云门舞集和林怀民:让台湾文化与世界相连_OK阅读网
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云门舞集和林怀民:让台湾文化与世界相连
In Taiwan, a Contemporary Dance Troupe Brings in the Crowds

来源:纽约时报    2019-08-02 06:49



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        TAIPEI, Taiwan — A lunchtime bout of torrential rain, lightning and thunder couldn’t keep a crowd of intrepid souls from lining up at Liberty Plaza here on Saturday. They simply put up their umbrellas.        台湾台北——周六,午餐时分一阵伴随电闪雷鸣的倾盆大雨并没有阻止无畏的观众在自由广场前排队。他们只是撑起了雨伞。
        What were they waiting for? Not a rock concert. Not a soccer match. Remarkably, they were staking out a spot for a contemporary dance performance. That’s because in Taiwan, contemporary dance is virtually synonymous with Cloud Gate Dance Theater, a company that has a special place in the nation’s cultural life. (There is a Cloud Gate Street in Taipei, and Aug. 21 is Cloud Gate Day.)        他们在等什么?不是一场摇滚音乐会。也不是一场足球赛。不同寻常的是,他们在为一场现代舞表演占位。这是因为在台湾,云门舞集几乎是现代舞的代名词,这家舞团在这里的国民文化生活中拥有独特地位。(台北有条云门街,8月21日是云门日。)
        The open-air show was a final bow for Lin Hwai-min, the company’s founder, who was stepping down as the troupe’s artistic director after 46 years. Like the company, he looms large in his country’s cultural life, as famous in Taiwan as any movie or pop star.        这场露天表演是云门创始人林怀民的告别演出,他将卸去担任46年的舞团艺术总监一职。和舞团一样,他在台湾文化生活中意义非凡,知名度不比任何电影明星或歌星低。
        By midafternoon, the skies had cleared and the lines had swelled to thousands. At 7:30 p.m., around 50,000 people were seated decorously on the plaza between the National Theater and the National Concert Hall. Camera operators were stationed nearby, filming the dance for a live broadcast on national television.        下午3点左右,天空放晴,排队人群增至数千人。晚7点30分,国家表演艺术中心国家两厅院之间的广场上,约5万人正襟危坐。摄像师驻守在不远处,准备在国家电视台对这场舞蹈的现场直播。
        When Mr. Lin arrived onstage, the audience members applauded, shouted and held up banners proclaiming their love. At the end of the show, they waved their phones, creating a sea of lights.        林怀民上场时,观众们鼓掌欢呼并举起横幅表达他们的爱意。表演结尾时,他们挥动手机,营造出一片灯光的海洋。
        Cloud Gate, which will now be run by Cheng Tsung-lung, the director of the company’s junior troupe, has long been an established presence on the international dance scene. “Lin Hwai-min is the name card of Taiwan in the performing arts, one of the most important representatives of our culture,” said Chang Hui-chin, the director general of Arts Development at the Ministry of Culture, who was attending the outdoor performance. “He has connected us to the world.”        如今将由云门舞集附团“云门2”总监郑宗龙执掌的这家舞团,早已在国际舞蹈界确立了自己的位置。“林怀民是台湾表演艺术的一张名片,是我们文化中最重要的代表人物之一,”前来观看这场露天演出的台湾文化部艺术发展司司长张惠君说。“他让我们与世界相连。”
        Lin Yatin (no relation to Mr. Lin), an associate professor of dance at the Taipei National University of the Arts, said there was no professional contemporary dance troupe in the Chinese-speaking world when Mr. Lin founded Cloud Gate in 1973. That was a moment when Taiwan was seeking its own cultural identity following 50 years of Japanese rule (1895-1945), after which it was ceded back to China. In 1949, China’s nationalist government lost control of mainland China and fled to Taiwan, establishing martial law.        国立台北艺术大学舞蹈研究教授林雅婷表示,1973年林怀民创立云门时,华语世界尚没有专业的现代舞团体。那个时期,经历了50年日本统治(1895年至1945年)、后又转予中国的台湾,正在寻找自己的文化身份。1949年,失去对中国大陆控制的国民党政府逃到台湾,开始在那里实施戒严。
        “They made my parents’ generation Japanese, and they tried to make us Chinese,” Mr. Lin said in an interview before the concert. “I didn’t set out to reflect Taiwanese society, but when I started choreographing, I knew I wanted it to be something of our own.”        “他们把我们父母一代变成了日本人,又试图把我们变成中国人,”林怀民在演出开始前接受采访时说。“我起初并没有打算反映台湾社会,但当我开始编舞时,我知道我想要它成为我们自己的东西。”
