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澳大利亚维族穆斯林呼吁政府向中国施压
In Australia, Muslims Call for Pressure on China Over Missing Relatives

来源:纽约时报    2019-04-15 10:14



        ADELAIDE, Australia — Growing up as a member of the Uighur ethnic group in China’s far west, Farhad Habibullah never felt that his people were oppressed by the state. He came from a family of Communist Party loyalists, part of an elite segment of Uighur society celebrated by the party as model minority members.        澳大利亚阿德莱德——作为生活在中国西部偏远地区的维吾尔族,法尔哈德·哈比布拉(Farhad Habibullah)在成长过程中从未觉得族人受到了国家的压迫。他来自一个对共产党忠诚的家庭,属于维吾尔族社会的精英阶层,被共产党誉为少数民族的模范成员。
        But now he has joined other Uighurs in doing what was once, to him, unthinkable — and unthinkably dangerous, even in his new home in Australia: calling for an independent Uighur nation.        但现在,他已加入到其他维族人当中,呼吁建立一个独立的维吾尔族国家。在他看来,这曾经是难以想像的,甚至在其澳大利亚的新家也是不可思议的危险。
        “My parents worked for the Chinese Communist Party all their lives, and look at what has happened to them,” Mr. Habibullah said. They and several other relatives, he said, are among as many as one million Uighurs and other Muslims held in indoctrination camps in China.        “我父母一辈子都在为中国共产党工作,看看他们现在怎样了,”哈比布拉说。他表示,他的父母及几名亲属跟100万的维吾尔族和其他穆斯林一起,被中国关进了转化营。
        “You could say I grew up under the red Chinese flag,” he said. “But now I think we have to fight for independence.”        “可以说我是在五星红旗下长大的,”他说。“但现在,我认为我们必须为独立而斗争。”
        About 3,000 Uighurs have found sanctuary in Australia. But as some of them draw attention to China’s camps, they are putting their adopted homeland in an awkward position, pressing it to speak out against its largest trading partner.        大约3000名维族人在澳大利亚获得了庇护。但随着他们中的一些人提请外界关注中国的拘禁营,他们正在将自己的移居国置于尴尬的境地,迫使它公开反对其最大的贸易伙伴。
        More than a dozen Uighurs who are Australian permanent residents are missing in China and presumed to be in detention, activists say. Former detainees say China’s camps are meant to root out devotion to Islam and replace it with loyalty to the state. Uighurs have lobbied Parliament to act, circulating petitions and holding regular protests, chanting: “China, out! Out, out, out!”        活动人士称,十多名拥有澳大利亚永久居住权的维族人在中国失踪,估计已被拘留。曾被拘留的人说,中国拘禁营的目的是根除对伊斯兰教的虔诚,代之以对国家的忠诚。维族人游说澳大利亚议会采取行动,散发请愿书,并定期举行抗议,高喊:“中国,放人!放人、放人、放人!”
        Some Uighurs say that while they feel welcome here, they also fear that Islamophobia is on the rise. They say some people at rallies have said their people were terrorists who deserved to be in camps.        一些维吾尔人说,虽然他们感到在这里得到了接受,但他们也担心对伊斯兰教的恐惧正在上升。他们说,在集会上听到有人说,维族人是恐怖分子,应该被关进拘禁营。
        Some Uighurs also say they have been harassed by the Chinese authorities even while living in Australia. And they feel powerless over the fate of relatives back home, some of whom they have not heard from in years.        一些维族人还说,尽管生活在澳大利亚,但他们仍受到过中国当局的骚扰。而且,他们对家乡亲人的命运感到无能为力,其中有些人已多年杳无音信了。
        Mr. Habibullah finds support at gatherings like the one held in an Adelaide dinner hall on a recent Monday, attended by about 300 Uighurs, many in traditional dress. The flag of their hoped-for republic, East Turkestan, was on display, and the aroma of Uighur dishes like lamb pilaf and walnut cake filled the room.        不久前的周一,哈比布拉在阿德莱德的一个宴会厅举行的集会上找到了支持者,大约有300名维族人参加了那次活动,其中很多人穿着传统服装。宴会厅里展示着他们长期以来期盼的共和国——东突厥斯坦(East Turkestan)的国旗,大厅里充满了羊肉饭和切糕等维吾尔食物的香味。
        As she held her 6-month-old baby, Zulihumaer Aibibula, 32, showed several pictures of relatives who were missing in China’s far western region of Xinjiang, including her 35-year-old brother. For families abroad, who are not notified when a member disappears into one of China’s secretive camps, prolonged silence is usually the only sign that it has happened.        32岁的祖丽胡玛尔·艾比布拉(Zulihumaer Aibibula)抱着自己六个月大的婴儿,给人们看了她几张在中国西部偏远地区新疆失踪的亲人的照片,其中包括她35岁的哥哥。对于在国外的家庭来说,当一名家庭成员消失在中国的秘密拘禁营中时,他们不会得到通知,长时间听不到亲人的消息是发生这种情况的唯一迹象。
