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两起波音空难之间的沉默、推诿与不信任
Between Two Boeing Crashes, Days of Silence and Mistrust

来源:纽约时报    2019-04-03 06:21



         JAKARTA, Indonesia — When a new Boeing 737 Max 8 plunged into the waters off Indonesia last October, a terrifying mystery confronted the aviation industry: What could have caused Lion Air Flight 610, flown by experienced pilots in good weather, to fall out of the sky just 12 minutes after takeoff?        印度尼西亚雅加达——去年10月,一架新的波音737 Max 8型客机坠入印度尼西亚海域后,航空业面临着一个使人恐惧的疑团:在驾驶该航班的飞行员经验丰富、天气状况也很好的情况下,是什么原因导致狮航(Lion Air)610航班在起飞仅12分钟后就坠毁了呢?
        But it took the second, equally terrifying crash of an identical aircraft under similar conditions five months later, in Ethiopia, to reveal the climate of mistrust that has plagued inquiries into what caused the first disaster.        5个月后,在类似条件下,埃塞俄比亚发生了第二起同样可怕的飞机坠毁事件,这才让一直困扰着对第一起空难原因调查的不信任气氛显露出来。
        Interviews with government officials, aviation experts and company executives portray an environment in which Lion Air, Boeing, subcontractors, investigators and regulators erected walls to sharing information that seemed designed more for self-preservation than finding the truth about a crash that claimed 189 lives.        对政府官员、航空专家和公司高管的采访给人的印象是,狮航、波音、分包商、调查人员和监管机构处在这样一种环境中,他们对分享信息设置了似乎是为了自保的障碍,而不是要找到导致189人丧生的空难真相。
        Indonesia’s top aviation regulatory official said both Boeing and the United States Federal Aviation Administration, which certified the Max 8, were slow in responding to requests for help in determining the safety of other Max planes flown by Indonesian carriers.        印尼最高航空监管官员表示,对于帮助确定印尼各航空公司运营的其他Max系列客机安全性的请求,波音以及给Max 8颁发许可证的美国联邦航空管理局(United States Federal aviation Administration,简称FAA)都反应迟缓。
        Reached for comment, the F.A.A. said, “We are supporting the investigation and are in constant contact with Indonesian civil aviation authorities.” Boeing declined to comment.        记者联系到FAA请其置评,它表示,“我们正支持调查,并与印尼民航当局保持着经常的联系。”波音则拒绝置评。
        Executives from Lion Air, a low-cost carrier with powerful political backers, have essentially gone into hiding. Lion Air’s safety director told The New York Times he could not accept an interview because of an agreement with Boeing.        狮航的高管们基本上都躲了起来,这是一家拥有强大政治后台的低成本航空公司。狮航安全主管对《纽约时报》说,因为已与波音签订了协议,他不能接受采访。
        It is not yet clear whether the Ethiopian Airlines crash, in which all 157 people onboard died on March 10, could have been prevented if information had been shared more transparently and quickly after the Lion Air accident. Nor is it certain whether the two new Max jets suffered from the exact same problems, although officials believe that the pilots of both planes struggled with an automated stall-prevention system that was introduced in the Max.        目前尚不清楚,在狮航事故后,如果更透明、更迅速地分享有关信息,是否可以避免3月10日埃塞俄比亚航空公司(Ethiopian Airlines)的坠机事件,这起空难导致机上157人全部遇难。目前也尚未确定这两架新的Max系列客机是否遇到了完全相同的问题,尽管官员们认为,两架飞机的飞行员都曾极力应对Max系列引入的一个自动防失速系统。
        But the lack of trust and recriminations that have afflicted the inquiry into Flight 610 almost certainly slowed the setting of safety standards for the Max, which remains grounded across the world since last month.        但困扰着610航班调查的缺乏信任和相互指责,几乎可以肯定放慢了为Max系列设定安全标准的速度。该机型已从上月起在全球范围内停飞。
        “Lifesaving lessons are only life saving if we learn from them,” said Charles Herrmann, a lawyer representing some families of Lion Air victims in a suit against Boeing. “It’s absolutely inexcusable that it takes another crash for people to kick this investigation into high gear.”        “只有从中吸取教训,才能挽救生命,”代理狮航部分遇难者家属起诉波音公司的律师查尔斯·赫尔曼(Charles Herrmann)说。“需要另一起坠机,才全力以赴地推进这次调查,这是绝对不可原谅的。”
        The Max is the fastest-selling plane in Boeing’s history, and thousands of these jetliners are still on order. Carriers worldwide will have to decide whether Boeing’s proposed fixes will satisfy their safety requirements and placate worried consumers.        Max系列是波音历史上最畅销的飞机,目前订单仍然高达数千架。世界各地的航空公司将不得不对波音提出的解决方案是否能满足它们的安全要求,并安抚忧虑的消费者做出决定。