        What he came up with was a remarkable blend of Western and Eastern dance forms and aesthetics, fusing Martha Graham and other contemporary dance techniques with Chinese classical and folk dance and ballet. In the 1990s, he would add martial arts, meditation, tai chi and the breathing techniques of qigong to his dancers’ regimens.        他呈现出来的,是西方与东方舞蹈形式和美学特点的奇特融合,其中融汇了玛莎·葛兰姆(Martha Graham)和其他现代舞技巧,以及中国古典舞、民间舞和芭蕾。上世纪90年代,他又将武术、冥想、太极和气功的呼吸技巧添加到门下舞者的训练当中。
        “When Lin founded Cloud Gate, Taiwan was still under martial law rule, with no recognition, knowledge, appetite and audience for dance of any kind,” said Chien Wen-pin, the executive and artistic director of Taiwan’s new $348 million National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts. “The early success of Cloud Gate was indirectly responsible for the founding of Taiwan’s National Theater and Concert Hall and the National Symphony Orchestra nearly 15 years later. It is not an overstatement to say that Cloud Gate and Lin have created for Taiwan three generations of audiences for culture from square one.”        “林怀民创办云门时,台湾仍处在戒严令下,对于任何舞蹈门类都没有认可、认知、需求和观众,”耗资3.48亿美元新建的卫武营国家艺术文化中心艺术总监简文彬说。“正是云门较早获得了成功,才间接推动了近15年后国家两厅院和国家交响乐团的成立。可以毫不夸张地说,云门舞集和林怀民从零开始催生了台湾三代文化受众。”
        Mr. Lin, 73, a charismatic man who looks preternaturally youthful, said he had wanted to be a dancer ever since seeing Powell and Pressburger’s classic ballet film “The Red Shoes” at age 5.        充满魅力的林怀民已经73岁,但看上去异乎寻常地年轻。他表示,自打5岁时看过鲍威尔和普莱斯柏格的经典芭蕾舞影片《红菱艳》(The Red Shoes)后,他就梦想成为一名芭蕾舞者。
        His upper-middle-class family “never took it seriously,” he said, but when he published a short story at 14, he used the earnings to pay for ballet classes. He studied journalism, published two books of short stories, and won a fellowship for the University of Iowa’s International Writing Program. There, he began a course in dance, learning Graham and Doris Humphrey techniques, among others. “I spent more time at the barre than writing,” he said.        他说他的中上阶层家庭“从没把这当真过”,但14岁时,他发表了一篇小说,用稿费报了芭蕾课。他读了新闻学、出版了两部小说,又获得了艾奥瓦大学国际写作课的奖学金。他在那里开始上舞蹈课,学习葛兰姆和多丽丝·韩福瑞(Doris Humphrey)等舞蹈家的技巧。“我在扶手杠上花的时间比写作多,”他说。
        He started to dabble in choreography soon after, and attended two summer sessions at the Martha Graham School in New York. After finishing his degree in Iowa, he returned to Taiwan, and began teaching in the English department at Chengchi University in Taipei. But a dance department at another university heard about his experiences in the United States and asked him to teach.        不久后,他开始尝试编舞,参加了纽约玛莎·格雷厄姆学校(Martha Graham School)的两个暑期课程。在艾奥瓦州完成学业后,他回到台湾,开始在台北政治大学英语系任教。但另一所大学的舞蹈系听说了他在美国的经历,邀请他前去任教。
        “I was reluctant at first, but found I could offer a lot,” he said. “The kids I taught wanted to perform, so we started Cloud Gate.” (The company is named after an ancient Chinese ritual dance.) Their first two performances sold more than 3,000 tickets. “It was a good story,” Mr. Lin said. “A famous young writer had turned himself into a choreographer.” A good story, maybe, for everyone else. “I almost had a nervous breakdown,” he said. “I thought, I’d better learn how to choreograph.”        “一开始我并不情愿,但我发现我能提供很多东西,”他说。“我教的孩子们都想表演,所以我们创办了云门。”(该舞团以中国古代的一种仪式舞蹈命名。)他们的前两场演出卖出了3000多张票。“这是个好故事,”林怀民说,“一位著名年轻作家成了编舞家。”但这个好故事是对其他人来说的。“我差点精神崩溃,”他说,“我想,我最好学会编舞。”
        Frustrated by his generation’s ignorance about Taiwanese history and traditions, he also decided to learn about his country. “I didn’t know a thing about my own culture,” he said. “I read our poetry, spent time at museums, went to see traditional opera. I felt the company needed to connect to our own country.”        自己那一代人对台湾历史和传统的无知让他深为困扰,于是他还决定了解自己的国家。“我对自己的文化一无所知,”他说,“我读我们的诗,花时间参观博物馆,去看传统戏。我觉得舞团需要和我们的国家建立联系。”
