijing ignored the request and retaliated by closing a Chinese consulate in Turkey. The Chinese ambassador, Deng Li, warned that “criticizing your friend publicly everywhere” could hurt economic relations.        北京当局忽略了这一请求,以关闭土耳其的一处中国领事馆作为报复。中国大使邓励警告称,“到处公开抨击你的朋友”会破坏经济关系。
        Turkey is the current chair of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, but when the country’s delegate was given the floor in Abu Dhabi, he refrained from raising the issue of Xinjiang, the advocate who was briefed on discussions said.        土耳其是伊斯兰合作组织的现任主席国,但据获悉讨论情况的倡导人士称,当该国代表在阿布扎比上台发言时,他避而不谈新疆问题。
        The resolution passed by consensus. Uighurs like Ms. Abdulghafur were devastated.        会议决议一致通过。诸如阿卜都加富尔这样的维族人感到绝望不已。
        “We don’t feel that global brotherhood love from them,” she said. “They sell their soul, they sell their faith, for money. They know that millions of people are suffering.”        “从他们身上,我们感觉不到那种全球兄弟情谊,”她说。“为了金钱,他们出卖了灵魂,出卖了信仰。他们知道数百万人正在忍受煎熬。”

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