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反对建垃圾焚烧厂,武汉爆发街头抗议
Protests Over Incinerator Rattle Officials in Chinese City

来源:纽约时报    2019-07-08 10:17



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        WUHAN, China — Days of turbulent street protests against an incinerator project in Wuhan, south-central China’s largest city, have prompted the local government to assure residents it has no plans to build the facility any time soon.        中国武汉——在中国中南部最大城市武汉连续几天爆发反对垃圾焚烧厂项目的街头抗议活动之后,当地政府被迫向居民保证,没有马上修建该设施的计划。
        But the authorities have also deployed large numbers of riot police in Wuhan, and are warning of harsh measures if the demonstrations, which have brought thousands of people into the city’s streets, continue.        但当局也出动了大批防暴警察,并警告称,如果示威活动继续下去,将采取严厉措施。示威活动已致数千人走上街头。
        The dispute here highlights how more countries are having trouble coping with the vast quantities of trash produced by an increasingly affluent global population. Coming up with a solution is particularly tough in a country like China, where years of censorship and propaganda have left many people deeply distrustful of government assurances of the safety of incinerators.        发生在这里的纠纷凸显出,越来越多的国家在处理世界上日益富裕的人口产生的大量垃圾方面所遇到的困难。在中国这样的国家,找到一种解决方案尤其困难,因为多年的审查和宣传让许多人高度怀疑政府对焚烧厂安全性的保证。
        At the same time, many in China resent a common alternative: garbage landfills. That is particularly true in cities like Wuhan that have expanded to envelop landfills previously in fairly rural areas.        与此同时,许多中国人也讨厌一种常见的替代方案:垃圾填埋场。在武汉这样的城市尤其如此,这些城市已经扩展到曾经位于偏远农村地区的垃圾填埋场附近了。
        Even as they discourage further protests, the local authorities in Wuhan have tried to assure residents that their voices are being heard. Many protests across China have centered on local environmental issues like the incinerator project, and the ruling Communist Party is extremely wary of letting them build into a larger movement.        就在武汉当局阻止进一步抗议活动的同时,当地政府也在试图向居民保证会聆听他们的声音。中国各地的许多抗议活动都集中在垃圾焚烧厂等当地环境问题上,执政的共产党高度提防,不让这些抗议活动发展成更大规模的运动。
        “The people’s government of the district fully guarantees the participation rights and supervision rights of the masses,” read a statement from the Xinzhou district in eastern Wuhan, the site of the proposed incinerator. But the statement also warned, “Public security organizations will resolutely crack down on illegal criminal acts such as malicious incitement and provocation.”        “区人民政府充分保障广大群众的参与权和监督权,”武汉市东部新洲区政府在一份声明中说,拟建的焚烧厂址在新洲区。但声明也警告,“对恶意煽动、挑唆串联等违法犯罪行为,公安机关将坚决依法打击。”
        Local officials acknowledge being caught off guard by the public backlash. Planning for the incinerator started years ago, when the area was mostly rural, and was not updated as a construction boom took place nearby, including at least two schools.        当地官员承认,公众的反应让他们措手不及。焚烧厂的规划是几年前开始做的,当时那片地基本是农村地区,但随着附近建设热潮的出现(附近新修了至少两所学校),焚烧厂的规划没有更新。
        Residents of Wuhan, a city of about 10 million people, say the police have been detaining and taking away some protesters in vans, apparently targeting people who had urged others online to join the demonstrations.        武汉市有约一千万人口,该市居民说,警方一直在拘留一些抗议者,并用面包车将他们运走,警方针对的显然是那些在网上呼吁其他人参加示威活动的人。
        The government forced businesses to close at 6 p.m. across a fairly wide area before a protest on Thursday evening, residents said. That left the police with a free hand to deal with protesters, who could not flee into shops during sometimes violent confrontations.        居民们说,在上周四晚的抗议活动之前,政府迫使位于一个相当大区域内的商店当天下午6点关门。这让警方可以全力对付抗议者,让他们在间或发生的暴力冲突中无法躲进商店。
        On Friday evening, a street market several blocks away had been allowed to reopen. But steel shutters were down at storefronts at the hub of protests, a gritty neighborhood of older concrete walk-up buildings.        周五晚上,位于几个街区以外的一个街市被允许重新开业。但抗议活动中心地带的店面仍拉着钢铁卷帘门,这是一个有不少混凝土无电梯建筑的老旧社区。
        Hundreds of people milled quietly around on sidewalks on either side of an avenue, sullenly eyeing more than a dozen large black police vans and buses with tinted windows. The show of force and the earlier detentions intimidated possible protesters to avoid further confrontations, residents said.        几百人在一条大街两旁的人行道上安静地转来转去,阴沉地注视着十几辆黑色警车和带有有色车窗的大巴。居民们说,武力展示和早些时候的拘留吓着了可能的抗议者,他们不想发生进一步的冲突。
