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美方指中国“出尔反尔”,特朗普准备延长贸易战
Trump Prepared to Hit China With More Tariffs

来源:纽约时报    2019-05-07 04:03



        Update: China’s Commerce Ministry announced on Tuesday afternoon that Vice Premier Liu He, one of the country’s leading economic policymakers, would join a delegation of Chinese officials traveling to Washington for further trade talks on Thursday and Friday with the Trump administration.        更新:中国商务部周二下午宣布,中国经济政策制定者之一、副总理刘鹤将与中国官员代表团一同前往华盛顿,他们将在周四和周五与特朗普政府展开进一步谈判。
        WASHINGTON — President Trump, emboldened by ongoing strength in the American economy and angered by China’s attempts to renege on previous commitments, is prepared to prolong his monthslong trade war rather than settle for a weak agreement, his top advisers said Monday.        华盛顿——特朗普总统的高级顾问周一称,受美国经济持续走强的鼓舞,加之被中国企图违背先前承诺的做法所激怒,特朗普总统准备延长持续数月的贸易战,而不满足于达成一项软弱的协议。
        Mr. Trump’s threat to increase tariffs on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods on Friday morning followed a visit last week by his top advisers to Beijing, in which the Chinese “retreated” on parts of the deal, the advisers said.        特朗普周五早晨威胁要对价值2000亿美元的中国商品增加关税,此举发生在他的高级顾问上周的北京之行后,顾问们表示,访问期间中方在协议的部分内容上“出尔反尔”。
        “We’re moving backwards instead of forwards, and in the president’s view that’s not acceptable,” Robert Lighthizer, the president’s top trade negotiator, told reporters on Monday.        “我们是在向后退,而不是向前进,这在总统看来是不可接受的,”总统的首席贸易谈判代表罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)周一对记者说。
        Mr. Trump on Sunday threatened to hit nearly all of China’s exports to the United States with tariffs. The president was angered by China’s attempt to reverse commitments to essentially codify an agreement to provide American companies with more equal treatment, according to people familiar with the negotiations. The president was also irked by China’s insistence that the United States quickly lift all of the tariffs Mr. Trump had placed on $250 billion worth of imports.        特朗普周日发出威胁,将用关税打击几乎所有中国对美国的出口商品。据熟悉谈判情况的人士表示,中方企图推翻把为美国企业提供更平等待遇的共识写进法律的承诺,从而激怒了总统。此外,中方坚持要美国迅速取消特朗普对2500亿美元进口商品加征的所有关税,也令总统感到恼火。
        A final trade agreement could still be reached, and China, which depends on the United States economy for trade, said on Monday that it still planned to send a delegation to the United States this week for talks. However, a spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry declined to specify on Monday whether Vice Premier Liu He, who has led the talks for the Chinese, would still travel to the United States for scheduled meetings, instead saying that “the Chinese team is preparing to go to the U.S. for consultations.”        最终协议仍有可能达成,而在贸易上依赖于美国经济的中国方面周一表示,仍计划派代表团本周赴美国谈判。但中国外交部发言人周一拒绝说明一直主持中方谈判的副总理刘鹤是否仍将按计划前往美国参加会晤,而称“中方团队正在准备赴美磋商”。
        Steven Mnuchin, the Treasury Secretary, said the United States would reconsider imposing higher tariffs on China if the negotiations got “back on track.” He added that negotiators had been optimistic in the past about the prospects for a deal, but that recent interactions with the Chinese had moved negotiations “substantially backwards.”        财政部长史蒂文·马努钦(Steven Mnuchin)称,如果谈判“重回正轨”,美国会重新考虑对中国加征更高关税一事。他还表示,谈判人员过去一直对协议前景持乐观态度,但近来与中方的互动已使谈判“严重倒退”。
        Mr. Trump’s last-minute warning highlights the difficult political position facing his administration as it tries to convince businesses, lawmakers and consumers that the deal it strikes with China will truly level the playing field and put the United States in a better economic position. He is also facing pressure to show that the pain of his trade war will be worth it for the companies, farmers and consumers caught in the middle.        特朗普最后一刻发出的警告凸显了他的政府所面临的艰难政治处境。政府在努力使企业界、立法者和消费者确信,与中国达成的协议将真正创造公平的竞争环境,让美国处于更有利的经济地位。他还面临压力,要证明他的贸易战之痛对于夹在中间的企业、农民和消费者而言,是值得的。
        On Monday, Mr. Trump repeated his insistence that China rebalance its economic relationship with the United States and end its role as a net exporter of goods.        特朗普周一重申,他坚持认为中国应重新调整与美国的经济关系,结束作为商品净出口方的状况。
        The president’s promise to raise tariffs to 25 percent on Friday and eventually tax another $325 billion worth of Chinese goods sent global markets down on Monday, as investors worried that the trade war could be prolonged indefinitely. Stocks fell sharply after trading opened, with the S&P 500 starting down more than 1 percent. But the market gained ground throughout the trading day. Shortly before 3 p.m., the S&P 500 was down a bit less than 0.5 percent.        在总统承诺周五要将关税提高到25%,并最终对另外3250亿美元中国商品加征关税之后,周一全球股市应声下跌,投资者担心贸易战可能会无限期延长。股市开盘后大幅下跌,标准普尔500指数开盘跌幅超过1%。但在整个交易日期间,市场有所上涨。快到下午3点,标准普尔500指数的跌幅略低于0.5%。
