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Kay Ann Johnson, 73, Who Studied China’s One-Child Policy, Dies

来源:纽约时报    2019-08-30 04:36

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        Kay Ann Johnson, an Asian studies scholar whose adoption of an infant girl from China led her to spend years researching the impact of the country’s one-child policy on rural families, died on Aug. 14 at a hospital in Hyannis, Mass. She was 73.        在收养一名中国女婴后开始耗费数年研究该国农村家庭受独生子女政策影响的亚洲研究学者凯·安·约翰逊(Kay Ann Johnson),于8月14日在马萨诸塞州海恩尼斯的一家医院去世,终年73岁。
        Her husband, Bill Grohmann, said the cause was complications of metastatic breast cancer.        她的丈夫比尔·格罗曼(Bill Grohmann)说,她逝于转移性乳腺癌并发症。
        Professor Johnson, who taught at Hampshire College in Amherst, Mass., was working on an oral history of a village in North China in 1991 when she adopted a three-month-old girl, Tang Li (who became known as LiLi), from an orphanage in Wuhan, a large city in Hubei Province in Central China. She and Mr. Grohmann already had a biological son.        约翰逊教授曾执教于马萨诸塞州阿默斯特的汉普夏学院(Hampshire College),1991年在华北一个村庄从事一项口述史研究时,她从中国中部湖北省的大城市武汉的一家孤儿院收养了三个月大的女孩唐莉(又名莉莉,音)。她和格罗曼已有一个亲生儿子。
        China was more than a decade into enforcing its one-child policy, a draconian effort by the Communist government to curb the country’s population growth. The rule required families to make painful decisions about whether or not to keep their children.        当时,中国实施独生子女政策已有10余年,这是共产党政府为遏制人口增长而采取的一项严厉措施。该规定促使家庭在是否保留孩子的问题上做出痛苦的决定。
        They would pay stiff fines to keep children born “out of plan”; hide them from authorities; abandon or relinquish them; or find friends and relatives who could surreptitiously adopt them. In a culture that generally values boys over girls, those decisions were even more complicated for families when the child was a girl.        他们会支付高额罚款,留住“计划外”的孩子;或者将他们藏起来,不让当局找到;或者遗弃;或者找到亲朋好友偷偷收养。在一种普遍重男轻女的文化中,当计划外的孩子是女孩时,如何取舍就变得更加复杂。
        “Like most adoptive parents, I wondered about the people who gave birth to my daughter and apparently left her on the streets of a big city,” Professor Johnson wrote in “China’s Hidden Children: Abandonment, Adoption, and the Human Costs of the One-Child Policy” (2016), a study of the fear and grief felt by desperate parents in China.        “与大多数养父母一样,我想知道,是什么样的人生下了我的女儿,并且似乎把她留在了一座大城市的街头,”约翰逊在《中国的隐匿儿童:遗弃、收养和独生子女政策的人命成本》(China’s Hidden Children: Abandonment, Adoption, and the Human Costs of the One-Child Policy,2016)里写道。这本学术专著研究的是绝望的中国父母所感受到的恐惧与悲伤。
        Professor Johnson wanted LiLi — whose full name is Lee Helen Tang Li Johnson — to learn about the plight of parents in China and understand how she came to be among the first of 120,000 Chinese children to be adopted internationally.        约翰逊希望莉莉——全名李·海伦·唐莉·约翰逊(Lee Helen Tang Li Johnson)——了解中国父母的难处,以及她是如何成为首批被外国人收养的12万名中国儿童之一的。
        “Such understanding, I imagined,” Professor Johnson wrote, “could help mitigate feelings of bitterness against her birth parents, and above all help assuage a young child’s often unspoken worries about ‘what was wrong with me,’ ‘what did I do wrong to lose my parents,’ worries that my daughter articulated when she was only 3 years old.”        “我的设想是,”约翰逊写道,“这种理解会有助于减轻她对亲生父母的怨恨,最重要的是,缓解一个年幼的孩子内心常有的疑虑——‘是我有什么问题吗,’‘我做错了什么,导致父母不要我了,’我女儿才3岁的时候,就已经明显有了这样的一些念头。”
