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Missionary, Businessman, Prisoner, Spy: An American’s Odyssey in North Korea

来源:纽约时报    2019-08-27 10:45

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        SEOUL, South Korea — Kim Dong-chul, an American businessman in Rason, a North Korean special economic zone near the border with Russia, was leaving a local government office on Oct. 2, 2015, when he was stopped by a 34-year-old army veteran he had hired as a secret informant.        韩国首尔——2015年10月2日,在靠近俄罗斯边境的罗先经济特区,当美国商人金东哲(Kim Dong-chul)离开一个地方政府办公室时,一名34岁的退伍军人拦住了他,此人是他雇来的秘密线人。
        “Chairman Kim, here is the information you wanted,” the man said, tossing a yellow envelope into Mr. Kim’s car, before rushing away. In the envelope were a computer memory stick, documents and photographs of a ship docked at a nearby port. Mr. Kim hadn’t gone several yards before his car was stopped again by an officer from the Ministry of State Security, the North’s infamous secret police.        “金主席,这是您要的情报,”这名男子一边说,一边把一个黄色信封扔进了金东哲的车里,然后就匆匆离开了。信封里有一个电脑记忆棒、一些文件,以及一艘停靠在附近港口的船只的照片。金东哲的车还没有开出几米,就被来自朝鲜恶名昭彰的秘密警察机构国家安全保卫部的一名官员再次拦下。
        Mr. Kim knew he had just been set up, but it was too late.        金东哲知道自己中计了,但为时已晚。
        It was the beginning of a 31-month incarceration in North Korea that included torture, a conviction on espionage charges and forced labor in a prison camp. Mr. Kim was the longest-held American in North Korea when Secretary of State Mike Pompeo flew there in May last year. Mr. Pompeo returned home with Mr. Kim and two other American hostages, a triumphant moment for President Trump.        这是他在朝鲜度过的31个月的监禁生活的开始,其间他遭受了酷刑,被判处间谍罪,并被关进劳改营强迫劳动。去年5月,美国国务卿迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)飞抵朝鲜时,金东哲是被朝鲜关押时间最长的美国人。庞皮欧把金东哲和另外两名美国人质带回了美国,给了特朗普总统一个洋洋得意的时刻。
        Now, in a memoir entitled “Border Rider,” published in South Korea in June, Mr. Kim, 65, recounts how he became a decorated foreign investor in North Korea, then spied for the Central Intelligence Agency and South Korea’s National Intelligence Service, and ended up as Prisoner No. 429.        现年65岁的金东哲今年6月在韩国出版了回忆录《境界人》(Border Rider),讲述了自己是如何成为被朝鲜授予勋章的外国投资者,后来为美国中央情报局(简称CIA)和韩国国家情报院(National Intelligence Service)进行间谍活动,最后沦为第429号囚犯的经历。
        “I try not to blame anyone for what happened to me. I am just lucky to come out of North Korea alive,” Mr. Kim said in an interview in the South Korean capital, Seoul. “But I am sorry for those six North Koreans who worked for me as spies and were executed.”        “我尽量不把发生在我身上的事情归咎于任何人。我很幸运能活着离开朝鲜,”金东哲在韩国首都首尔接受采访时说。“但我为那六名为我做间谍工作、后来被处决的朝鲜人感到难过。”
        Mr. Kim was born in Seoul in 1953. In 1980, his father, a civilian worker for the United States military in Seoul, urged him to emigrate to the United States, where Mr. Kim eventually became a Baptist pastor and also ran a cleaning business.        金东哲1953年出生于首尔。他的父亲是为首尔美国驻军工作的文职人员,1980年,父亲敦促他移民美国,金东哲到美国后成为一名浸礼会牧师,同时还开了一家清洁公司。
        In 2000, with his wife, an ethnic Korean from China, Mr. Kim moved to northeast China as a missionary. The following year, Mr. Kim applied for entry into North Korea, using his wife, who had relatives in the North Korean power elite, as a bridge. In 2002, Mr. Kim became a resident in Rason, where North Korea was eager to attract foreign investors. Mr. Kim poured his entire savings, $2.8 million, into building and operating the five-story, foreigners-only Tumangang Hotel.        2000年,金东哲和来自中国的朝鲜族妻子一起去了中国东北,他的身份是传教士。第二年,金东哲利用妻子在朝鲜权力精英中的亲戚关系,申请进入朝鲜。2002年,金东哲成为罗先的居民,朝鲜急于在那里吸引外国投资者。金东哲把280万美元的全部积蓄投到建设和运营图们江酒店(Tumangang Hotel),这家五层楼高的酒店只向外国人开放。
        He quickly learned that to be successful, he had to win the trust of the party and military elites of the brutal totalitarian regime with regular cash donations.        他很快意识到,要想成功,就需要通过定期的现金捐赠,赢得这个残酷极权政权的党政精英和军事精英的信任。
