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美国将有条件放松华为禁令
Trump Administration Will Allow Some Companies to Sell to Huawei

来源:纽约时报    2019-07-10 01:47



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        WASHINGTON — The Trump administration is following through with plans to allow American companies to continue doing business with Huawei, the Chinese telecom equipment giant, just weeks after placing the company on a Commerce Department blacklist.        华盛顿——特朗普政府正在落实允许美国企业继续与中国电信设备巨头华为开展业务的计划,就在几周前,该公司刚刚被美国商务部列入黑名单。
        On Tuesday, Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said the administration will issue licenses for American companies that want to do business with Huawei “where there is no threat to national security.” And another top official suggested the move would allow chip makers to continue selling certain technology to Huawei.        美国商务部长威尔伯·罗斯(Wilbur Ross)周二表示,“在不威胁国家安全的情况下”,政府将为希望与华为开展业务的美国企业发放许可证。另一位高级官员表示,此举将允许芯片制造商继续向华为出售某些技术。
        The comments confirm President Trump’s surprise announcement last month, after a meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping, that the United States would relax restrictions on Huawei as part of an effort to restart stalled trade talks with China. Weeks earlier, the Commerce Department said it had placed the company and its dozens of affiliates on a list of firms deemed a risk to national security, effectively barring it from buying American parts and technologies without seeking United States government approval.        这些言论证实了特朗普总统上月在与中国国家主席习近平会晤后出人意料地宣布,美国将放松对华为的限制,作为重启陷入停滞的贸易谈判努力的一部分。几周前,美国商务部表示,已将该公司及其数十家关联公司列入一份据信对国家安全构成威胁的企业名单,实际上是禁止该公司在未经美国政府批准的情况下购买美国零部件和技术。
        Larry Kudlow, the director of the White House National Economic Council, said at a CNBC event on Tuesday that the United States has “opened the door — relaxed a bit, the licensing requirements from the Commerce Department” for companies that sell to Huawei.        白宫国家经济委员会(National Economic Council)主任拉里·库德洛(Larry Kudlow)周二在CNBC的一个活动中表示,对于向华为销售产品的企业,美国“打开了一扇门——稍微放宽了商务部的许可要求”。
        “We are opening that up for a limited time period,” Mr. Kudlow said.        “我们将在有限的时间内开放,”库德洛说。
        That could offer a reprieve to American companies like Qualcomm, Intel, Broadcom and Google, which sell microchips to Huawei and other specialized parts that go into its smartphones and telecom equipment.        这可能会给高通(Qualcomm)、英特尔(Intel)、博通(Broadcom)和谷歌(Google)等美国企业带来喘息之机,这些公司向华为销售微芯片,或用于智能手机和电信设备的其他专业部件。
        American technology companies have been lobbying the administration, saying that the ban will cut them off from a major source of revenue, while doing little to hold back Huawei’s technological advancement, since Huawei will merely purchase some less-advanced components from competitors in Japan, South Korea or elsewhere instead.        美国科技企业一直在游说政府,称这项禁令将切断它们的主要收入来源,而对华为的技术进步几乎不构成阻碍,因为华为只会从日本、韩国或其他地方的竞争对手那里购买先进程度较低的零部件。
        Mr. Kudlow also said negotiations with China, which fell apart in May and seemed on the brink of collapse, are set to resume.        库德洛还说,与中国的谈判将重新开始。今年5月,两国之间的谈判破裂,似乎处在了崩溃的边缘。
        “The most important thing, the headline, is that talks and negotiations will resume, after a couple months of hiatus,” he said.        “最重要的大新闻是,在中断几个月后,对话和谈判将恢复,”他说。
        On Tuesday, Robert Lighthizer, the United States trade representative, and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin spoke with Chinese Vice Premier Liu He and Minister Zhong Shan to continue negotiations aimed at resolving the outstanding trade disputes between the United States and China, according to a senior administration official. Both sides will continue these talks as appropriate, the official said.        据美国政府一名高级官员透露,周二,美国贸易代表罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)和财政部长史蒂文·马努钦(Steven Mnuchin)与中国副总理刘鹤和商务部长钟山举行会谈,以便继续谈判,解决美中之间悬而未决的贸易争端。这位官员说,双方将根据情况继续举行会谈。