        For more than 20 years, Professor Johnson focused her research on Chinese villages where birth parents found themselves in a lopsided clash with a state bent on controlling population. The policy was also applied in cities, but villagers were usually more daring about trying to resist it. Professor Johnson presented her research in often painful case studies based on interviews with birth parents who described facing the ruthless policy.        20多年来,约翰逊一直把研究重点放在中国农村,在那里,亲生父母与下决心要控制住人口的政府发生了以弱碰强的冲突。城市也实施独生子女政策,但农民们往往更敢于去反抗。约翰逊的研究是通过一些往往令人痛苦的案例来呈现的,其基础是那些要面对这项残酷政策的亲生父母的访谈。
        One of those parents, Jiang Lifeng, already had a son when she became pregnant. She planned to keep the child and hoped to have a daughter. She avoided detection (and possibly forced sterilization) during pregnancy tests imposed by the authorities by using a friend’s urine. She delivered a girl, Shengshi. But nine months later the infant was taken from her bedroom by seven men, presumably government representatives, and driven away in a van.        其中一位家长蒋丽凤(音)怀孕时已经有了一个儿子。她打算留下这个孩子,而且希望能有个女儿。在政府的强制检查中,她用朋友的尿样瞒了过去(也避免了可能的强制绝育)。她生下一个女儿,名叫盛世(音)。但9个月后,7名应该是在替政府做事的男子来到她的卧室,把婴儿夺走,带上了一辆面包车。
        Ms. Jiang recalled that “she ‘felt the sky fall down’ on her as she staggered after them, shocked and aghast at what had just happened,” Professor Johnson wrote. Ms. Jiang somehow caught up to the van and rode with the men and Shengshi to a local birth planning office, where she and her husband, Xu Guangwen, pleaded for the girl’s return. Officials refused.        约翰逊教授写道,蒋丽凤回忆,“她觉得天要塌下来了,跌跌撞撞地跟在他们后面,对刚刚发生的事情又惊又怕。”蒋丽凤还是追上了面包车,跟那些男子和盛世一道前往当地的计划生育办公室,到那儿后,她和丈夫徐广文(音)央求把女儿还回来。官员们拒绝了。
        The couple were told that they could adopt her after she had been taken to an orphanage. But that, Professor Johnson said, was a lie.        这对夫妇被告知,女儿被带到孤儿院后,他们可以领养。但约翰逊教授表示,那是鬼扯。
        “The government had taken their baby, stripped them of their parental rights, and left them heartbroken and powerless to do anything about it,” she wrote. “It had been nothing short of a kidnapping by the government, leaving them no recourse.”        “政府带走了他们的孩子,剥夺了他们做父母的权利,让他们悲痛欲绝,却无能为力,”她写道。“这简直就是政府在绑架,他们一点指望也没有。”
        In his review of “China’s Hidden Children” in Foreign Affairs magazine, Andrew J. Nathan, a professor of political science at Columbia University, praised Professor Johnson for debunking the myth that Chinese parents did not value girls, and for outlining the often terrible consequences of the one-child policy.        哥伦比亚大学政治学教授黎安友(Andrew J. Nathan)在《外交》杂志(Foreign Affairs)上给该书的书评中,称赞约翰逊教授打破了中国父母不重视女孩的传说,并让人一窥独生子女政策往往带来的可怕后果。
        “Johnson’s extraordinary book conveys the intense suffering of ordinary people struggling to build families against the will of an implacable bureaucracy,” Mr. Nathan wrote.        “约翰逊这部非凡的著作讲述了普通人反抗无情官僚体制的意志,挣扎着建立家庭的强烈痛苦,”黎安友写道。
        Kay Ann Johnson was born on Jan. 21, 1946, in Chicago. Her father, D. Gale Johnson, was an agricultural economist and the chairman of the economics department at the University of Chicago. Her mother, Helen (Wallace) Johnson, was a homemaker who volunteered at the University of Chicago Hospitals.        凯·安·约翰逊于1946年1月21日生于芝加哥。父亲D·盖尔·约翰逊(D. Gale Johnson)是农业经济学家,曾任芝加哥大学经济学系主任。母亲海伦·(华莱士)·约翰逊[Helen (Wallace) Johnson]是全职主妇,曾在芝加哥大学校医院做义工。
        Professor Johnson received bachelor’s and master’s degrees in political science from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. In 1976 she earned her Ph.D. there; her thesis was about women’s rights and family reform in China. Along the way she learned to speak Chinese fluently.        约翰逊教授于威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校(University of Wisconsin-Madison)获政治学学士和硕士学位。1976年在该校获得博士学位,博士论文是关于中国的妇女权利和家庭改革。在此过程中,她学会了一口流利的汉语。
