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‘Panda Diplomacy’: A $24 Million Zoo Enclosure Angers Some

来源:纽约时报    2019-04-15 05:01

        COPENHAGEN — It was designed by Bjarke Ingels, the renowned Danish architect, and cost $24 million to build. It was inaugurated by Queen Margrethe II, Denmark’s reigning monarch. And it now accommodates a celebrity couple with peculiar eating habits and an almost year-round animosity toward each other.        哥本哈根——它由丹麦著名建筑师比亚克·英格尔(Bjarke Ingels)设计,斥资2400万美元建造。由丹麦女王玛格丽特二世(Queen Margrethe II)揭幕。那里现在住着一对有着特殊饮食习惯的名人夫妇,双方几乎一年到头都对彼此怀有敌意。
        Welcome to Copenhagen Zoo’s new panda house.        欢迎来的哥本哈根动物园(Copenhagen Zoo)新建的熊猫馆。
        Officials at the zoo estimate that the combination of adorable animal starpower and innovative Danish design will draw an additional 400,000 visitors per year.        园方估计,可爱的动物明星和创新丹麦设计的结合,每年将吸引40万游客。
        “For such an iconic animal, we needed an iconic setting,” said Bengt Holst, the zoo’s director. “You wouldn’t put the Mona Lisa in an ugly frame.”        “对于这样一个标志性动物,我们需要一个标志性的环境,”动物园负责人本特·霍尔斯特(Bengt Holst)说。“你不会把《蒙娜丽莎》放在一个丑陋的画框中。”
        But not everyone is a fan of the new house, a circular enclosure in the shape of the yin and yang symbol that cost $24 million to build and that has made front-page news in Denmark over the past weeks.        但并不是每一个人都是这个新馆的粉丝,阴阳符号的环形围场用了2400万美元建成,这在过去几周里已经成为了丹麦的头条新闻。
        Opponents believe the pandas, which are on loan from China under a 15-year agreement requiring the host to pay $1 million annually, will limit Denmark’s willingness to criticize Chinese policy. The campaign to bring the pandas to Copenhagen began in 2010, just after Denmark’s parliament approved a memorandum recognizing China’s sovereignty over Tibet. Although the panda house is privately funded, some also object to the project’s cost.        反对者认为,大熊猫是根据一项为期15年的协议从中国租借来的,东道主为此每年要支付100万美元,这将限制丹麦批评中国政策的意愿。将大熊猫带到哥本哈根的运动始于2010年,当时正值丹麦议会批准一份承认中国对西藏主权的备忘录之后。虽然熊猫馆是私人资助,但还是有人不满该项目的成本。
        Shaped like the Chinese symbol representing opposites in balance, the enclosure has two tilting halves. Visitors can observe the pandas from above, or from a ground-level restaurant where they can dine while watching the male panda, who spends most of his waking hours scarfing down bamboo, at close range.        围栏的形状象征着对立面处于平衡的中国符号,有两个倾斜的半圆。游客可以从上面观察大熊猫,也可以从底层餐厅一边用餐一边近距离观看那只雄性大熊猫,而这只大熊猫大部分醒着的时间都在啃食竹子。
        “Normally, zoos have a front of house for the audience, and a back of house for the animals,” Mr. Ingels said in an interview. “We thought we would make this 360 degrees, so that no aspect of the pandas’ life was off limits.”        “通常,动物园会把前厅给观众,后屋是给动物的,”英格尔在接受采访时说。“我们觉得可以把它做成360度,这样观察熊猫的生活就没有死角了。”
        The panda’s unusual mating habits posed the main challenge for the architects. Male and female bears only mate during two or three days each year; the rest of the time, they must be kept far enough apart that they cannot see or hear one another.        大熊猫特殊的交配习惯对建筑师构成了主要挑战。雄性和雌性大熊猫每年只有两到三天的发情时间,其余时候,它们必须保持足够远的距离,无法看到或听到对方。”
        “We didn’t want to have two separate structures,” Mr. Ingels said. “And we wanted to stay away from the typical pagoda. We realized that this ancient Chinese symbol, of black and white, male and female, offered the architectural solution.”        “我们不想要两个独立的结构,”英格尔说。“而且我们也不想要那种司空见惯的宝塔。我们意识到中国古代的这个黑白阴阳符号,提供了建筑上的解决方案。”
        A separate area within the enclosure — normally a sort of no panda’s land — will be opened to both bears during their exceedingly brief mating season and includes trees that the female panda can climb up if her suitor is not to her liking. The rest of the year, the animals will live mostly outdoors in their separate areas, which have been landscaped to resemble the panda’s two main habitats, a dry bamboo forest and a denser woodland kept misty by a fog machine.        在馆内的一个单独区域——通常这里没有熊猫——将在它们极其短暂的交配季对两只熊猫开放,包括雌熊猫在遇到不喜欢的追求者时可以爬上去的树。在今年剩下的时间里,两只熊猫将住在各自的区域,主要在户外生活;这两个区域在景观设计上力求与大熊猫的两种主要栖息地类似,一个是干燥的竹林,一个是更密的林地,一台喷雾机营造出薄雾迷蒙的效果。