        Whether those talks can result in a trade deal is not yet clear. Deep differences remain, including whether China will agree to codify changes to its trade practices in Chinese law, as the administration has demanded. And the United States has not yet committed to lifting any of the tariffs it has placed on $250 billion worth of goods.        目前还不清楚这些谈判能否达成贸易协议。分歧依然很大,包括中国是否会同意按照特朗普政府的要求,将其贸易做法的变化写入中国法律。美国还没有承诺取消对2500亿美元商品征收的关税。
        And while Washington is relaxing its restrictions on Huawei, a broader effort to crack down on China’s ability to buy American technology is continuing.        尽管华盛顿正在放松对华为的限制,但打击中国购买美国技术能力的更广泛努力仍在继续。
        Mr. Ross, speaking at an export control conference in Washington, said the administration would continue efforts to protect America’s development of advanced technologies, including potentially curbing the ability of other countries to buy sensitive technology.        罗斯在华盛顿举行的一个出口控制会议上说,政府将继续努力保护美国先进技术的发展,包括可能限制其他国家购买敏感技术的能力。
        He said the administration was updating its export control policies to reflect a “fusion” between China’s military and its civilian businesses, which Mr. Ross called a threat to America. And he warned companies not to sacrifice intellectual property and other trade secrets in order to gain access to growing markets like China.        他说,针对中国军事和民间企业之间的“融合”,政府正在更新出口控制政策,罗斯称这种融合对美国构成了威胁。他还警告,企业不要为了进入中国等不断成长的市场而牺牲知识产权和其他商业机密。
        “The future prosperity of the United States depends on our strategic advantage in advanced technologies,” Mr. Ross said. “It is wrong to trade sensitive I.P. or source codes for access to a foreign market,” he said, “no matter how lucrative that market might be.”        “美国未来的繁荣取决于我们在先进技术方面的战略优势,”罗斯说。“用敏感的IP或源代码换取进入外国市场的机会是错误的,”他说,“无论这个市场可能多么有利可图。”
        Mr. Ross stopped short of announcing long-expected additions to the list of products subject to American export controls, but said the Commerce Department would continue to review which technologies might need protection.        罗斯没有宣布人们期待已久的美国出口管制产品名单新增内容,但他说,商务部将继续审查哪些技术可能需要保护。
        “If new export controls seem necessary, the department seeks public input and strives for multilateral agreements, so that important controls are universally adopted,” he said.        他说:“如果有必要实施新的出口管制,商务部将寻求公众参与,争取达成多边协议,以便重要的管制措施能得到广泛采用。”
        Mr. Ross said that the department would soon announce members of an “emerging technology technical advisory committee to help review those technologies,” whose members would be announced shortly, and who would help “modernize” the department’s export control list.        罗斯说,商务部不久将宣布“新兴技术技术咨询委员会”的成员名单,这些成员将帮助商务部对出口管制清单实现“现代化”的更新。
        Commerce was tasked with creating new rules for protecting sensitive American technologies from foreign incursions by a defense bill that Mr. Trump signed into law last August. But the department has found creating the list of sensitive technologies to be a difficult task.        去年8月,特朗普签署了一项国防法案,授权商务部制定新规则,保护美国敏感技术不受外国入侵。但是该部发现,创建敏感技术清单是一项艰巨的任务。
        Rules that are too restrictive could weigh heavily on businesses that depend on freely trading components around the world, and ultimately hamstring their ability to design and manufacture products in the United States. Companies could be forced to move their research sites abroad, potentially putting the position of the United States as a hub for research and development at risk.        过于严格的规定可能会给那些依赖全球自由交易零部件的企业带来沉重压力,并最终削弱它们在美国设计和制造产品的能力。企业可能被迫将研究地点迁往海外,这可能会危及美国作为研发中心的地位。
        “This is the dilemma,” said William Reinsch, who led what now is called the Bureau of Industry and Security under the Clinton administration. “You have to constantly walk this line between controlling too loose and letting stuff you want out, and controlling too tight and incentivizing other people to make it.”        “这是一个两难境地,”威廉·赖因施(William Reinsch)说,他在克林顿时期领导目前名为工业和安全局(Bureau of Industry and Security)的机构。“控制太松会泄露你想保密的东西,控制太紧会激励其他人自己去做,你必须在这二者之间不断摇摆。”
                
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