        Ms. Aibibula said the Chinese authorities had been pushing her family to ask her for her Australian passport number, address and other personal details. She refused to hand the information over, and shortly after, her brother disappeared.        艾比布拉说,中国当局一直在敦促其家人索要她的澳大利亚护照号、地址和其他个人信息。她拒绝了,不久之后,她的哥哥就失踪了。
        “The Chinese government is putting so much pressure on Uighurs,” she said, wiping her eyes. “They are forcing people to go up against them.”        “中国政府正在对维吾尔人施加这么大的压力,”她擦着眼泪说。“他们在迫使人们起来反抗。”
        Xinjiang has long been troubled by tension between Uighurs, who are Sunni Muslims, and the government. Some Uighurs have carried out acts of violence against the government, which has imposed heavy restrictions in the region. The Chinese government depicts its detention camps as schools that steer Uighurs and other Muslims away from violent extremism by providing skills training.        长期以来,新疆一直受维吾尔族与政府之间紧张关系的困扰,维族人大都是逊尼派穆斯林。一些维族人对政府进行了暴力反抗,政府在该地区采取了严厉的限制。中国政府把拘禁营描述为通过提供技能培训,引导维族人和其他穆斯林远离暴力极端主义的学校。
        Uighur activists say the government unfairly depicts Uighurs trying to escape its persecution as extremists.        维吾尔族活动人士说,政府不公正地把试图逃离政府迫害的维族人描绘为极端分子。
        In Australia, many Uighurs live in the Adelaide suburb of Gilles Plains, where one in 10 residents is Muslim. At the heart of the community is a mosque and a center where a Uighur group runs a language school and a soccer club.        在澳大利亚,许多维族人住在阿德莱德郊区的吉尔斯普兰斯,那里10%的居民是穆斯林。社区的核心是一座清真寺和一个中心,维族团体在这里开办语言学校和足球俱乐部。
        Their political cause is never far from their minds, says Anna Hayes, an expert on Xinjiang at James Cook University in Cairns, who spent time studying Uighurs here in 2011. That year, the community held a cultural exhibition that featured images of Uighur rallies and the blue flag of East Turkestan, as they call their homeland. Such displays would be banned in China.        他们一直把政治目标放在心中,位于凯恩斯的詹姆斯·库克大学(James Cook University)的新疆问题专家安娜·海耶斯(Anna Hayes)说。2011年,海耶斯曾研究过这里的维吾尔人。那年,该社区举办了一个文化展览,展示了维族人集会的画面和东突厥斯坦的蓝色旗帜。这样的展示在中国会被禁止。
        In the past two years, many local Uighurs have been traumatized by the mass detentions back home and told her they were depressed, Dr. Hayes said. “I thought maybe it would be described like survivor’s guilt.”        海耶斯说,在过去的两年里,许多当地维族人因中国国内的大规模拘禁而遭受精神创伤,他们告诉她,他们的情绪低落。“我想也许这会被描述为幸存者的罪恶感。”
        The Uighurs want the Australian government to step up its criticism of China’s camps. Australia was relatively muted about the issue until November, when it joined other Western nations in urging China to release the detainees.        维族人希望澳大利亚政府加大对中国拘禁营的批评力度。澳大利亚在这个问题上一直保持着相对的沉默,直到去年11月才与其他西方国家一道敦促中国释放被拘禁者。
        But Canberra’s ties with Beijing are in a delicate state, as it tries to balance Australia’s economic needs with national security concerns over expanding Chinese influence in the country.        但随着澳大利亚在国家经济需求和中国在该国扩大影响力引发的国家安全担忧之间努力寻找平衡,堪培拉与北京的关系正处于一种微妙状态。
        Officials worked to retrieve three citizens of Uighur descent who were detained in Xinjiang in 2017, who have since returned. But Nurgul Sawut, an activist based in Canberra who helped compile the list of Australian permanent residents missing in China, said recent requests for help have been passed from one agency to another.        政府官员为营救2017年在新疆被拘留的三名维吾尔裔公民做出了努力,这三人现已回到澳大利亚。但住在堪培拉的活动人士努尔古尔·萨吾提(Nurgul Sawut)说,最近希望政府提供帮助的请求一直在被从一个机构转到另一个机构。萨吾提曾帮助搜集在中国失踪的澳大利亚永久居民的名单。
