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Adventurous. Alone. Attacked.

来源:纽约时报    2019-04-11 11:07

        Carla Stefaniak did everything “right,” her best friend said.        卡拉·斯特凡尼亚克(Carla Stefaniak)的做法都“正确”,她最要好的朋友说。
        On a five-day vacation to Costa Rica in November to celebrate her 36th birthday, Stefaniak, a dual Venezuelan-American citizen, chose a gated Airbnb villa near the airport. It had a security guard. It was in a safe neighborhood. And she made sure to get home before dark.        去年11月,在赴哥斯达黎加庆祝36岁生日的5天假期期间,拥有委内瑞拉和美国双重国籍的斯特凡尼亚克从爱彼迎(Airbnb)上选择了机场附近一栋有围墙的别墅。别墅有保安。位于安全社区。她也设法保证在天黑之前回到住的地方。
        The night before she was to fly to Florida, she contacted her best friend, Laura Jaime, on the FaceTime app. She showed off the crocheted earrings she had bought in a local market and gave a video tour of her villa. The friends planned to see each other the next day, when Jaime was to pick her up at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport.        在即将飞回佛罗里达的前一天晚上,她在FaceTime应用上与最要好的朋友劳拉·杰米(Laura Jaime)通了视频电话。她显摆了在当地市场买的钩编耳坠,带朋友视频游览了一番她住的别墅。两位好友计划次日见面,届时杰米将在劳德代尔堡-好莱坞国际机场(Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport)接她。
        But Stefaniak never boarded her flight home on Nov. 28.        但11月28日,斯特凡尼亚克没有登上她回国的航班。
        During their phone call, Stefaniak had made a strange remark. She said the situation felt “sketchy,” but didn’t elaborate.        在她们的通话中,斯特凡尼亚克曾说了句令人不解的话。她说感觉情况有些“不对劲”,但没细说。
        “Carla knew at 8:20 that night that something was wrong,” Jaime said. “Sometimes we justify our intuition. But when something is triggered and our body says something is wrong, you have to listen to it.”        “卡拉那天晚上8点20分是意识到了有些不对劲,”杰米说。“有时候我们会为自己的直觉辩解。但当有什么东西被触发,我们的直觉认为有些事儿不对劲时,你不得不留意。”
        A week later, Stefaniak’s brutalized body was found wrapped in plastic and half-buried in a sloping patch of forest near her Airbnb rental. The Costa Rican police arrested the property’s security guard in connection with the killing.        一周后,人们找到了斯特凡尼亚克被残杀后的尸体,尸体用塑料包裹着,半埋在她租住的爱彼迎附近坡地上的树林里。哥斯达黎加警方逮捕了与杀人案有关的该别墅保安。
        Recent headlines about the deadly violence inflicted on women traveling alone have raised questions about how the world is greeting the documented rise in female solo travelers and about the role of social media in promoting the idea that far-off lands are easily accessible and safe.        近期媒体上有关独自出游的女性遭受致命暴力的大字标题引来一些问题:这个世界对有数字为证的女性独自旅行者人数的上升如何反应?社交媒体在宣传遥远的地方很容易去而且安全的观念上,起了什么作用?
        They have also shined a light on the enduring nature of gender violence worldwide and laid bare how a lone foreign traveler’s cultural and social expectations do not always comport with local views about a woman’s place in the world — and whether she should travel at all.        这些暴力案件也揭示了世界范围内性别暴力的持久性,暴露了外国独身旅行者的文化与社会期待并不总是与当地人对女性在世界上的地位的看法相符——以及她究竟是否应该旅行的问题。
        Thousands of women go abroad every year without incident. Many women experience catcalls and myriad other forms of harassment while traveling; women of color have written about being dismissed or ignored abroad because of their race. And while violence against male tourists is just as devastating, the harrowing experiences of female solo travelers can still shock the senses.        每年有无数女性出国旅行而没有出现意外。许多女性在旅行期间遭受过嘘声及种种其他形式的骚扰;有色人种女性写过因自己的种族在国外不被理会或被忽视的经历。虽然针对男性游客的暴力同样令人震惊,但女性独身旅行者的恐怖经历仍能令人毛骨悚然。
        There is no question that women face unique risks when traveling solo, experts say.        毫无疑问,女性在独自旅行时会面临特有的风险,专家们说。