        The pandas have already proven popular — 5,000 people showed up for Thursday’s public opening, double the average attendance on that day — but so has the structure.        大熊猫已经证明了它们很受欢迎——周四的公众开放日有5000人入园,是平日人数的两倍——不过,熊猫馆这个建筑本身也很受欢迎。
        Karsten Ifversen, the architecture editor for the Danish newspaper Politiken, said that while pandas were “very lazy animals,” the enclosure “goes in the opposite direction.”        丹麦《政治报》(Politiken)的建筑编辑卡斯滕·伊弗森(Karsten Ifversen)说熊猫是“非常慵懒的动物”,但熊猫馆“截然相反”。
        “There’s a lot going on everywhere you look,” he said. “The architecture is almost as much an attraction as the animals.”        “在任何地方都能看到许多考虑,”他说。“这个建筑几乎和动物一样吸引人。”
        As for the cost, the pandas do not have the most expensive home in the Copenhagen zoo. The elephant enclosure, for instance, was designed by Norman Foster and cost over $36 million.        至于成本,熊猫馆在哥本哈根动物园并非最贵。例如,诺曼·福斯特(Norman Foster)设计的大象馆耗资超过3600万美元。
        But for critics, the panda house is not so much a feat of animal architecture with a hefty price tag than it is a signal of overly cozy ties with China.        但在批评者看来,熊猫馆与其说是价格不菲的动物建筑杰作,不如说是与中国关系过于亲密的信号。
        Pointing to other instances of so-called “panda diplomacy,” both the far-left Unity party and the far-right Danish People’s Party criticized the new enclosure as a symbol of political appeasement.        极左的统一党(Unity)和极右的丹麦人民党(Danish People’s Party)都提到了所谓“熊猫外交”的其他例子,批评这个新馆是在政治上采取绥靖态度的象征。
        “Denmark gets the pandas because we have dropped our criticism of the Chinese repression of Tibet, and because Chinese human rights violations aren’t being criticized so much,” Eva Flyvholm, a member of parliament for the Unity party, told the Danish television station DR.        “丹麦得到熊猫是因为我们放弃了对中国镇压西藏的批评,也是因为对中国侵犯人权的行为睁一只眼闭一眼,”团结党议员埃娃·弗利夫霍尔姆(Eva Flyvholm)对丹麦电视台DR说。
        The Danish government has welcomed this new phase in its relations with China. When the panda loan was confirmed in 2014, it was accompanied by 40 new trade agreements between the two countries.        丹麦政府对中丹关系进入新阶段表示欢迎。2014年熊猫出借得到确认时,两国达成了40项新的贸易协议。
        At the panda house’s inauguration on Wednesday, Mette Bock, Denmark’s culture minister, said in a speech that this was a project “about friendship.”        周三,在熊猫馆的落成典礼上,丹麦文化部长梅特·博克(Mette Bock)在讲话中表示,这是一个“友谊”项目。
        But outside the zoo, a few dozen protesters dressed in panda suits disagreed. Cecillie Sita, 19, and Christina Kalesh, 18, said they were protesting because they objected to Denmark “kneeling” before a country that violated human rights. They said they were disappointed by Mr. Ingels’ decision to design the enclosure.        但在动物园外,几十名身穿熊猫服的抗议者不同意。19岁的塞西莉·西塔(Cecillie Sita)和18岁的克里斯蒂娜·卡莱什(Christina Kalesh)表示,她们抗议是因为反对丹麦在一个侵犯人权的国家面前“下跪”。她们说,她们对英格尔设计熊猫馆的决定感到失望。
        “As a representative of Denmark, it would be nice if he came out in favor of human rights,” Ms. Sita said.        “作为丹麦的代表,如果他站出来支持人权就好了,”西塔说。
        Mr. Ingels said the protesters — and the media — were overblowing it.        英格尔说,抗议者——以及媒体——都反应过度。
        “The fact is, we all collaborate with China — just look at the phone in your pocket,” he said, adding that the previous night he had seen firsthand how excited people were by an invitation to dine at eye-level with the pandas.        他说,“事实上,我们都与中国有合作——只要看看你口袋里的手机就知道了。”他还说,头一天晚上他亲眼看到,那些受邀在与熊猫同一平面的地方进餐的人有多兴奋。
        “At the end of the day, this is about two really cute animals,” he said.        “说到底重点是两只非常可爱的动物,”他说。

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