        “We have been let down,” said Ms. Sawut. “We’re just falling through the cracks as they escape their responsibilities, but the families cannot afford to wait.”        “政府让我们很失望,”萨吾提说。“他们逃避责任,没有人管我们的事情,但这些家庭不能再等下去了。”
        Australia’s slow response to the issue is due in part to its dependence on trade with China, said James Leibold, a scholar of China’s ethnic policies at La Trobe University in Melbourne. “We're incredibly vulnerable to China over the economic front,” he said.        澳大利亚在这个问题上反应迟缓,部分原因在于它对中国贸易的依赖,墨尔本乐卓博大学(La Trobe University)研究中国民族政策的学者雷国俊(James Leibold)说。“在经济战线上,我们极易受到中国的伤害,”他说。
        Australia’s foreign affairs department said in a statement that the country “continues to urge China to cease the arbitrary detention of Uighurs and other Muslim groups.”        澳大利亚外交部在一份声明中说,澳大利亚“继续敦促中国停止任意拘留维吾尔人和其他穆斯林群体的做法”。
        The apparent detention of Mr. Habibullah’s parents underscores the expansive nature of the security crackdown in Xinjiang.        哈比布拉的父母看来已被拘禁的情况凸显出新疆把镇压作为安全措施所涉及的范围之广。
        His mother was a city police superintendent, while his father had served in the People’s Liberation Army and later held a senior post at a state-run broadcaster. Mr. Habibullah himself attended an elite high school in Beijing, which paved the way for him to leave China for a comfortable life abroad.        他的母亲曾在一个城市担任公安局局长,父亲曾在中国人民解放军服役,退伍后在官方电视台担任过高级职位。哈比布拉本人曾在北京一所精英高中读书,这为他离开中国到国外过上舒适的生活铺平了道路。
        His parents were the last people who would ever criticize the Chinese government, he said.        他说,他的父母是最不可能批评中国政府的人。
        Despite living abroad, Mr. Habibullah chatted with his parents regularly on the Chinese messaging service WeChat. Suddenly, in August, they stopped answering his messages.        尽管住在国外,哈比布拉曾经常在中国的即时通讯服务平台微信上与父母聊天。去年8月,他们突然不再回复他的短信。
        He contacted police stations in Xinjiang and his parents’ old workplaces, and he tried an official in the state security agency, all to no avail. With nine others in his family already missing, he feared the worst.        他联系过新疆的派出所,以及他父母以前的工作单位,还联系过一名在国家安全局工作的官员,但都无济于事。他家里还有其他九人失踪,他担心情况会变得更糟。
        “I have lost everything,” he said repeatedly during an interview in February.        “我失去了一切,”他在今年2月的一次采访中反复说道。
        Last weekend, however — days after The New York Times submitted requests to the Chinese authorities for comment on Mr. Habibullah’s family — he was told by a relative in Switzerland that his parents and sister-in-law had just been freed. The Xinjiang government said in a fax to The Times on Thursday that the three were living “normal lives” in Karamay, the city where they have resided.        然而,上周末,就在《纽约时报》向中国当局提交让其就哈比布拉的家庭发表评论的请求几天后,他在瑞士的一位亲戚告诉他,他的父母和嫂子刚被放了出来。新疆政府周四在发给时报的一份传真中说,他们三人在克拉玛依过着“正常的生活”,那是他们以前所在的城市。
        For the first time in many months, Mr. Habibullah spoke to his parents by phone, he said, in a call he described as strange for how normal they sought to sound. Much was left unsaid — and unexplained.        哈比布拉说,好几个月来,他第一次和父母通了电话。他说,他的父母试图让自己的声音听起来很正常,这让他感到奇怪。很多话都没有说出来,也没有解释。
        “I really wanted to ask my mother where all our other relatives are,” Mr. Habibullah said, “but I couldn’t because our call was definitely being monitored.”        “我真的很想问问我妈,其他的亲戚都在哪里,”哈比布拉说,“但我不能问,因为我们的电话肯定是被监听的。”
        Ms. Sawut, the Uighur activist, said the news gave her hope.        维族活动人士萨吾提说,这个消息给了她希望。
        “End of the day, we’d like to see or hear that our relatives or parents are safe,” she said. “Are they safe?”        “我们最终都希望看到或听到我们的亲人或父母一切平安,”她说。“他们平安吗?”
                
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