        “We have evidence that shows that women face risks that men don’t face in public spaces, at home, wherever they may be,” saidPhumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, executive director of UN Women, an organization that promotes female equality. Increasingly, “wherever they may be” includes alone in foreign countries.        “我们有证据显示,女性在公共场所、家中以及她们可能在的地方都面临着男性所没有的风险,”联合国妇女署执行主任普姆齐莱·姆兰博-恩格库卡(Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka)说,该组织致力于促进女性平等。越来越多地,“她们可能在的地方”包括独自在外国。
        But she said that violence against female tourists was a thread in the broader fabric of violence against women around the world. And violent episodes are just as likely to occur, experts note, in rich Western nations such as France, Italy and Germany as in the developing world.        但姆兰博-恩格库卡说,针对女性游客的暴力是世界各地针对女性暴力的普遍情况的组成部分。专家指出,暴力事件也可能在法国、意大利和德国这些富裕的西方国家发生,与在发展中国家发生的可能性差不多。
        “The root cause of this kind of violence against women in communities and in public and private spaces has a lot to do with the underlying gender stereotypes, social norms, entitlement and patriarchy,” Mlambo-Ngcuka said.        “社区、公共和私有场所这类针对女性的暴力,其根源在很大程度上与潜在的性别刻板印象、社会规范、人们认为自己有权得到的东西,以及父权制度有关系,”姆兰博-恩格库卡说。
        Women have always been explorers on a scale both grand and personal — long before British trailblazer Freya Stark visited inhospitable areas in Turkey and the Middle East and before Irish travel writer Dervla Murphy saw the world on a bicycle.        早在英国开路先锋弗雷娅·史塔克(Freya Stark)前往土耳其和中东不好女客的地区之前,也在爱尔兰旅行作家戴芙拉·墨菲(Dervla Murphy)骑自行车周游世界之前,女性都一直是探险者,无论是在壮观层面还是在个人层面。
        Today, women’s increased spending power has given them the means to travel more for leisure and adventure. Shifting attitudes in the West about who can travel alone have also added to a growing industry. Social media plays a big part, offering intimate glimpses of far-off lands. A scroll through Instagram hashtags like #LadiesGoneGlobal, #WeAreTravelGirls and #TheTravelWomen offer millions of photos of women posing on glistening beaches, trekking up mountains and exploring cobblestone streets — a collective and aspirational lure.        如今,女性消费能力的提高让她们有钱做更多休闲和探险旅行。西方对谁能独自旅行的态度转变进一步推进了一个正在增长的行业。社交媒体也起着巨大的作用,向人们展示着遥远国度的温馨感受。浏览一下Instagram上诸如“环游过世界的女性”(#LadiesGoneGlobal)、“我们是爱旅行的女生”(#WeAreTravelGirls)以及“旅行女性”(#TheTravelWomen)这些话题标签,就能看到数百万照片,展示着女性在亮闪闪的海滩摆拍、在山间跋涉、在鹅卵石街道上漫步,这是一种集体的、令人梦寐以求的诱惑。
        But some women, like Hannah Gavios, 26, of Queens,discover horror away from home.        但一些女性却在国外旅行时发现了恐怖,比如皇后区26岁的汉娜·加维奥斯(Hannah Gavios)。
        Gavios found her passion for traveling solo while studying abroad in college. “I feel like it gives me the luxury of seeing the culture in the way I want to and being able to paint my own experience,” she said.        加维奥斯在上大学时通过短期海外课程发现了自己对独自旅行的热爱。“我觉得它能给我以自己想要的方式体验当地文化的奢华,也让我能够描绘我自己的经历,”她说。
        After college, she traveled to Southeast Asia on her own, visiting Thailand in 2016 on a break from teaching English in Vietnam. One evening, she was walking alone after dinner in Krabi, known for its beaches and as a popular hangout for young tourists, when a local man offered to guide her back to her hotel.        大学毕业后,她独自到东南亚去旅行,2016年,她利用在越南教英语休假期间去了泰国。一天晚上,她在以海滩闻名、深受年轻游客喜爱的甲米吃完晚饭后正独自行走,一名当地男子主动提出给她带路回酒店。
        She said she was afraid of getting lost, so she followed him. But just as she grew increasingly uneasy, he attacked.        她说,因为害怕迷路,所以就跟他走了。但就在她感到越来越不对劲时,他动手了。
        Fleeing for her life, Gavios tumbled from a cliff and fractured her spine. The man sexually assaulted her while she lay helpless for 11 hours.        加维奥斯拼命逃脱,从悬崖上摔了下来,脊椎骨折。她无助地躺在地上,躺了11个小时,其间那名男子对她实施了性侵犯。
