英雄还是魔头,格鲁吉亚小城如何“推销”斯大林_OK阅读网
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英雄还是魔头,格鲁吉亚小城如何“推销”斯大林
A Monster to History, Stalin Is a Tourist Magnet in His Hometown

来源:纽约时报    2019-07-10 06:56



        GORI, Georgia — Here are just a few of the fun facts that visitors learn during a guided tour of the Stalin Museum in Gori, the small Georgian town where the former Soviet leader was born.        格鲁吉亚哥里——游客们跟随导游参观哥里的斯大林博物馆时,会了解到这样一些有意思的事实。这名前苏联领导人就出生在这个格鲁吉亚小城。
        Joseph Stalin was a good singer. He wrote poems. During his reign, 9,000 state enterprises were started. One of his granddaughters now runs a shop in Portland, Ore. Among the gifts offered to Stalin by adoring citizens was a luxurious fur coat, which now hangs inside a glass case in a room filled with tributes.        约瑟夫·斯大林很会唱歌。他会写诗。在他统治期间创办了9000家国有企业。他的一个孙女现在在俄勒冈州波特兰市开商店。在崇拜者们送给斯大林的礼物中,包括一件奢华的裘皮大衣,如今挂在一个摆满礼物的房间的玻璃柜里。
        “That fur coat was presented to Stalin by a Moscow clothing company,” said the tour guide, an elderly woman with a thick Georgian accent and hair dyed with purple highlights. “But Stalin did not wear it. Not his style.”        “那件皮大衣是莫斯科一家服装公司送给斯大林的,”导游说。这是一位头发挑染成紫色、说话带有浓重格鲁吉亚口音的年长女性。“但斯大林没穿。因为不是他的风格。”
        Dedicated in 1957, four years after Stalin’s death, the museum has an austere exterior in the Socialist Classical style and an interior stuffed with paintings, photographs and personal mementos. To the left of the entrance sits a rail car, the one Stalin rode to the Potsdam Conference in Germany in the summer of 1945, its curtains intact, its bulletproof glass long ago replaced.        这座博物馆建于1957年,也就是斯大林去世四年后,它的外观是简朴的社会主义古典风格,里面摆满了画作、照片和个人纪念品。入口的左边是一节火车车厢,那是斯大林1945年夏天去德国参加波茨坦会议时坐过的,窗帘保持了原样,防弹玻璃很久以前已经换了下来。
        The tone throughout the museum is admiring, a stirring narrative about a poor kid who, against long odds and despite numerous stints in czarist prisons, soared to the heights of power. The floors have red carpets. Stalin’s death mask rests on a marble stand, like a beloved leader, lying in state.        整座博物馆充斥着仰慕之情,贯穿着一种激动人心的叙事:一个出身贫困的孩子历经艰难险阻,数次进出沙皇的监狱,最终权倾一时。博物馆的地上铺着红地毯。斯大林的死亡面具放在大理石的台子上,就像深受爱戴的领袖下葬前供公众瞻仰一般。
        Sandwiched between Russia and Turkey, Georgia is a small country with celebrated cuisine, gorgeous landscapes — and a scarcity of world-renowned tourist attractions. One of the few it does have, unfortunately, is the man born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili, the son of a cobbler who became one of humanity’s greatest criminals.        格鲁吉亚是一个夹在俄罗斯和土耳其之间的小国,以美食和优美的风景著称,但这里缺乏世界级的旅游景点。不幸的是,这里倒是出过几个吸引世界目光的人物,其中就包括这个本名约瑟夫·维萨里奥诺维奇·泽·朱加什维利的鞋匠之子,他后来成了人类历史上最大的罪犯之一。
        This has presented a quandary for Georgian officials. How, if at all, does a country market a homegrown monster to the rest of the world?        这令格鲁吉亚的政府官员陷入了窘境。如果要做的话,一个国家该如何向世人推销这片土地孕育出来的大魔头呢?