        That connection has probably been the secret of Cloud Gate’s success at home. (When the company’s studios burned down in 2008, Huang Haluko, the company’s manager said, there were so many spontaneous donations that the company was able to build a new $22 million home by 2015 without a fund-raising campaign.) But Cloud Gate also quickly received international recognition after it began to tour abroad in the late 1970s, winning acclaim for the elegance of Mr. Lin’s fusion of styles and the beauty of his stage settings.        这种联系可能是云门在本土取得成功的秘诀。(舞团经理黄晴怡[Huang Haluko]说,2008年舞团工作室被烧毁时,得到了太多的自发捐款,因此未做任何筹款活动就于2015年之前建起了一座价值2200万美元的新工作室。)但云门于1970年代末开始海外巡演后,也迅速获得了国际认可,因林怀民融合多种风格的优雅和舞台布景的美感而备受赞誉。
        Joseph V. Melillo, the former artistic director of the Brooklyn Academy of Music, who first invited the company to perform “Nine Songs” there in 1995, said in an email that no one challenges Mr. Lin’s “maturity of choreographic style and composition” in the Asian dance world, adding that Mr. Lin was an unparalleled teacher and had produced a new choreographic generation.        前布鲁克林音乐学院艺术总监约瑟夫·V ·梅利洛(Joseph V. Melillo)于1995年首次邀请云门在该校表演《九歌》,他在电子邮件中说,在亚洲舞蹈世界,没有人能够质疑林怀民的“编舞风格和作曲的成熟”,他还说,林怀民是一个无与伦比的老师,造就了新一代编舞。
        Mr. Lin is modest in the face of these accolades. “All modern dance companies tend to fall apart when their founder dies,” he said before the show. “I consider myself the caretaker, not the identity. Cheng Tsung-lung is ready for a challenge. It would be terrible to keep a Prince Charles in the house.”        面对这些荣誉,林怀民很谦虚。“世界很多现代舞团,当它的创办人、领导人走了以后,这个团就停了,”他在演出前说。“我视自己为舞团的看护人,而不是它的本体。郑宗龙已经准备好迎接挑战。把查尔斯王子闲置起来太可怕了。”
        Mr. Cheng, 43, is in many ways very unlike Mr. Lin. His background is not literary or intellectual; his parents, migrants from the south of the country to Taipei, sold slippers on the street before starting their own small factory. Sent to a school with an extensive dance program, Mr. Cheng excelled but became addicted to amphetamines in his early teens, he said in an interview. Being arrested by the police for possessing drugs and performing community service was a turning point, he said. After graduating, he worked as a truck driver by day, and studied dance part-time at college at night.        43岁的郑宗龙在很多方面都与林怀民截然不同,完全没有文人或知识分子背景;他的父母从中国南方移民到台北,一度在街上卖拖鞋,后来开了自己的小工厂。郑宗龙在接受采访时说,他进了一所提供多种舞蹈课程的学校,成绩优异,但十几岁时他染上了安非他命瘾。他说,因持有毒品而被警方逮捕并从事社区服务是他的一个转折点。毕业后,他白天当卡车司机,晚上在大学兼学舞蹈。
        He joined Cloud Gate, but after four years, a spinal injury forced him to stop dancing and led him to focus on choreography. He became the resident choreographer and artistic director of the junior troupe, Cloud Gate 2.        他加入了云门,但四年之后,脊椎受伤迫使他停止跳舞,转而从事编舞。后来,他成了附团“云门2”的常驻编舞和艺术总监。
        His physical style and inspirations are his personal history, he said, citing “13 Tongues,” a 2016 work based on his memories of the vivid street life of his childhood, and which Cloud Gate 2 performed earlier in the week at the company’s sleek and curvaceous building, in a verdant setting outside the city.        他的身体风格和灵感来自他的个人历史,他提起2016年的《13声》,这部作品是基于他对童年街头生活的生动回忆,本周早些时候,在绿树成荫的市郊,“云门2”在舞团那座造型优美的流线型剧场里上演了这部作品。
        Mr. Cheng said that he was shocked when Mr. Lin asked him to take over Cloud Gate, but that he tried not to feel intimidated or nervous. He said his central focus was to maintain a connection to society. “Dancing is a way to connect people, and now the baton is with me,” he said. “You don’t have to abandon the past to have new beginnings.”        郑宗龙说,当林怀民让他接管云门时,他很震惊,但他尽量不去害怕或紧张。他说,自己的核心任务是保持与社会的联系。“跳舞是一种联系人的方式,现在指挥棒在我手中,”他说。“不必为了新的开始就放弃过去。”
        But on Saturday, the theme was continuity, not change. “My parents brought me, and now I bring my children, and it’s the same for so many,” said a woman near the front of the stage. Mr. Lin echoed the sentiment in his speech, alluding quickly to his retirement and that of several dancers, before moving on briskly. “Cloud Gate Theater of Taiwan will keep moving forward,” he said. “See you here next year.”        但上周六的主题是连续性,而不是变化。“我的父母带我来,现在我也带着孩子来,很多人都是这样的,”舞台前排的一位女士说。林怀民在致辞中也表达了同样的情绪,很快谈了谈自己和几名舞者的退休,然后轻快地继续说。“台湾云门舞集将继续前进,”他说。“明年在这里再见面。”
                
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