        In the morning light, he left — but, surprisingly, returned with help.        天亮时,他离开了——但令人惊讶的是,他带着帮忙的人回来了。
        Gavios was hospitalized for months, first in Thailand and then New York, and had to learn to walk again using crutches and custom leg braces. Her attacker was eventually arrested and sentenced to five years in prison.        加维奥斯住了好几个月的医院,先是在泰国,后来在纽约,她不得不在拐杖和定制的腿部支架的帮助下再次学习走路。袭击她的人最终被逮捕并被判处五年监禁。
        The week Stefaniak vanished, her friends and family scrambled to alert Costa Rican authorities. They organized a campaign through a Facebook page, “Finding Carla.” The State Department quickly became involved, and the FBI pressed local officials.        斯特凡尼亚克失踪的那周,她的朋友和家人赶紧向哥斯达黎加当局报警。他们在Facebook上组织了名为“寻找卡拉”的运动。美国国务院很快介入,联邦调查局向当地官员施压。
        When her body was discovered near her villa, her relatives were shattered.        当她的尸体在别墅附近找到时,她的亲属彻底被击垮了。
        Jaime, her best friend, said local authorities should have done more to publicize the risks to women in the country. “They have a responsibility to tell tourists of all the risks, and they are not doing it,” she said.        她最要好的朋友杰米说,该国当局本应做更多的工作,让女性知道在该国面临的风险。“他们有责任告诉游客所有的风险,但他们没有这么做,”她说。
        Stefaniak was the third foreign woman killed in Costa Rica in three months. But the country was also grappling with a deeper, more systemic problem of brutality against local women, ones who did not have the power of an American passport to help galvanize agencies like the State Department or the FBI on their behalf.        斯特凡尼亚克是三个月来在哥斯达黎加遇害的第三名外国女性。但该国也在努力解决一个更深层次、更系统的问题,那就是对本国女性的暴力行为。这些女性没有有助于激起国务院或联邦调查局等机构出面维护其权益的美国护照。
        At least 14 women were killed in gender-based violence in the country from January to August 2018. In September, the government declared violence against women a national problem.        2018年1月至8月,该国至少有14名女性在基于性别的暴力中丧生。去年9月,哥斯达黎加政府宣布,针对女性的暴力是一个全国性的问题。
        The National Institute for Women, a government ministry, pointed to the murders of foreigners last summer in a statement to illustrate the issue: “We are faced with the fact that, beyond the damage it may cause to the image of the country, they are clear examples of the serious situation of violence against women, which has its most brutal expression in femicide.”        该国政府部门国家女性研究所在一份声明中引用用去年夏天外国人被杀的事情来说明这个问题:“我们面对的事实是,除了可能有损国家形象外,它们还是暴力侵害女性行为严重状况的鲜明例子,该状况在杀害女性方面表现得最为残酷。”
        Still, Costa Rica is considered one of the safest countries in Central America, particularly for tourists, with a lower homicide rate than many neighboring nations. Officials say they have made strides to combat gender-based violence.        尽管如此,哥斯达黎加仍被认为是中美洲最安全的国家之一,尤其是对游客而言,该国的谋杀率低于许多邻国。该国官员说,他们在打击基于性别的暴力方面已取得了进展。
        Seasoned solo travelers say that preparation can be the key to minimizing risk.        经验丰富的独自旅行者说,有所准备是将风险降到最低的关键。
        For Cassie DePecol, 29, who in 2017 claimed the Guinness World Record as the first woman on record to travel to every country, traveling alone means having a long list of precautions. The Connecticut-born activist practices Krav Maga, an Israeli self-defense technique. She carries a GPS tracker. She makes sure someone knows where she is at all times.        对于29岁的卡西·迪佩科尔(Cassie DePecol)来说,独自旅行意味着要准备好一长串的预防措施。迪佩科尔在2017年创造了一项吉尼斯世界纪录,成为有据可查的首位到过所有国家的女性。这位康涅狄格州出生的活跃分子练习以色列自卫技术近身格斗(Krav Maga)。她还随身携带一个GPS跟踪器。总是确保随时有人知道她在哪里。
        “Some of these might sound extreme,” she said. “But I attribute having safely traveled to 196 countries alone to these specific procedures.”        “有些做法听起来可能有点极端,”她说。“但我把独自在196个国家安全旅行归功于这些具体的做法。”