        He forked over $400,000, a third of his hotel’s annual revenues, to the North Korean government, and partnered with military-run trading companies to help build their fisheries exports. He donated buildings for schools and hospitals. He received three government awards after supplying German-made massage machines, jade beds and other gifts for Kim Jong-il, the late father and predecessor of Kim Jong-un, the current leader of North Korea.        他给了朝鲜政府40万美元,这笔钱是酒店年收入的三分之一。他还与军方经营的贸易公司合作,帮助它们开辟渔业出口业务。他为学校和医院捐款盖楼。在为朝鲜现任领导人金正恩的已故父亲、前任领导人金正日提供了德国制造的按摩设备、玉床和其他礼物后,他三次获得政府的嘉奖。
        “I had to do business with them to establish myself among them and realize my true and original goal of missionary work,” said Mr. Kim. “But I had a conflict with myself. I was walking the line between the two worlds.”        “为了让自己在他们中间站稳脚跟,实现我最初的真正目标——传教,我不得不与他们做生意,”金东哲说。“但我对这种做法有抵触情绪。我正在两个世界之间走钢丝。”
        As Mr. Kim built his connections as a rare resident American in North Korea, United States and South Korean intelligence agents began approaching him when he traveled to China and South Korea, Mr. Kim said.        金东哲说,随着他以罕见的住在朝鲜的美国人身份与上层建立关系,美国和韩国情报人员开始在他去中国和韩国时与他接近。
        The agents provided him with spying equipment, like a camera hidden in a wrist watch and an eavesdropping device, as well as operational funds, he said. In return, they wanted information on the North’s nuclear and missile programs. Mr. Kim paid his informants and leveraged his access to the military elites to find and meet retired nuclear scientists and former and active-duty military officers who served in weapons facilities.        他说,特工为他提供间谍设备,比如藏在手表里的摄像头、窃听设备,以及行动资金。作为回报,他们希望获取有关朝鲜核计划和导弹计划的信息。金东哲向线人支付报酬,并利用自己与军方精英的关系,找到退休的核科学家,以及在军事设施工作的前役和现役军官,与他们见面。
        “The more I learned about North Korea, the more I was confused and curious, wondering how on earth this kind of regime could ever survive,” Mr. Kim said. “I decided to do whatever it took to learn as much as I could, and eventually to share my knowledge with the intelligence officials, never thinking that it might come to this end.”        “我对朝鲜了解得越多,就越感到困惑和好奇,我想知道这种政权竟然能存在下去的原因,”金东哲说。“我决定尽一切可能去了解更多的东西,并最终将我的知识与情报官员分享,从未想到可能会有这种结局。”
        The spying claims Mr. Kim made in his book could not be independently confirmed. Neither the C.I.A. nor the South Korean intelligence agency responded to requests for comments.        金东哲在书中所称的间谍活动无法得到独立证实。CIA和韩国情报机构都没有回复置评请求。
        While he was held in North Korea, Mr. Kim, as other hostages often did, appeared in a government-arranged news conference and apologized for his anti-state crimes. But unlike other hostages who denied the statements after their release, saying they were coerced, Mr. Kim said the North Koreans’ findings on him were essentially true, although he also said they had tortured him to uncover his spying activities.        在被朝鲜关押期间,与其他人质一样,金东哲曾出现在一个政府安排的记者会上,为自己的反国家罪行道歉。但其他人质在获释后会否认那些陈述,称那是被迫之举不同,金东哲说,朝鲜对他的调查结果基本上属实,尽管他也说,为了搞清他的间谍活动,他们对他进行了逼供。
        Mr. Kim was interrogated for nearly seven months, first in Rason and then in a safe house in Pyongyang. His handlers made him kneel at a bathtub, with his hands tied behind his back, and pushed his head into the water. Mr. Kim said he passed out twice.        金东哲被审讯了近七个月,先是在罗先,后在平壤的一处安全设施。审讯他的人强迫他跪在浴缸前,双手反剪,把他的头压进水里。金东哲说,他曾两次失去知觉。
        Mr. Kim was sentenced to 10 years in prison and sent, blindfolded, to a labor camp outside Pyongyang on April 29, 2016. There, as Prisoner 429, he was forced to toil from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., six days a week. In winter, guards made him dig holes in the frozen ground and then fill them. The prison menu never changed: brown rice, fermented-bean soup and three pieces of pickled turnip. Mr. Kim supplemented his diet with berries, roots and even grubs, a source of much-needed protein.        金东哲被判处10年劳教。2016年4月29日,他被蒙上眼睛送往平壤郊外的劳改营。在那里,他是第429号囚犯,每周六天强迫劳动,从早上8点干到下午6点。冬天,看守让他在冻土上挖坑,然后再填起来。监狱的菜单从未变过:糙米、酱汤和三片腌萝卜。金东哲用浆果、树根,甚至蛆来补充饮食,蛆能提供他迫切需要的蛋白质。
        “Many times, I wanted to kill myself,” he said. “But it was a place where you could not kill yourself even if you wanted to. How could you, when eight armed guards watched you 24 hours a day, taking turns?”        “我很多次想自杀,”他说。“但那是一个即使你想自杀,也不能自杀的地方。八名全副武装的看守每天24小时轮流监视着你,怎么自杀呢?”