        Many plainclothes officers were evident. Numerous young men in short haircuts stood at each street corner after sunset and watched the crowd while wearing identical outfits: black trousers, black T-shirts and bright red vests incongruously labeled “Civilized Construction Tour Guide.”        这里显然有许多便衣警察。太阳落山后,每个街角都有许多留着短发的年轻人在观察人群,这些人穿着同样的服装:黑色长裤、黑色T恤和大红色马甲,上面写着“文明建设引导员”字样,显得很不协调。
        There has been no sign that the huge street protests in Hong Kong over the past month inspired the demonstrations in Wuhan, which began on June 28. China’s censors have worked hard to prevent information about the Hong Kong protests from spreading broadly, although word of them has been seeping into the mainland.        没有迹象表明,过去一个月香港的大规模街头抗议活动激发了武汉6月28日开始的示威活动。中国的审查者一直在努力阻止有关香港抗议活动的信息广泛传播,尽管有关抗议活动的消息已经渗透到了内地。
        And in the lower-income neighborhood in eastern Wuhan where the government wants to build an incinerator at a landfill, the Hong Kong protests seem to have little or no appeal. Residents seem aware of the danger of being seen by the authorities as having drawn any inspiration at all from Hong Kong.        政府想把武汉东边的一个垃圾填埋场改建为垃圾焚烧厂。对居住在这个较低收入社区的居民来说,香港的抗议似乎没有什么吸引力,他们似乎意识到被当局视为抗议灵感来自香港的危险性。
        “We have nothing to do with Hong Kong whatsoever,” said a posting on one of the online chat groups that have been used to coordinate protests.        “我们和那些港独完全没关系啊,”一个用于协调抗议活动的在线聊天群组里有个帖子说。
        Experts have been skeptical that the demonstrations in Hong Kong, over a local bill that would allow extradition to the mainland, would encourage protests in China even if they were widely reported. There is limited sympathy in mainland China for Hong Kong, which many mainland Chinese regard as a prosperous place that already receives favorable treatment from Beijing.        香港的示威活动针对的是一项允许将逃犯引渡到大陆的当地法案,即使这些抗议活动得到了广泛报道,专家们对它们是否会鼓励中国大陆的抗议活动一直持怀疑态度。中国内地民众对香港的同情有限,许多人认为香港是一个已经得到北京优惠待遇的繁荣地方。
        Even before the Wuhan protests began, residents had been complaining online about the smell from a large landfill at the site of the proposed incinerator. The local government tried to reassure them by announcing that it was putting thicker plastic film over the waste and installing an air purification system.        甚至在武汉的抗议活动开始前,居民们就已经在网上抱怨来自一个大型垃圾填埋场的臭味,拟建焚烧厂的选址就是该填埋场。当地政府试图安抚居民,政府宣布,将在垃圾填埋场上覆盖一层更厚的塑料薄膜,并将安装一个空气净化系统。
        Street protests were set off by noisy construction work near the landfill that apparently led some residents to believe that work on the incinerator had begun. But the Xinzhou district government said the noise was from the demolition of a nearby rail line.        街头抗议是被垃圾填埋场附近建筑施工的噪音引发的,这显然让一些居民认为,焚烧厂已开工建设。但新洲区政府说,噪音来自附近一条铁路线的拆迁工程。
        It said that while planning had been underway for an incinerator in the area, it would not proceed until environmental impact assessments had been carried out, and that the public’s views on the project would be taken into account. That did not mollify protesters, who feared that the consultation process would still end in construction of the incinerator.        政府的声明说,虽然在该地区建垃圾焚烧厂计划仍在进行中,但在进行环境影响评估之前不会开工,并将充分听取公众对该项目的意见。这并未能安抚抗议者,他们担心听取群众意见的结果仍是建设垃圾焚烧厂。
        Periodic protests against incinerators have been breaking out for a decade in China. But the ones in Wuhan appear to have been larger than most, although a protest against an incinerator in Hangzhou in 2014 was more violent, with at least 10 demonstrators and 29 police officers injured.        十年来,中国不时爆发反对焚烧厂的抗议活动。但武汉抗议活动的规模似乎比其他的都大,不过,2014年杭州发生的反对垃圾焚烧厂的抗议活动更为暴力,至少有10名示威者和29名警察受伤。
        Older incinerators in China have been a source of emissions that can damage the body’s nervous system. Such pollutants, particularly long-lasting substances like dioxin and mercury, are not only dangerous in China but can also float on air currents across the Pacific, reaching as far as the United States, according to atmospheric research based on satellite observations.        中国较老的垃圾焚烧炉一直是污染源,排放能损害人体的神经系统。这些污染物,尤其是像二恶英和汞等的长期存在的物质,不仅在中国造成危险,根据基于卫星观测的大气研究,它们还能随着气流在太平洋上空漂浮,最远可到达美国。
