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加拿大驱逐中国异见人士杨伟
Canada Deports Chinese Dissident, Brushing Off Concerns He Faces Jail

来源:纽约时报    2019-08-29 02:20



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        BEIJING — Canada has deported a veteran Chinese dissident, Yang Wei, on the grounds that he is a danger to the public.        北京——加拿大驱逐了中国资深异见人士杨伟,理由是他对公众构成威胁。
        Despite written testimony stating that Mr. Yang, 49, had mental health problems and faced certain prison time if sent back to China, a court issued a final ruling on Monday that Mr. Yang should be put on a plane departing Toronto on Wednesday afternoon, and arriving in Beijing on Thursday.        尽管书面证词称,现年49岁的杨伟有精神健康问题,如果被送回中国,肯定会入狱服刑,但法院于周一做出了最终裁决,杨伟应搭乘周三下午从多伦多起飞的飞机,于周四抵达北京。
        In making its ruling, the court relied on a document, reviewed by The New York Times, that mainly evaluated whether Mr. Yang would receive adequate care in China and brushed off concerns about his work as a dissident, saying there was no proof he would face incarceration if he returned.        《纽约时报》查阅了法院做出裁决时所依据的一份文件,文件主要评估了杨伟在中国是否会得到足够的照顾,并对他身为异见者所做工作的担忧不予理会,称没有证据表明他回国后将面临监禁。
        Adam Wawrzkiewicz, a lawyer who was involved in an 11th-hour attempt to prevent Mr. Yang’s deportation, said that the government had justified the deportation on the grounds that Mr. Yang had been deemed a threat to public safety. Under Canadian law, that can override concerns that the forcible return of a refugee or asylum seeker could lead to his or her persecution.        律师亚当·瓦夫日凯维奇(Adam Wawrzkiewicz)参与了历时11个小时阻止杨伟被驱逐出境的行动。他表示,政府将杨伟驱逐出境的理由是他对公共安全构成威胁。根据加拿大法律,该理由优先于强制遣返难民或寻求庇护者可能导致迫害的担忧。
        Mr. Yang had been arrested repeatedly, including for possession of a knife, aggravated assault and various other offenses. He regularly threatened people with violence, including assaulting a bus driver who asked him to produce a transfer ticket and a worker in a mobile phone store who refused him a refund. In another case, he stabbed a bus driver 13 times.        杨伟曾多次被捕,原因包括持刀、严重侵犯人身罪和其他各种罪行。他经常用暴力威胁他人,包括袭击一名要求他出示换乘车票的公交车司机,以及一名拒绝给他退款的手机店店员。在另一起案件中,他捅了一名公交车司机13刀。
        His lawyers and supporters did not deny this, but said his behavior had been the result of his mental health problems. Numerous psychiatric reports presented to the court attested to this, although some said that when he took psychotropic drugs he was fairly lucid.        他的律师和支持者没有否认这一点,但表示,他的行为是由精神健康问题造成的。向法庭提交的许多精神病学报告证实了这一点,尽管有些人说,当他服用影响精神的药物时,神志相当清醒。
        The ruling, and the apparent decision by the Canadian government not to give Mr. Yang asylum, come as the government faces general elections amid claims by the opposition that it is soft on violent migrants. It also faces a tricky legal situation with an executive of the Chinese tech giant Huawei whom the United States wants extradited.        这一裁决,以及加拿大政府作出的一项显而易见的决定——不向杨伟提供庇护,正值政府面临大选之际,反对派称政府对暴力的移民态度软弱。美国希望引渡的中国科技巨头华为的一名高管,也面临棘手的法律问题。
        Mr. Yang’s status as a dissident is hardly in doubt. A native of the southwestern province of Sichuan, he served three years in a labor camp for putting up posters in support of the 1989 Tiananmen democracy protests. He later helped found the Sichuan branch of the China Democracy Party, which was crushed shortly after it was formed in 1998.        杨伟的异见者身份毋庸置疑。他出生在中国西南部的四川省,曾因张贴支持1989年天安门民主抗议的海报而在劳改营服刑三年。后来,他参与成立了中国民主党在四川的分部,该党在1998年成立后不久就被镇压。
        Mr. Yang evaded arrest by using a fake identity card to join a package tour from China to Thailand, where he defected. He lived in Thailand for a few years, and the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees then resettled him in Canada, where he obtained residency.        杨伟使用假身份证参加了从中国到泰国的旅行团,从而逃脱了逮捕,逃到泰国。他在那里生活了几年,联合国难民署办事处随后将他重新安置在加拿大,他在那里获得了居留权。
        His improbable escape was recounted by the exiled author Liao Yiwu in a recent book, “Bullets and Opium.” Mr. Liao recently posted an essay on Facebook opposing Mr. Yang’s deportation, saying Canada would be “aiding and abetting the trampling of human rights.”        流亡作家廖亦武在他的新书《子弹与鸦片》(Bullets and Opium)中讲述了这次神奇的逃脱。在最近发表于Facebook的一篇文章中,廖亦武反对将杨驱逐出境,称加拿大此举“助纣为虐,践踏人权”。