        The prison, a ramshackle nine-cell facility, had only two inmates: Mr. Kim and Lim Hyeon-soo, a Korean-Canadian missionary sentenced to hard labor for life in late 2015. Only once, when they ran into each other under tall corn stalks while the guards were not watching, could Mr. Kim and Mr. Lim talk to each other, whispering their names.        这个破烂不堪的监狱有九间牢房,只有两名囚犯:金东哲和林铉洙(Lim Hyeon-soo),林铉洙是一名韩裔加拿大传教士,于2015年底被判处终身劳役。只有一次,金东哲和林铉洙能低声互通姓名,那是在他们在高高的玉米秆下相遇,看守们看不见他们的时候。 
        Then in August 2017, Mr. Kim was ordered to clean Mr. Lim’s empty cell. A guard told him that Mr. Lim, Prisoner No. 36, had been released.        后来在2017年8月的一天,金东哲被命令清理林铉洙的空牢房。一名看守告诉他,第36号囚犯林铉洙已被释放。
        “I was happy for him, but I felt as if I had lost an arm or leg,” Mr. Kim said.        “我为他感到高兴,但我觉得自己似乎失去了一个手足兄弟,”金东哲说。
        Unbeknown to him, help was on the way, too, for him, as United States officials negotiated to free him as part of their efforts to arrange the first summit meeting between Mr. Trump and Kim Jong-un in Singapore in June last year.        他并不知道,对他的帮助也即将来临。美国官员们为安排特朗普与金正恩去年6月在新加坡举行首次峰会所做努力之一,就是谈判让他获释。
        But Mr. Kim had no idea what was happening when guards came to him the morning of May 9 last year and told him to change into his old civilian clothes. He was taken to Pyongyang, where he was ordered to write a statement of apology and escorted to a United States government plane.        但是,当看守在去年5月9日早上来到金东哲牢房,让他换上他原来穿的平民衣服时,他并不知道发生了什么。他被带到平壤,在那里他被要求写一份道歉声明,然后被押送到一架美国政府的飞机前。
        When he and two other Korean-American hostages, Kim Hak-song and Kim Sang-duk, went onboard, a cheer broke out inside the plane. And when the plane landed at Joint Base Andrews outside Washington early next morning, another surprise awaited: Mr. Trump came on board to welcome the hostages home. Until his release, Mr. Kim did not know Mr. Trump was the president of the United States.        当他与另外两名韩裔美国人质金学松(Kim Hak-song)和金盛德(Kim Sang-duk)登上飞机时,机舱里爆发出一片欢呼声。第二天早上,飞机在华盛顿郊外的安德鲁斯联合基地降落后,另一件意想不到的事情发生了:特朗普登上飞机,欢迎这些人质回到美国。直到获释之前,金东哲都不知道特朗普现在当上了美国总统。
        Mr. Kim and his wife have since resettled in New York, where one of their two daughters lives.        那之后,金东哲和妻子在纽约定居下来,他们的两个女儿之一就住在那里。
        Mr. Kim lost all his investment in North Korea when he was expelled. The torture left him with two crooked fingers, chronic back pain and a limp. The intelligence officials he once worked for have not contacted him since his release. His wife told him to “forget” and move on.        金东哲在被朝鲜驱逐出境后失去了在朝鲜的所有投资。酷刑让他的两根手指扭曲,腰部慢性疼痛,走路一瘸一拐。自从获释以来,他曾为之工作的情报官员们一直未曾与他联系过。他的妻子让他“忘记”过去,从头开始。
        Mr. Kim planned to publish the English and Japanese editions of his book to help the world better understand the country he said he “both loved and hated.”        金东哲计划出版回忆录的英文版和日文版,帮助世界更好地了解这个他说他“既爱又恨”的国家。
        “It’s neither socialist nor communist,” he said when asked about North Korea. “It’s a country with the tightest dictatorial and slave system you can imagine.”        “朝鲜既不是社会主义国家,也不是共产主义国家,”当被问及朝鲜时,他说。“这是一个有着你想像得出来的最严格的独裁和奴隶制的国家。”

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