        Better incinerator technology that eliminates almost all emissions, already used widely in Europe, is now available in China, but it is many times more expensive to install. Chinese officials have tried hard to persuade the public that new incinerators are being built with such improved technology.        更好的垃圾焚烧炉技术可以消除几乎所有的排放,欧洲已广泛使用这种技术,中国目前也有,但安装这种焚烧炉的成本要高很多倍。中国官员一直在努力说服公众,新焚烧炉的建造正在使用这种先进技术。
        The new incinerators also use the heat from burning garbage to generate electricity. That helps reduce slightly the need to burn coal, which is still China’s dominant fuel source, although renewable energy is expanding quickly.        新的焚烧炉还利用垃圾燃烧产生的热量来发电。尽管可再生能源正在迅速发展,但这有助于略微减少对燃煤的需求。燃煤仍是中国的主要燃料来源。
        In a country with pervasive censorship and intensive propaganda, many people deeply distrust the government’s safety assurances on environmental issues.        在一个审查无处不在、强化宣传的国家,许多人对政府在环境问题上的安全保证深感怀疑。
        China faces a very real problem in disposing of the garbage generated by a population of 1.4 billion whose standard of living has soared over the past four decades. Almost all of the population is crowded into the eastern two-thirds of the country, and little space is available there for landfills.        中国在处理14亿人口产生的垃圾方面面临着一个非常现实的问题。中国人的生活水平在过去40年里出现了腾飞。几乎所有的人口都聚集在中国东部三分之二的国土上,那里几乎没有可供垃圾填埋的空间。
        Trucking garbage to rural areas in western China is prohibitively expensive, and neighbors like the Philippines are increasingly resistant to accepting other countries’ trash.        向中国西部农村地区运送垃圾的成本高到了令人望而却步的程度,而菲律宾等邻国也越来越不愿接受其他国家的垃圾。
        China is trying to step up recycling. Shanghai began requiring households and offices on Monday to start sorting their trash.        中国正试图加大回收力度。上海从上周一开始要求家庭和办公室开始进行垃圾分类。
        China’s leaders keep a very close eye on local protests over environmental concerns, mainly to make sure that they show no sign of being coordinated between cities. They are leery of any broader movement that could challenge the Communist Party’s authority.        中国领导人密切关注针对环境问题的地方抗议活动,主要是为了确保这些抗议活动没有在城市之间存在协调的迹象。他们对任何可能挑战共产党权威的更广泛的运动都十分担心。
        For China’s leaders, self-governing Taiwan, which they regard as a part of Chinese territory, offers a cautionary tale about the political dangers that can arise from environmental protests in a single city.        对中国领导人来说,自治的台湾——他们认为台湾是中国领土的一部分——为他们提供了一座城市的环境抗议可能引发政治危机的警世故事。
        Successful protests in 1986 to block the opening of a DuPont chemical factory in Lukang, Taiwan, galvanized broader opposition on the island to single-party rule by the Nationalist Party. The demonstrations contributed to the end of martial law the following year and Taiwan’s subsequent evolution into a thriving, multiparty democracy.        1986年,台湾民众举行抗议活动,成功地阻止杜邦公司(DuPont)在台湾鹿港修建化工厂。这场抗议活动在台湾激发了对国民党一党执政的更广泛的反对,最终导致戒严令在次年的结束,以及后来在台湾演化出了繁荣的多党民主制度。
        The Chinese authorities’ willingness to give in, at times, when strenuously opposed on a local environmental issue was dramatically illustrated in 2012, in the western province of Sichuan, where protesters stopped the construction of an immense copper smelter.        在地方环境问题上遭到强烈反对时,中国政府有时愿意让步,这种情况在2012年有过惊人的展示。那年,抗议者在中国西部省份四川阻止了一座大型铜冶炼厂的建设。
        The smelter had been the centerpiece of Beijing’s plans for industrial revitalization of the region, which was devastated by an earthquake in 2008. But three nights of increasingly large and violent protests, coordinated partly through the social media platforms that were then gaining popularity in China, resulted in the project’s cancellation. The authorities even released protesters who had been detained, after a large crowd on the third night demanded that they be freed.        这家冶炼厂曾是北京振兴该地区工业计划的核心内容,该地区在2008年的地震中遭受了严重破坏。但连续三个晚上且规模越来越大的暴力抗议活动导致该项目被取消,抗议活动部分是通过当时正在中国越来越受欢迎的社交媒体平台协调的。第三天晚上,在一大群人要求释放被拘留的抗议者后,当局甚至释放了他们。
                
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