        The decision to up the ante came after Mr. Trump’s trade advisers returned dismayed by China’s refusal to mention commitments it had made to update various Chinese laws in the final text of the trade agreement.        中国拒绝在贸易协议的最终文本中提及更新各项法律的承诺,特朗普的贸易顾问失望而归,总统随后做出了加码的决定。
        Instead, Chinese negotiators had insisted that any concessions would need to be achieved through regulatory and administrative actions, not through changes made to Chinese law through its legislature. The provisions included, but were not limited to, the forced transfer of technology from American companies to Chinese firms, the people familiar with the negotiations said.        相反,中方谈判代表坚称,任何让步都需要通过监管和行政措施来实现,而不是通过立法机构对中国法律进行修改。知情人士说,这些条款包括但不限于强迫美国公司向中国公司转让技术。
        Chinese negotiators have also continued to insist that Mr. Trump lift the tariffs he has placed on $250 billion worth of goods more quickly than the administration wants. With the two sides still disagreeing over issues including how China subsidizes its companies, its restrictions on data transfers, rules for foreign cloud computing companies and its approvals of genetically modified seeds, the president concluded that China’s offers were not good enough.        中国谈判代表还坚持特朗普尽快取消对价值2500亿美元商品征收的关税,而美方并不希望这么快。由于双方在一些问题上仍存在分歧,包括中国如何补贴本国企业、对数据传输的限制、对外国云计算公司的规定以及对转基因种子的批准,总统认为中国提出的条件不理想。
        Late last week, Mr. Trump and a small circle of advisers decided the United States was in a strong enough economic position to ramp up tariffs on $200 billion worth of Chinese exports. People familiar with the president’s thinking said that he believed that a strong American economy would enable the United States to withstand any blowback from those higher tariffs — including Chinese retaliation — until China was ready to come back to the negotiating table.        上周晚些时候,特朗普及一小群顾问认为,美国的经济实力足够强大,可以对价值2000亿美元的中国出口商品加征关税。熟悉总统想法的人士表示,他认为,在中国准备重返谈判桌之前,走强的美国经济将使美国能够承受这些关税所带来的后果——包括中国的报复。
        His unconventional approach drew accolades from both sides of the political aisle.        他的非常规做法受到了两党政治人士的赞扬。
        “Hang tough on China, President @realDonaldTrump,” Senator Chuck Schumer, the Democratic leader, said on Twitter.        “保持对中国的强硬,特朗普总统@realDonaldTrump,”民主党领袖、参议员查克·舒默(Chuck Schumer)在Twitter上表示。
        “Excellent decision by @realDonaldTrump!” Laura Ingraham, a Fox News host, tweeted, which the president retweeted onto his feed. “No other president has had the guts to take on the China challenge.”        “@realDonaldTrump的决定太棒了!”福克斯新闻(Fox News)主持人劳拉·英格拉姆(Laura Ingraham)在Twitter上写道,总统转发了她的推文。“没有哪位总统有这样的勇气接受中国的挑战。”
        Advisers to Mr. Trump say he has felt vindicated by a string of positive economic data, in particular the first-quarter gross domestic product, which increased partly as a result of rising exports. While economists have attributed economic growth in the first quarter to a variety of factors, the president and his advisers interpreted the figures as evidence that his tariffs are reducing the trade deficit and boosting growth.        特朗普的顾问们表示,一系列积极的经济数据,尤其是第一季度国内生产总值的增长,在一定程度上是出口增长的结果,这证明了特朗普的正确。尽管经济学家将第一季度的经济增长归因于多种因素,但总统及其顾问将这些数据解读为他的关税正在减少贸易逆差、促进经济增长的证据。
        Mr. Trump’s belief that his trade war is not having an economic downside is fueling his insistence that some of the tariffs on China remain in place. But China has insisted that all of the tariffs must come off as part of the deal.        特朗普认为自己的贸易战不会对经济造成负面影响,这促使他坚持对中国继续征收部分关税。但中国主张,所有关税都必须作为协议的一部分取消。
        The president has turned to tariffs as a source of leverage to bring other negotiations to the close. In talks last year over the North American Free Trade Agreement, Mr. Trump threatened to leave Canada out of the deal entirely and strike a deal with Mexico, a gambit that brought negotiations to a rapid conclusion.        总统已经将关税作为结束其他谈判的筹码。在去年有关北美自由贸易协定(North American Free Trade Agreement)的谈判中,特朗普威胁要把加拿大完全排除在该协定之外,与墨西哥达成协议,这一策略令谈判迅速取得结果。
        Yet analysts have questioned whether volatility in the stock markets could change the president’s mind. He has repeatedly referred to stock markets as a kind of scoreboard for his presidency.        然而,分析人士怀疑股市的波动是否会改变总统的想法。他多次提到股市是其总统职位的记分牌。
        In a note on Monday, Joshua Shapiro, the chief United States economist for MFR, an economic research firm, said that his forecast and most others assumed that the United States-China trade talks resulted in no further damage, at a minimum. “Given expectations of an agreement, failure to achieve one would be a serious blow to markets and the economy,” he wrote.        在周一的一份报告中,经济研究公司MFR的首席美国经济学家约书亚·夏皮罗(Joshua Shapiro)说,他和其他大多数人的预测都认为,美中贸易谈判至少不会造成进一步的损害。“鉴于各方对达成协议的预期,未能达成协议将对市场和经济造成严重打击,”他写道。
                
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