        DePecol says that gender-based violence is an unfortunate reality for women who travel.        迪佩科尔说,基于性别的暴力对喜欢旅行的女性来说,是一个不幸的现实。
        “The awareness of needing to always watch our backs when we’re both alone and in public places is something that men don’t necessarily need to be aware of,” she said.        “我们独自一人或在公共场合时,需要时刻提防遭到袭击,这种意识在男性身上是不必有的,”她说。
        Jessica Nabongo, 34, is on a mission to become the first black woman to visit every country in the world. Born in Detroit, she has been to 158 so far — 54 of them alone — and hopes to complete her journey in October.        34岁的杰西卡·纳邦戈(Jessica Nabongo)给自己定的任务是成为首位到过世界上所有国家的黑人女性。她出生在底特律,迄今已去过158个国家,其中54个是独自去的。她希望能在今年10月完成自己的旅行任务。
        Her road map for safety includes trying to stay in hotels with 24-hour security. If she stays in an Airbnb, the host has to have received consistently excellent reviews and achieved “superhost” status. She takes Ubers so that her location is tracked.        她的安全指南包括尽可能住在有24小时保安的酒店。如果住爱彼迎的话,房东必须是获得一致好评的,并达到了“超级房东”的级别。她打优步(Uber),这样就能追踪到她的位置。
        Most headlines tend to highlight the experiences of young, white or Western victims — partly because of a dearth of public data on any violent experiences of women of color who travel alone. But Nabongo noted that as a black woman traveling solo, she has to deal with a whole other level of safety concerns, anxiety and fear.        大多数新闻标题爱突出强调年轻、白种或西方受害者的经历,部分原因是缺乏关于独自旅行的有色人种女性遭受暴力经历的公开数据。但纳邦戈指出,作为一名独自旅行的黑人女性,她必须应对另一个完全不同层面的安全担忧、焦虑和恐惧。
        “In many European cities that I’ve been in — like Barcelona, Madrid, Rome, Milano — women of color are in more danger because a lot of people think we are prostitutes,” she said. “My fear is always that if something happens to me in a European city, no one will care. I could be running down the street screaming in Italy and onlookers won’t care because I’m black.”        “在我去过的许多欧洲城市,比如巴塞罗那、马德里、罗马和米兰,有色人种女性面临的危险更大,因为很多人认为我们是妓女,”她说。“我总担心,如果我在欧洲的某个城市发生了什么事,没人会在乎。比如我可能会尖叫着跑在意大利的大街上,但旁观者不会在乎,因为我是黑人。”
        To help one another traverse the world safely, women have formed their own online communities.        为了帮助彼此安全地穿越世界,女性建立了自己的在线社区。
        Dianelle Rivers-Mitchell founded Black Girls Travel Too, which coordinates group travel, to serve a growing market. On her company’s Facebook site, thousands of women share tips on where to stay, eat and visit, and hash out safety concerns.        黛安娜尔·里弗斯-米切尔(Dianelle Rivers-Mitchell)创办了“黑人女生也旅行”(Black Girls Travel Too)公司,来协调组团旅游,为一个不断增长的市场提供服务。在她公司的Facebook网页上,数千名女性分享在哪里住宿、吃饭和参观的建议,并讨论有关安全的问题。
        “We are each other’s keeper, especially when it comes to travel,” said Rivers-Mitchell.        “我们是彼此的看守人,特别是在旅行时,”里弗斯-米切尔说。
        Apps provide another level of support for women traveling alone. Free ones like Chirpey, RedZone, MayDay, Tripwhistle and Noonlight let women flag incidents and areas of danger, and contact local law enforcement.        应用程序为女性独自旅行提供了另一个层面的支持。像Chirpey、RedZone、MayDay、Tripwhistle和Noonlight这样的免费应用让女性可以标示事件和危险区域,并联系当地执法部门。
        Even with the best preparation, trips can go wrong.        即使做了最好的准备,旅途中也可能出状况。
        Born and raised in Moscow, Vasilisa Komarova grew up in the 1980s behind the Soviet Iron Curtain. She studied law, moved to London, learned English and became a British citizen. But she dreamed of traveling the wider world.        莫斯科出生的瓦西莉萨·科玛洛娃(Vasilisa Komarova)是在20世纪80年代的苏联铁幕后长大的。她读了法律,搬到了伦敦,学习了英语,成了一名英国公民。但她梦想着去更广阔的世界旅行。
        In 2016, at 35, she embarked on a solo motorcycle journey through the Americas.        2016年,35岁的她开始骑摩托车独自穿越美洲。