        “Our passengers, psychologically, they don’t trust flying with the Max anymore,” said Ikhsan Rosan, the spokesman for Garuda Indonesia, the national carrier, after it became the first airline to announce that it wanted to cancel its order of Max 8 jets.        “从心理上讲,我们的乘客不再信任乘坐Max系列客机,”印尼国有航空公司鹰航(Garuda Indonesia)的发言人伊赫桑·罗桑(Ikhsan Rosan)说,他是在该公司成为首家希望取消Max 8订单的航空公司后说这番话的。
        Pilots and airlines have complained that they were not informed about the existence of the anti-stall system, called MCAS. Investigators suspect that in the case of Lion Air Flight 610, and later in the crash of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, errant data mistakenly triggered MCAS, sending the plane into a fatal nose-dive.        飞行员和航空公司抱怨,他们没有被告知这个名为MCAS的防失速系统的存在。调查人员觉得,在狮航610航班坠机事件以及之后发生的埃航302航班坠机事件中,不正确的数据错误地触发了MCAS,让飞机陷入致命的俯冲。
        In November, Haryo Satmiko, the deputy chief of Indonesia’s National Transportation Safety Committee, known as KNKT, recounted confusing conversations he was having with Boeing employees who had arrived in Jakarta. Mr. Haryo said he brought up whether inaccurate data readings could have prompted Flight 610’s sudden descent.        去年11月,印尼国家交通安全委员会(National Transportation Safety Committee,简称KNKT)副主任哈约·萨蒂米科(Haryo Satmiko)讲述了他与抵达雅加达的波音员工之间令人困惑的对话。哈约说,他提出了数据不准确是否可能导致610航班突然下降的问题。
        What Mr. Haryo was describing, though he did not know it at the time, was a malfunction of MCAS, which automatically forces the plane’s nose down if data indicates that the jet is angled too sharply upward and might stall.        哈约当时并不知道,他所描述的是MCAS的一个故障,如果数据显示飞机向上倾斜得太厉害,可能会失速时,MCAS会自动迫使飞机的机头朝下。
        Nurcahyo Utomo, the head of the safety group’s air-accident subcommittee, said he first learned of the term MCAS from news reports.        KNKT的空难小组委员会主席努尔卡约·乌托莫(Nurcahyo Utomo)说,他是从新闻报道中首次知道MCAS这个词的。
        “People immediately assumed this was a Lion Air problem, an issue with a terrible Indonesian airline,” said Gerry Soejatman, an Indonesian aviation analyst. “But when a brand-new plane crashes, you have to look at all the factors, including the possibility of a manufacturer problem or defect. And you have to look really carefully when that manufacturer isn’t providing all the answers.”        “人们马上假定这是狮航的问题,是一家糟糕的印尼航空公司的问题,”印尼航空分析师格里·苏亚特曼(Gerry Soejatman)说。“但是,当一架全新的飞机坠毁时,你必须考虑所有的因素,包括制造商的问题或缺陷的可能性。而且,当制造商没有提供所有的答案时,你就真得去仔细寻找答案了。”
        Days after Flight 610 crashed, Polana Pramesti, the head of Indonesia’s civil aviation authority, waited for visiting Boeing and F.A.A. officials to talk to her. As head of Indonesia’s version of the F.A.A., she wanted advice on whether to ground Max 8 jets in Indonesia. But the Americans, who did spend time with transportation safety committee officials, never came to her, she said.        在610航班坠毁后的几天里,印尼民航局局长波拉娜·普拉梅斯蒂(Polana Pramesti)一直在等待与来访的波音公司和FAA官员与她交谈。作为印尼相当于FAA部门的局长,她想得到是否在印尼停飞Max 8机型的建议。但她说,这些美国人从未来找过她(他们的确与交通安全委员会的官员有过接触)。
        The official in her office in charge of airworthiness and aircraft operation, Avirianto, who like many Indonesians goes by one name, fired off messages to the F.A.A. asking for an explanation of MCAS, which at the time was only vaguely understood, even by aviation experts, because Boeing had failed to put information about it in the plane’s manual.        她的部门里负责适航性和飞机运营的官员阿维里安托(Avirianto)——他和许多印尼人一样是单名——给FAA官员发了一连串的消息,要求他们解释MCAS,当时就连航空专家也只对这个系统有模糊的了解,因为波音没有将有关信息写进飞机的操作手册。
        Although he conducted four teleconferences with F.A.A. officials, Mr. Avirianto said he was never given a clear explanation of how MCAS worked or whether it was safe. “They kept saying they were still analyzing, evaluating,” he said. “We never received any guidance because there were never any clear answers for us.”        尽管阿维里安托与FAA官员进行了四次电话会议,但他说,他从未得到有关MCAS如何工作或该系统是否安全的明确解释。“他们总是说,他们仍在分析、评估,”他说。“我们从来没有得到任何指导,因为我们从来没有得到任何明确的答案。”