        Part of the answer may lie in what is missing from the tour. There is no reference to the gulag, the system of slave camps and prisons that claimed more than one million lives. Nor is there a peep about the Great Terror, Stalin’s campaign of purges and executions in the 1930s.        部分答案可能在于这次参观所遗漏的东西。藏品中没有提到古拉格,这个由劳改营和监狱组成的体系夺走了100多万人的生命。斯大林在上世纪30年代发动的大清洗也不见踪影。
        A fleeting reference is made to the collectivization of Soviet farms, which led to the starvation of an estimated four million Ukrainians, but if you’d never heard of this atrocity, you might think it was a hard-won success marred by slip-ups.        展品倒是稍稍提到了苏联的农业集体化,这在当年导致大约400万乌克兰人饿死,但如果你从未听说过这种暴行,你可能会认为,这是一场来之不易的成功,虽然有一些疏忽。
        “Many mistakes were made in the Soviet Union during the collectivization,” the guide said, striding briskly from one display to another. “But nevertheless, collective farms were created.”        “在集体化过程中,苏联犯了很多错误,”导游一边说着,一边迈着轻快的步伐从一个展区走到另一个展区。“但不管怎么说,集体农场还是建立起来了。”
        Georgia’s struggle about what to do with Stalin and his legacy has occasionally produced wince-inducing solutions. In 2013, the chief of the National Tourism Administration, Giorgi Sigua, suggested that the country could appeal to the Chinese “just like” Israel has long catered to Christians.        在如何处理斯大林及其政治遗产的纠结中,格鲁吉亚偶尔会提出一些令人皱眉的解决方案。2013年,该国旅游局局长乔治·西古阿(Giorgi Sigua)表示可以吸引中国人,“就像”以色列之于基督徒那样。
        “We can sell Stalin as a tourist product to the Chinese market,” Mr. Sigua said in a public statement. “Just like the Jews are selling Jesus Christ.”        “我们可以将斯大林作为旅游产品向中国市场推出,”西古阿在一份公开声明中表示,“就像犹太人推销耶稣基督那样。”
        Mr. Sigua was fired in 2014.        2014年,西古阿被解雇了。
        Although Georgia abandoned its state-backed pitch for Stalin-based tourism, he remains a major draw, particularly among Chinese and Russians. Roughly 162,000 people visited the Stalin Museum last year, according to Taia Chubinidze, who sat behind a counter at the tourist center in Gori one recent afternoon.        尽管格鲁吉亚放弃了政府支持的推广斯大林主题游做法,但他仍是个主要的吸引点,特别是在中国人和俄罗斯人中。最近的一个下午,坐在哥里旅游中心一个柜台后的塔亚·丘比尼泽(Taia Chubinidze)表示,去年约有16.2万人参观了斯大林博物馆。
        “That’s more than any museum in the country,” she said, beaming.        “比这个国家任何博物馆都多,”她欢快地说。
        It was not possible to check this assertion because officials with the tourism administration refused to answer a single question about Stalin-related tourism.        这个说法无法核实,因为旅游管理官员拒绝回答斯大林相关旅游的任何问题。
        The sensitivity is understandable.        这种敏感性可以理解。
        Stalin inspires deep emotions in the country where he spent his earliest years, and one of them is reverence. This is especially true in Gori, where many people, especially older ones, regard him as a epochal figure who built an empire and beat the Nazis in World War II.        在斯大林度过人生初年的这个国家,他能激起人们一些很深的情感,其中之一便是崇敬。哥里尤其如此,在这里的很多人、特别是年长者的眼里,他是建立帝国并在第二次世界大战中击败法西斯的划时代人物。
        “He was a simple man who grew up and became the leader of a great country,” said Mera B’chatadze, a 70-year-old retired construction worker, who was sitting on a park bench adjacent to the Stalin Museum.        “他是个普通人,长大后成为一个伟大国家的领导人,”现年70岁的退休建筑工人麦拉·比查塔兹(Mera B’chatadze)坐在斯大林博物馆旁一个公园长椅上说。
        “He was a genius,” added a friend, Givi Lursmanashivi.        “他是个天才,”他的朋友吉维·鲁尔斯玛纳什维(Givi Lursmanashivi)接着说。
        To many younger Georgians, pro-Stalin views like these are both blinkered and disturbing. Never very sentimental about his native land, Stalin victimized this country for decades. More than 400,000 Georgians were deported, a majority of them shot.        对格鲁吉亚许多年轻人而言,像这样支持斯大林的观点既狭隘又令人不安。斯大林对他的故乡不仅从来没有太多感情,反而让这个国家遭受了几十年迫害。超过40万格鲁吉亚人被驱逐,其中多数被枪杀。
        “It seems likely that in the terrors of the ’30s, more Georgians were executed, in proportion to the country’s size, than in any other republic,” said the historian Simon Sebag Montefiore, the author of “Young Stalin.” “Probably due to Stalin’s intimacy with Georgian leaders.”        “在30年代的恐怖时期,就相对于国家大小的比例而言,格鲁吉亚被处决的人数似乎有可能高于其他任何共和国,”《青年斯大林》的作者、历史学家西蒙·塞巴格·蒙蒂菲奥里(Simon Sebag Montefiore) 说。“很可能是由于斯大林和格鲁吉亚领导人关系密切。”