        She visited Cuba and spent time in the Atacama Desert and Chilean Patagonia. She linked up with motorcyclists and got odd jobs in a bike shop and in fitness training. She was living a dream, chronicling it all with photos on Instagram and posts on Facebook.        她去了古巴,并在阿塔卡马沙漠和智利的巴塔哥尼亚度过了一段时间。她与其他摩托车手建立了联系,打过零工,比如在一家自行车店,或健身训练方面的工作。她在实现自己的梦想,并用Instagram上的照片和Facebook上的帖子来记录这一切。
        Then, everything changed.        有那么一天,一切都改变了。
        “At some point, maybe because everyone I was meeting was so kind, I think I put down my guard a little,” she said.        “在某个时刻,也许是因为我遇到的每个人都很友好,我觉得,自己有点放松了警惕,”她说。
        While she was camping in northern Bolivia on June 4, 2017, in an area people had told her was safe, three men with machetes dragged her out of her tent. They beat her, dislocating her arm in three places. While two held her down, one raped her. Then they broke her motorcycle, stole her belongings, urinated on her tent and left her for dead.        2017年6月4日,当她在玻利维亚北部一个人们告诉她很安全的地方露营时,三名手持砍刀的男人把她从帐篷里拖了出来。他们殴打她,导致她的胳膊三处脱臼。其中两人把她按在地上,让另一个人强奸了她。然后他们弄坏了她的摩托车,偷走了她的东西,还在她的帐篷上撒了尿,然后扬长而去,不管她是死是活。
        Afraid that they might come back, Komarova lay still all night. When the sun rose, she used her laptop, which her attackers had missed, to summon help.        因为害怕他们再会回来,科玛洛娃静静地躺了一夜。当太阳升起时,她用自己的笔记本计算机求救,袭击她的人漏掉了这个计算机。
        But what she experienced was a climate of impunity, she said.        但她说,接下来是一段有罪不罚的经历。
        Authorities didn’t want to take her to a doctor; the doctor didn’t want to see her because she could not pay.        当局不想带她去看医生;医生不想给她治伤,因为她付不起钱。
        “Only after the Russian Embassy was involved did the police listen,” Komarova said.        “只有到俄罗斯大使馆介入后,警方才开始重视这件事,”科玛洛娃说。
        With the help of the British Embassy, Komarova, made contact with an advocate who helped her file a criminal complaint and begin the legal fight against her attackers.        在英国大使馆的帮助下,科玛洛娃与一名权益倡导者取得了联系。该人帮助她提起刑事诉讼,开始了一场与袭击者的法律斗争。
        Komarova said she knew she had to be her own biggest advocate; she couldn’t move forward in her journey or return home without getting some form of justice. But between the local bureaucracy and the corruption, she said, it was an arduous fight.        科玛洛娃说,她知道自己必须成为自己最大的倡导者;她不能在正义没有得到某种形式伸张的情况下继续旅行或回家。但她说,面对地方官僚和腐败,这是一场艰苦的斗争。
        “The attack, the process, it broke me down,” Komarova said. “But I had to find strength inside myself.”        “那次袭击、那个整个过程让我崩溃,”科玛洛娃说。“但我必须在我的内心深处找到力量。”
        A year later, she watched as her attackers were sentenced to a combined 42 years in prison.        一年后,法院判袭击者共计42年监禁,她旁听了判决。
        In November, Komarova rode out of Bolivia on her motorcycle. The first night she put her tent up after leaving, she was afraid, she admitted. She is still on the road, and wants other women to travel, but to be on alert — always.        11月,科玛洛娃骑着摩托车离开玻利维亚。她承认,离开后的第一天晚上把帐篷搭起来时,她很害怕。但她没有放弃接下来的行程,并希望其他女性去旅行,但要保持警惕——永远保持警惕。
        “My guard is really high,” Komarova said by Skype from Ecuador. “People don’t always deserve my skepticism, but that is how it is. That’s how it has to be.”        “我的警惕性现在很高,”科玛洛娃在厄瓜多尔通过Skype说。“人们并不总是值得我怀疑,但现在的情况就是这样。我不得不这样做。”
        As for Gavios, she is still partly paralyzed, but since the attack, she has become a yoga instructor and has learned Krav Maga. Last fall, she completed the New York City Marathon — on crutches.        至于加维奥斯,她仍然处于半瘫痪的状态,但那次袭击发生后,她成为了一名瑜伽教练,并且学习了以色列近身格斗术。去年秋天,她拄着拐杖完成了纽约市马拉松。
        “It hasn’t prevented me from moving forward or traveling by myself,” she said. “I don’t feel defeated.”        “这并没有阻止我继续前进或独自旅行,”她说。“我不觉得自己被打败了。”

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