        “She had a critical consciousness and always did deep research,” Edward Friedman, who was Professor Johnson’s thesis adviser at Wisconsin, said by phone. “There were other, more popular books about the subjects she wrote about, but if you want seriously sourced books, you’d go to her.”        “她有批判意识,始终进行深入研究,”约翰逊教授在威斯康星的论文指导老师爱德华·弗里德曼(Edward Friedman)在电话中说。“关于她所写的主题还有其他更热门的著作,但如果你想要著述严谨的书,就看她的。”
        She taught political science at the University of California, San Diego, for five years. In 1979 she joined Hampshire, where she was a professor of Asian studies and political science. For the last few years she ran Hampshire’s Luce Initiative on Asian Studies and the Environment, which gave students and faculty members the chance to do field research in China and Thailand.        她曾在加州大学圣迭戈分校(University of California, San Diego)教过五年政治学。1979年,她加入汉普夏学院,担任亚洲研究和政治学教授。过去几年来,她负责鲁斯亚洲研究与环境倡议(Luce Initiative on Asian Studies and the Environment),该项目为学生和教职人员提供在中国和泰国开展实地调研的机会。
        Professor Johnson’s first book, “Women, the Family and Peasant Revolution in China” (1983), was adapted from her thesis. Her second, “Wanting a Daughter, Needing a Son: Abandonment, Adoption, and Orphanage Care in China” (2004), was her first exploration of the abandonment and adoption of children in China during the government’s crackdown on overpopulation.        约翰逊教授的首部著作《中国的妇女、家庭和农民革命》(Women, the Family and Peasant Revolution in China)改编自她的论文。在第二部著作《想要女儿、需要儿子:中国的遗弃、收养和孤儿院的照料》(Wanting a Daughter, Needing a Son: Abandonment, Adoption, and Orphanage Care in China)中,她开始探索中国政府打压人口过剩时期儿童遗弃和收养情况。
        “China’s Hidden Children” was published in 2016, soon after China ended its one-child policy — in part to increase its labor supply — and officially announced that married couples would be allowed to have two children.        《中国的隐匿儿童》出版于2016年,当时中国刚结束独生子女政策——部分是为增加劳动力供应——并正式宣布,已婚夫妇可以生育两个孩子。
        In addition to her husband and her daughter, who is a Ph.D. candidate in American studies at Yale, Professor Johnson is survived by a son, Jesse Johnson; a stepdaughter, Elena Ritter; and a brother, David Johnson.        除丈夫和在耶鲁攻读美国研究博士的女儿外,约翰逊教授在世的亲人还有儿子杰西·约翰逊(Jesse Johnson)、继女埃琳娜·里特尔(Elena Ritter);以及哥哥(或弟弟)戴维·约翰逊(David Johnson)。
        Professor Johnson’s adoption of LiLi (pronounced LEE-lee) was among the first of a Chinese infant in the United States. Shanti Fry had heard about the adoption from a friend, which led her to adopt an infant from the same orphanage as LiLi, and to become the founding president of the New England chapter of a support group, Families With Children From China.        约翰逊教授收养的莉莉是美国人收养的第一批中国孩子。尚蒂·弗赖伊(Shanti Fry)从朋友那里听说这件事后,也从莉莉原来的孤儿院收养了一名婴儿,并成为支持团体收养中国孤儿家庭组织(Families with Children from China)新英格兰分会的创会会长。
        “Kay really opened the door, and word quickly spread in the Massachusetts community that this could be a viable option,” Ms. Fry said by phone. Professor Johnson had advised her group and two agencies that subsequently arranged adoptions from China.        “凯真的打开了这扇门,这可能是个可行选择的消息很快在马萨诸塞州传开,”弗赖伊在电话中说。约翰逊教授曾为她的组织及后来两个安排中国儿童领养事宜的机构提供过建议。
        “I imagine Kay going to China,” said Ms. Fry, who adopted a second girl there, “figuring a way to adopt a child, forging her way through Chinese bureaucracy and then giving us the confidence to let us adopt.”        “我想像着凯去中国,”弗赖伊说,她从中国又收养了一个女孩,“摸索着收养孩子的方式,在中国的官僚体制中间开辟出一条道路,然后给我们收养孩子的信心。”

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