你应该了解的十大常见科学误区_OK阅读网
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你应该了解的十大常见科学误区
A Week of Misconceptions

来源:纽约时报    2019-04-03 05:32



        First published on April 2, 2016.        本文最初发表于2016年4月2日。
        We’re taking the first week of April as an opportunity to debunk popular misconceptions about health and science that circulate all year round. Some of these items were inspired by areas of confusion that reporters on The New York Times’ science desk encounter again and again. Others came directly from our readers, who submitted the misconceptions that frustrate them the most to our science Facebook page.        我们以4月的第一周为契机,澄清一年四季流传的各种关于健康和科学的流行错误观念。其中一些是源于《纽约时报》科学栏目记者们反复遇到的困惑。另一些则直接来自我们的读者,他们向我们在Facebook上的科学页面提交了最令他们感到困扰的误解。
        Misconception: The universe started someplace.
        错误观念:宇宙始于某个地方
        “Where did the Big Bang happen?” It’s a question that Dennis Overbye, The New York Times’s cosmic affairs correspondent, gets a lot.        “宇宙大爆炸发生在哪里?”这是《纽约时报》宇宙科学记者丹尼斯·奥弗比(Dennis Overbye)经常遇到的问题。
        Actually: The Big Bang didn’t happen at a place; it happened at a time. 
        事实:大爆炸不是发生在一个地点;它是发生在一个时间。
        Read on from your spot at the center of the universe. (That’s not an April Fools’ joke, either, as you’ll find out.)        在你位于宇宙中心的位置阅读这篇文章。(你会发现,这不是愚人节的玩笑。)
        Misconception: Computers will outstrip human capabilities within many of our lifetimes.
        错误观念:在我们很多人的有生之年,计算机的能力将超过人类。
        Actually: Most researchers say that you won’t be obsolete for a long time, if ever, reporter John Markoff writes.
        事实:记者约翰·马尔科夫(John Markoff)写道,大多数研究人员说,你在很长一段时期里都不会被淘汰,可能永远都不会。
        Misconception: Moderate exercise builds strong bones.
        错误观念:适度锻炼可以强健骨骼。
        Many public health groups and health sites promote this exercise prescription, promising it will stave off weak bones. It sounds too good to be true. And it is, writes Gina Kolata, a Times medical reporter. 
        许多公共健康组织和健康网站都在推广这种运动处方,并承诺它可以避免骨质疏松。听起来好得让人难以置信。《纽约时报》医学记者吉娜·科拉塔(Gina Kolata)写道,的确不应该相信。
        It turns out, moderate exercise has little or no effect on bone strength. Read on. And take a second look.        事实:适度锻炼对骨骼强度几乎没有影响。阅读更多。然后再多读一点。
        Misconception: It’s just a theory.
        错误观念:这无非是一个理论
        When everyone has a theory, actual scientific theories like evolution take a hit. Theories are neither hunches nor guesses. They are the crown jewels of science, writes reporter Carl Zimmer.
        当所有人都有自己的理论时,像进化论这样真正的科学理论就会受到打击。理论既不是直觉也不是猜测,它们是科学皇冠上的宝石,记者卡尔·齐默(Carl Zimmer)写道。
        Misconception: Climate change is not real because there is snow in my yard.        错误观念:因为我的院子里有雪,所以气候变化不是真的。
        Actually: Anyone who utters an argument like this is mixing up climate and weather, writes reporter Justin Gillis. Read on.        事实:记者贾斯汀·吉利斯(Justin Gillis)写道,说这话的人是混淆了气候和天气。阅读更多。
        Related Misconception: A global warming “pause” means climate change is bunk.        相关错误观念:全球变暖“暂停”意味着气候变化是胡扯。
        Whether or not there was a pause in global warming for a dozen years or so has no bearing on the underlying scientific validity of climate change, reporter John Schwartz writes.
        记者约翰·施瓦茨(John Schwartz)写道,全球变暖是否会暂停十几年左右,与气候变化背后的科学合理性无关。
        That’s like saying a temporary dip in the stock market means that the best long-term investment strategy is keeping your cash under the mattress. 
        这就好比说,股市暂时下跌意味着最好的长期投资策略是把现金藏在床垫下。
        Misconception: In an asteroid belt, spaceships have to dodge a fusillade of oncoming rocks.
        错误观念:在小行星带中,宇宙飞船必须躲避迎面而来的一连串岩石。
        One of the great early arcade video games was Atari’s Asteroids. You would maneuver and spin a small triangular spaceship, blasting space rocks to bits until inevitably an asteroid smashed you into line fragments. Similarly, many movies have relied on the the act of evading asteroids to create high-drama scenes.        雅达利(Atari)的《爆破彗星》(Asteroids)是最精彩的早期街机电子游戏之一。你可以操纵并旋转一艘小型三角形宇宙飞船,将太空岩石炸成碎片,直到最后不可避免地被小行星撞成线状碎片。同样,许多电影也依赖于躲避小行星的动作来创造高度戏剧性的场景。
        Reporter Kenneth Chang explores just how many space rocks you would actually encounter in an asteroid belt. As it turns out - so few that Han Solo would be safe snoozing. Read on.        记者肯尼斯·张(Kenneth Chang)探究了在小行星带中到底会遇到多少太空岩石。事实证明——非常少,韩·索罗(Han Solo)就算打个盹也是安全的。阅读更多。
        Misconception: Baby teeth don’t matter.
        错误观念:乳牙不重要。
        “What’s the big deal if toddlers get cavities? Those teeth are going to fall out anyway.” Catherine Saint Louis, a health reporter for The New York Times, has heard this numerous times.        “小孩子得蛀牙有什么大不了的?反正那些牙也会掉下来。”《纽约时报》的健康记者凯瑟琳·圣路易斯(Catherine Saint Louis)听到过很多这样的话。
        Actually: Neglecting baby teeth can set a child up for lifelong dental trouble. Read on.        事实:忽视乳牙会让孩子一生都受牙疾困扰。阅读更多。
        Misconception: Spree killers must be mentally ill.
        错误观念:滥杀者一定是精神病患者。
        Actually: Mass killers don’t usually fit into an existing category of mental illness, and there is usually little evidence that early treatment would have helped prevent their attacks. Terrorists are even less likely to be mentally unstable, writes Benedict Carey in this gloomy but thought-provoking read.
        事实:滥杀者通常不属于现有的精神疾病范畴,而且通常很少有证据表明早期治疗有助于预防他们的袭击。本尼迪克特·凯里(Benedict Carey)在这篇阴郁但发人深省的文章中写道,恐怖分子存在精神不正常问题的可能性就更低了。
        Misconception: You Can’t Get an S.T.D. From Oral Sex
        错误观念:口交不会导致性病
        And most people — around 71 percent — consider oral sex to be “sex.” But many, particularly young adults, seem to be unaware that it is indeed possible to get an S.T.D. this way.        大多数人——大约71%——认为口交也是“性”。但许多人,尤其是年轻人,似乎没有意识到,通过这种方式确实有可能感染性病。
        Reporter Jan Hoffman breaks down the statistics around oral sex and S.T.D.s.         记者简·霍夫曼(Jan Hoffman)详细分析了口交和性病的相关数据。
                
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