        Mr. Yang’s human rights track record was vouched for by Charles Burton, an associate professor of political studies at Brock University in Toronto who, while working as a diplomat, had firsthand knowledge of Mr. Yang’s activities. Based on his experience as a political officer, Professor Burton wrote that Mr. Yang faced a certain return to prison, “brutality and solitary confinement.”        多伦多布罗克大学(Brock University)政治学副教授查尔斯·伯顿(Charles Burton)为杨伟的人权活动记录提供了证据。伯顿曾担任外交官,对杨伟的活动有第一手的了解。根据他作为一名政治官员的经历,伯顿写道,杨伟肯定会重返监狱,遭受“酷刑和单独监禁”。
        Sharon Hom, executive director of the group Human Rights in China, said that Canada was obliged under the international principle of non-refoulement not to send refugees back to a place where they were likely to face persecution or abuse.        人权组织“中国人权”(Human Rights in China)执行主任谭竞嫦(Sharon Hom)表示,根据不驱回的国际原则,加拿大有义务不把难民送回他们可能面临迫害或虐待的地方。
        “I have serious concerns that the Canadian government considered non-refoulement,” she said in a telephone interview. “Otherwise how could they do this?”        “我非常担心加拿大政府没有考虑不驱回原则,”她在接受电话采访时说。“否则他们怎么能这样做呢?”
        The Canadian government case did, in fact, consider these issues but dismissed them as insignificant. It rejected Professor Burton’s opinion as “the opinion of an academic” and said Mr. Yang probably could get good psychiatric care.        事实上,加拿大政府的案例确实考虑了这一原则,但认为这些问题无关紧要而不予理会。它拒绝采纳伯顿的意见,认为这是“一名学者的意见”,并表示杨伟可以得到良好的精神治疗。
        In any case, the government argued that any concerns were outweighed by Mr. Yang’s lengthy record of legal trouble.        无论如何,政府认为,杨伟漫长的法律纠纷记录压倒了任何担忧。
        Mr. Wawrzkiewicz, the lawyer, noted that there had been a deportation order for his client since 2014.        瓦夫日凯维奇指出,他的当事人在2014年就接到了驱逐令。
        “This case has been very trying. It strikes me as a human tragedy,” he said, adding that Mr. Yang suffered from mental problems and needed hospitalization.        “这个案子一直都很棘手,我觉得这是个人道悲剧,”他还说杨伟患有精神疾病,需要住院治疗。
        Scott Bardsley, a spokesman for Canada’s minister of public safety, said the ministry was unable to comment on specific “removals” out of concern for privacy.        加拿大公共安全部长发言人斯科特·巴德斯利(Scott Bardsley)表示,出于对隐私的考虑,该部门无法就具体的“驱逐”置评。
        He said that Canada had a robust assessment process to ensure that no one was removed at risk of persecution. Once a removal order was issued, he added, protected refugees could only be removed if they had been deemed dangerous to the public and raised security concerns. Concerns about their risk of being persecuted were weighed against security concerns such as whether they had engaged in espionage or terrorism, committed human rights violations, or had been convicted of serious criminal offenses.        他说,加拿大有一个强有力的评估程序,以确保被驱逐者不会受到迫害。他还说,一旦被下达驱逐令,受保护的难民只有在被认为对公众有危险、构成安全隐患的情况下才会被驱逐。对他们遭受迫害风险的担忧,要同安全担忧进行权衡,比如他们是否从事间谍活动或恐怖主义、是否侵犯人权或是否被判犯有严重刑事罪行。
        Hurting Mr. Yang’s case is that he told the court in 2008 that the Chinese government would not care if he were sent back to China.        杨伟一案的一个不利因素是,他在2008年对法庭说,如果他被遣返中国,中国政府不会在意。
        A friend, the Toronto-based writer Sheng Xue, said she visited Mr. Yang last week and asked him why he had said that. She said he told her he planned to flee to Thailand again, even though the Chinese border is no longer so permeable and Chinese identity cards are now far harder to forge.        他的朋友、多伦多作家盛雪说,她上周拜访了杨伟,问他为什么这么说。她说,杨伟告诉她,他计划再次逃往泰国,尽管中国的边境已经不再那么容易穿越,中国的身份证现在也更难伪造。
        “I was shocked at his answer,” Ms. Sheng said by telephone. “He has no idea what he’s saying; he needs psychiatric help.”        “我对他的回答感到震惊,”盛雪在电话中说。“他不知道自己在说什么;他需要精神治疗。”
        Adding to her concern, Ms. Sheng said, is that the court recently applied for Mr. Yang to obtain a travel permit. In her experience, she said, the Chinese Consulate in Toronto rarely issues travel documents to dissidents, but Mr. Yang got one immediately.        盛雪说,令她更加担心的是,法院最近为杨伟申请了旅行许可。她说,以她的经验来看,中国驻多伦多领事馆很少向异见者发放旅行证件,但杨伟马上就拿到了。
        “They know that with a travel document he can be sent home,” she said. “They’ll be waiting for him.”        “他们知道,只要有旅行证件,就可以把他送回国,”她说。“他们会等着他的。”
                
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