        Decades after Soviet rule was shaken off, Russia retains an ominous presence here. In 2008, Gori was one of the towns Russia bombed and occupied during a short and disastrous war that left 20 percent of the country — though not Gori — in Russia’s hands.        格鲁吉亚摆脱苏联统治几十年后,俄罗斯在这里仍是个不祥的存在。2008年,在一次短暂而惨烈的战争中,哥里成为被俄罗斯轰炸并占领的城镇之一,该国20%的国土后落入俄罗斯手中,虽然不包括哥里。
        Many of the locals here don’t seem to care. It helps that Stalin brings in plenty of lari, the Georgian currency.        当地许多人似乎并不在乎。可能是因为斯大林带来了大量拉里——格鲁吉亚的货币。
        Across the street from the entrance to the museum is a collection of souvenir shops, selling a wide assortment of Stalin-themed tchotchkes — decorative plates, coffee mugs, miniature busts, tote bags, paperweights, pens, shot glasses, pipes, lighters, flasks and the list goes on.        街对面的博物馆入口处有一些纪念品商店,售卖各种各样的斯大林主题小摆件——装饰性盘子、咖啡杯、微型半身像、手提袋、镇纸、钢笔、烈酒杯、烟斗、打火机、水杯等等。
        More important than the financial upside, there is also a widespread sense here that, all evidence to the contrary, Stalin was only pretending to be a communist. Secretly, he was a Georgian nationalist.        比经济上的好处更重要的是,这里还有一种普遍的感知,即所有的证据表明情况正相反,斯大林只是假装是个共产主义者。私下里,他是个格鲁吉亚民族主义者。
        “A lot of people we talk to say that he kept a cross in his apartment, which meant that he was a Christian,” said Nutsa Batiashvili, an associate professor at the Free University of Tbilisi, who has written about the role of Stalin in Georgian memory.        “和我们交谈过的很多人说,他在公寓里保存着一个十字架,意味着他是个基督徒,”第比利斯自由大学(Free University of Tbilisi)副教授尼莎·巴季阿什维利(Nutsa Batiashvili)说,她曾就斯大林在格鲁吉亚人记忆中的形象撰文。
        “They say he made Georgian cuisine very important in the Kremlin, and made Georgian toasting part of the etiquette there,” she added. “I know how weird all this sounds because no one can pinpoint anything that Stalin did which actually benefited Georgia.”        “他们说,他让格鲁吉亚美食在克里姆林宫变得非常重要,还把格鲁吉亚的敬酒方式纳入了那里的礼节”,她补充道。“我知道所有这些听上去有多么怪异,因为没人能准确说出,斯大林做了什么事实上令格鲁吉亚受益的事情。”
        Unless one counts the international notoriety Stalin has brought to Gori. The town’s fondness for him has occasionally made headlines.        除非人们把斯大林在国际上带给哥里的恶名也计入在内。该镇对他的喜爱不时成为头条新闻。
        In 2010, the government removed an imposing statue of Stalin that had long stood at the center of town, on Stalin Avenue. This past May, as the country marked the 74th anniversary of victory in World War II, a group of activists demanded the statue’s return to its place of pride.        2010年,政府移除了镇中心斯大林街上伫立已久的一尊雄伟的斯大林雕像。今年5月,在格鲁吉亚庆祝二战胜利74周年之际,一群活动人士要求把雕像恭送回原地。
        That demand was ignored.        这一要求当局没有理会。
        Likewise, Gori has essentially ignored government demands to tone down the hagiographic glow emitted by the museum. In 2012, the minister of culture announced that the exhibits would be transformed in ways that honored the tyrant’s victims. Once completed, the minister said, the changes would provide the “objective truth” about Stalinism.        而政府要求博物馆减少歌颂的色彩,也基本上遭到哥里的无视。2012年,文化部长宣布对博物馆的展览进行改造,变为对这个暴虐统治者的受害者的缅怀。这位部长表示,一旦改造完成,展览将提供有关斯大林的“客观真相”。
        The overhaul never occurred. Instead, the museum added a room containing a table where confessions were wrung from arrestees, along with a reproduction of a prison cell.        这种改造始终没有付诸实现。博物馆倒是增加了一个展室,里面有被捕者被迫招供的桌子,还重现了一间牢房。
        It’s a modest, halfhearted add-on and, more to the point, the tour skips it.        这是个不起眼并且没太用心的增设项目,更说明问题的是,它不包括在导游路线内。
        A group of European tourists missed the room entirely, and after the purple-haired guide ended her patter (“Thank you for your visit. I wish you luck.”), all of them seemed stupefied and faintly amused.        一群欧洲游客完全错过了这个展室,在紫发导游结束了她的套话后(“感谢您前来参观。祝您好运。”),所有人脸上似乎露出了错愕又隐约觉得有趣的表情。
        “He’s a hero here!” said an exasperated Jochen Dieckmann, a German who was shaking his head in disbelief. “They have very famous writers in Georgia, that everyone is very proud of. They don’t seem to understand that Stalin sent them to the gulag and killed them all.”        “他在这里是个英雄!”愤怒的德国人约亨·迪克曼(Jochen Dieckman)难以置信地摇头说道。“格鲁吉亚有很有名的作家,人人都为他们感到自豪。他们似乎不明白,斯大林把他们送去古拉格,把他们全杀了。”
                
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