        The F.A.A. disagrees, saying that it had briefed the Indonesians “on several of the advisories and airworthiness directives on the Boeing 737 Max accidents issued to civilian aviation authorities and operators globally.”        FAA不同意这种说法,并说已向印尼方面通报了“针对波音 737 Max系列客机事故向全球民用航空当局和运营商发布的几条建议和适航性指示”。
        But Ms. Polana said, “I think they are protecting Boeing.”        但波拉娜说,“我认为他们是在保护波音。”
        “The F.A.A. was the one that certified the aircraft safe to fly,” she said. “And then they found, no, the aircraft is dangerous.”        “FAA是认证这架飞机可以安全飞行的机构,”她说。“后来他们发现,不对,这个系列的飞机有危险。”
        Ms. Polana also sent a letter to Boeing in November, asking for guarantees about the Max. But Boeing was not forthcoming, either, she said. “Of course, we were worried,” Ms. Polana said. “We wanted reassurance that the Boeing 737 Max 8s in Indonesia are airworthy.”        去年11月,波拉娜还曾致信波音,要求公司提供有关Max系列客机的保证。但她说,波音也没有做出回应。“当然我们很担心,”波拉娜说。“我们想得到印尼的波音737 Max 8客机适航性的保证。”
        Boeing and the F.A.A. have come under scrutiny since the Lion Air crash. The United States Department of Transportation is examining the F.A.A.’s certification of the Max model, amid revelations that Boeing employees may have facilitated that process.        自从狮航客机坠毁以来,波音和FAA已经受到到严密的审视。美国交通部正在审查FAA认证Max系列客机的过程,有消息披露,波音员工可能加快了这个过程。
        Only after the Ethiopian Airlines crash, Ms. Polana said, did the F.A.A. and Boeing become more responsive. On March 22, she had her inaugural teleconference with F.A.A. officials — the first time Indonesian officials received a precise explanation of how MCAS worked and how Boeing was planning to fix it, they said.        波拉娜说,只有在埃航客机坠毁之后,FAA和波音才变得反应更积极了。3月22日,她与FAA的官员举行了首次电话会议,印尼官员表示,这是他们第一次得到了关于MCAS如何工作,以及波音打算如何修复MCAS的确切解释。
        For days before the Oct. 29 Lion Air crash, the airplane had experienced faulty data readings. But no one understood that these problems could force the plane into a sudden and bewildering plunge. The plane’s handbook had no clear fix, and Mr. Avirianto was alarmed to find that a new Max flight simulator in Singapore did not simulate MCAS.        在去年10月29日狮航空难前的几天里,这架飞机曾发生过几次数据读数错误。但没有人知道,这些问题可能会迫使飞机突然进入令人困惑的俯冲。飞行手册上没有明确的解决办法,阿维里安托震惊地发现,新加坡的一个新的Max飞行模拟器上没有MCAS的模拟。
        In the days after the crash, American aviation officials visiting Jakarta cast aspersions on their Indonesian counterparts, even as they refused to speak on the record: Which was more reliable? An airplane manufacturer that was one of the most respected companies in the United States, or a low-cost carrier with a long history of shocking safety lapses operating in a country troubled by corruption and weak regulation?        在坠机事件发生后的几天里,访问雅加达的美国航空官员对印尼同行进行了非难(尽管FAA拒绝公开这么讲):哪家公司更可靠?是美国最受尊敬企业之一的飞机制造商呢,还是在一个腐败和监管不力的国家运营,且长期存在令人震惊的安全漏洞的低成本航空公司?
        And as the spotlight intensified after the crash of Flight 610, Lion Air’s executives retreated from view.        随着人们对610航班坠毁事件的关注加剧,狮航的高管们从人们的视野中消失了。
        Last month, Daniel Putut, Lion Air’s director of safety and security, told The New York Times that he could not accept an interview because of a nondisclosure agreement with Boeing. (Such agreements are not unusual, but they do raise questions about transparency in an ongoing investigation.)        上个月,狮航安全与安保主管丹尼尔·普图特(Daniel Putut)对《纽约时报》说,由于与波音签署了保密协议,他无法接受采访。(这种协议并不罕见,但协议的确引发了人们对一项正在进行的调查透明度的质疑。)
        Indonesian investigators came under criticism, as well. Their preliminary report, released in late November, was marred by inconsistencies and incomplete information, aviation analysts said.
        印尼的调查人员也受到了批评。航空分析人士说,印尼去年11月底发布的初步调查报告中存在不一致和信息不完整的问题。
                
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